UNESCO Constitution

UNESCO Constitution uv International Laws uv Lahz uv Omneeonizm

Konstittuushuhn.

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Pronunciation

  • (Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˌkɒnstɪˈtjuːʃən/
  • (General American) IPA(key): /ˌkɑnstɪˈtuʃən/

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Etymology

Borrowing from Old French constitucion (French constitution), from Latin cōnstitūtiō, cōnstitūtiōnem.

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Constitution Definition:

The basic, fundamental law of a state which sets out how that state will be organized and the powers and authorities of government between different political units and citizens.

Related Terms: …Government, Constitutional Law

The basic law or laws of a nation or a state which sets out how that state will be organized by deciding the powers and authorities of government between different political units, and by stating the basic law-making and structural principles of society.

The primary contract or law by which the government of a nation or state is set out and organized.

The constitution is colloquially referred to as the "#1 law of the land"; to which all of government, citizens, corporate persons and other laws must defer in the event of any conflict.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Constitutions

Although governments are instituted among men to protect individual rights, history has shown that governments often become the largest threat to those rights. Knowing that unlimited, arbitrary power of the government is dangerous, men found a partial solution. They called the solution a constitution.

A constitution is a set of laws that specifically apply to the government. A properly constructed constitution limits the power of a government by specifying which actions they are allowed to take, and disallowing all others. The founding fathers of the United States were the first to create such a constitution. They additionally added a list of rights that specifically prevented the government from certain kinds of actions. The Bill of Rights, though, was redundant. The government had no power to do anything that wasn't specifically designated to it.

A piece of paper cannot protect people from a tyranny, of course. It did have a number of positive effects. The first was that it defined limits on the government that everyone had access to. In this way, if the government attempted to reach beyond its limits, the people had clear, objective grounds for resisting it. This allowed for easier organization against violations of their rights, and made them stronger and more confident in dealing with their representatives.

The second effect was that, through legal channels, a citizen could challenge any particular government act. Without a constitution, there was no way of arguing against an act by government. The government had unlimited power. A constitution invalidates that premise. It makes clear that even the government is constrained by the law. In the past, governments were above the law. No longer.

There are many varieties of constitutions now in existence. Most of them are not constitutions at all, but documents that attempt to hide under the umbrella of legitimacy provided by the US Constitution. For instance, the Soviet Union had a constitution. It was a document saying the Soviet government could do anything it wanted, without limit. This is nothing more than a document asserting the government's claim to power.

To keep things clear, a constitution has the following properties. It is a limit on the government, denying absolute or arbitrary power. It applies to the government specifically, and not to the people qua citizens. It enumerates particular powers the government has, and denies all others. It is written as law, and cannot be changed by the government itself.

Moreover, a proper constitution would have these additional criteria. The enumerated powers all specifically defend individual rights. All powers are further constrained to not violate individuals rights themselves. The constitution should be interpreted in light of its duty to protect individual rights, and if there is ever a question of meaning, the one that conforms to individual rights must be accepted.


RTh KonsTiTTuushuhn


Thuh Trm RTh Fed KonsTihTuushuhn Iz Thuh KonsepT Uhbreeveeaeeshuhn Uhv ITs FuLL Naeem:

Constitution for the Federation of Earth

OhfishuL Breef HisTory Uhv Thuh Ohrihjin Uhv Thuh Rth Fed KonsTihTuushuhn

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Constitution for the Federation of Earth - 'The Earth Constitution'

PREAMBLE
Realizing that Humanity today has come to a turning point in history and that we are on the threshold of a new world order which promises to usher in an era of peace, prosperity, justice and harmony;

Aware of the interdependence of people, nations and all life;

Aware that man's abuse of science and technology has brought Humanity to the brink of disaster through the production of horrendous weaponry of mass destruction and to the brink of ecological and social catastrophe;

Aware that the traditional concept of security through military defense is a total illusion both for the present and for the future;

Aware of the misery and conflicts caused by ever increasing disparity between rich and poor;

Conscious of our obligation to posterity to save Humanity from imminent and total annihilation;

Conscious that Humanity is One despite the existence of diverse nations, races, creeds, ideologies and cultures and that the principle of unity in diversity is the basis for a new age when war shall be outlawed and peace prevail; when the earth's total resources shall be equitably used for human welfare; and when basic human rights and responsibilities shall be shared by all without discrimination;
Conscious of the inescapable reality that the greatest hope for the survival of life on earth is the establishment of a democratic world government;

We, citizens of the world, hereby resolve to establish a world federation] to be governed in accordance with this constitution for the Federation of Earth.

Article 1 ‑ Broad Functions of the World Government: Wrld Guvrnment Fungshunz
Article 2 ‑ Basic Structure of World Federation and World Government:
Wrld Fed Guvernment Strukt
Article 3 ‑ Organs of the World Government: Wrld Guvrnment Ohrganz
Article 4 ‑ Grant of Specific Powers to the World Government: Wrld Guvrnment Powrz
Article 5 ‑ World Parliament
Article 6 ‑ The World Executive
Article 7 ‑ The World Administration
Article 8 ‑ The Integrative Complex
Article 9 ‑ The World Judiciary
Article 10 ‑ The Enforcement System
Article 11 ‑ The World Ombudsmus
Article 12 ‑ OhridjihnuL TekST: Bill of Rights for the Citizens of Earth
Article 12.1 ‑ WiTh Vrss Numbrz And CommenTehree AT: RTh SihTihZen RyTs
Article 13 ‑ Directive Principles for the World Government: Wrld Guvernment Dyrekshun
Article 14 ‑ Safeguards and Reservations
Article 15 ‑ World Federal Zones and the World Capitals: Federal Zones and Capitals
Article 16 ‑ World Territories and Exterior Relations
Article 17 ‑ Ratification and Implementation
Article 18 ‑ AmendmenTs: UhmendmenTs Tu Thuh RTh KonsTiTwshun
Article 19 ‑ Provisional World Government

End of the Constitution

WP%20Diagram.jpg

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

(The Constitution for the Federation of Earth was originally ratified at the second session of the World Constituent Assembly held at Innsbruck, Austria in June, 1977; and was amended and ratified at the fourth session of the World Constituent Assembly held at Troia, Portugal in May 1991. The Amended Constitution is being personally ratified by outstanding personalities throughout the world as the campaign for ratification by the people and governments of the world continues.)

CALL to the GLOBAL RATIFICATION and ELECTIONS CAMPAIGN

In the course of history, particularly during the past several hundred years, the technique of a Constituent Assembly has been developed and used under various circumstances as a means to devise the constitutions for democratic governments, either to create new governments where none existed before or to replace old or crumbling governments under both peaceful and revolutionary situations.

Sometimes such assemblies have been appointed by existing governments. At other times, under the most favorable circumstances, such assemblies have been elected by vote of established electorates. But at other times such assemblies have been composed and convened under circumstances where only a limited number of people of the country or areas involved actually took part in the selection of delegates. Only a small minority of any electorate might actually participate during the time when a new democratic government is emerging under conditions of revolution from tyranny or of external image arrow-10x10.png turmoil or urgent crises; or in the absence of any organized political system which was willing or able to supervise a vote of the total potential electorate for such an assembly or newly emerging democratic government.

It is under the later kind of circumstances that the move has gone forward during the years since World War II for the external image arrow-10x10.png of a World Constituent Assembly to devise the constitution for a democratic form of federal world government. No previous world government or competent world authority has existed to organize or supervise elections to such a World Constituent Assembly. No universally approved electoral lists exist for the conduct of such elections. Existing national governments heretofore have proved unwilling or uninterested or hostile or otherwise unable to assist in either the appointment or election of working delegates to such a World Constituent Assembly, despite numerous appeals ‑‑ although these appeals are continuing.

This Constitution has been translated into twenty-two languages and distributed world-wide for study, debates, and organizing by the citizens of Earth.

Under Article XIX of the Constitution Provisional World Parliaments are being held in various locations around the world to begin the process of elaboration of world law as a model and an incentive for the people of the Earth to assert their sovereignty and begin an official World Parliament upon ratification of this Constitution. These have been organized by the World Constitution and Parliament Association and The Institute on World Problems.

[http://www.radford.edu/~gmartin/Parliament%20history.htm#The_Authority_and_Legitimacy_of_the_Earth_Constitution The Authority and Legitimacy of the Earth Constitution: Response to Basic Questions (by Eugenia Almand)]

http://www.radford.edu/~gmartin/Parliament%20history.htm#The_Relationship_of_the_Earth_Constitution

See Also:

Source of UNESCO Constitution

The Constitution of UNESCO, signed on 16 November 1945, came into force on 4 November 1946 after ratification by twenty countries: Australia, Brazil, Canada, China, Czechoslovakia, Denmark, Dominican Republic, Egypt, France, Greece, India, Lebanon, Mexico, New Zealand, Norway, Saudi Arabia, South Africa, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States.

Constitution of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

Adopted in London on 16 November 1945 and amended by the General Conference at its 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th, 9th, 10th, 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th, 20th, 21st, 24th, 25th, 26th, 27th, 28th, 29th and 31st sessions.

The Governments of the States Parties to this Constitution on behalf of their peoples declare:

That since wars begin in the minds of men, it is in the minds of men that the defences of peace must be constructed;

That ignorance of each other’s ways and lives has been a common cause, throughout the history of mankind, of that suspicion and mistrust between the peoples of the world through which their differences have all too often broken into war;

That the great and terrible war which has now ended was a war made possible by the denial of the democratic principles of the dignity, equality and mutual respect of men, and by the propagation, in their place, through ignorance and prejudice, of the doctrine of the inequality of men and races;

That the wide diffusion of culture, and the education of humanity for justice and liberty and peace are indispensable to the dignity of man and constitute a sacred duty which all the nations must fulfil in a spirit of mutual assistance and concern;

That a peace based exclusively upon the political and economic arrangements of governments would not be a peace which could secure the unanimous, lasting and sincere support of the peoples of the world, and that the peace must therefore be founded, if it is not to fail, upon the intellectual and moral solidarity of mankind.

For these reasons, the States Parties to this Constitution, believing in full and equal opportunities for education for all, in the unrestricted pursuit of objective truth, and in the free exchange of ideas and knowledge, are agreed and determined to develop and to increase the means of communication between their peoples and to employ these means for the purposes of mutual understanding and a truer and more perfect knowledge of each other’s lives;

In consequence whereof they do hereby create the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization for the purpose of advancing, through the educational and scientific and cultural relations of the peoples of the world, the objectives of international peace and of the common welfare of mankind for which the United Nations Organization was established and which its Charter proclaims.

Article I UNESCO Purposes and UNESCO functions]

Article II UNESCO Membership

Article III Organs

The Organization shall include a General Conference, an Executive Board and a Secretariat.

Article IV The General Conference

Article V Executive Board

Article VI UNESCO Secretariat

Article VII UNESCO National cooperating bodies

Article VIII UNESCO Reports by Member States

Each Member State shall submit to the Organization, at such times and in such manner as shall be determined by the General Conference, reports on the laws, regulations and statistics relating to its educational, scientific and cultural institutions and activities, and on the action taken upon the recommendations and conventions referred to in Article IV, paragraph 4.

Article IX

UNESCO Budget

1. The budget shall be administered by the Organization.

2. The General Conference shall approve and give final effect to the budget and to the apportionment of financial responsibility among the States Members of the Organization subject to such arrangement with the United Nations as may be provided in the agreement to be entered into pursuant to Article X.

3. The Director-General may accept voluntary contributions, gifts, bequests and subventions directly from governments, public and private institutions, associations and private persons, subject to the conditions specified in the Financial Regulations.

Article X

Relations with the United Nations Organization

This Organization shall be brought into relation with the United Nations Organization, as soon as practicable, as one of the specialized agencies referred to in Article 57 of the Charter of the United Nations. This relationship shall be effected through an agreement with the United Nations Organization under Article 63 of the Charter, which agreement shall be subject to the approval of the General Conference of this Organization. The agreement shall provide for effective cooperation between the two Organizations in the pursuit of their common purposes, and at the same time shall recognize the autonomy of this Organization, within the fields of its competence as defined in this Constitution. Such agreement may, among other matters, provide for the approval and financing of the budget of the Organization by the General Assembly of the United Nations.

Article XI

Relations with other specialized international organizations and agencies

1. This Organization may cooperate with other specialized intergovernmental organizations and agencies whose interests and activities are related to its purposes. To this end the Director- General, acting under the general authority of the Executive Board, may establish effective working relationships with such organizations and agencies and establish such joint committees as may be necessary to assure effective cooperation. Any formal arrangements entered into with such organizations or agencies shall be subject to the approval of the Executive Board.

2. Whenever the General Conference of this Organization and the competent authorities of any other specialized intergovernmental organizations or agencies whose purpose and functions lie within the competence of this Organization deem it desirable to effect a transfer of their resources and activities to this Organization, the Director-General, subject to the approval of the Conference, may enter into mutually acceptable arrangements for this purpose.

3. This Organization may make appropriate arrangements with other intergovernmental organizations for reciprocal representation at meetings.

4. The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization may make suitable arrangements for consultation and cooperation with non-governmental international organizations concerned with matters within its competence, and may invite them to undertake specific tasks. Such cooperation may also include appropriate participation by representatives of such organizations on advisory committees set up by the General Conference.

Article XII

Legal status of the Organization

The provisions of Articles 104 and 105 of the Charter of the United Nations Organization concerning the legal status of that Organization, its privileges and immunities, shall apply in the same way to this Organization.

Article XIII

Amendments

1. Proposals for amendments to this Constitution shall become effective upon receiving the approval of the General Conference by a two-thirds majority; provided, however, that those amendments which involve fundamental alterations in the aims of the Organization or new obligations for the Member States shall require subsequent acceptance on the part of two thirds of the Member States before they come into force. The draft texts of proposed amendments shall be communicated by the Director-General to the Member States at least six months in advance of their consideration by the General Conference.

2. The General Conference shall have power to adopt by a two-thirds majority rules of procedure for carrying out the provisions of this Article.

Article XIV

Interpretation

1. The English and French texts of this Constitution shall be regarded as equally authoritative.

2. Any question or dispute concerning the interpretation of this Constitution shall be referred for determination to the International Court of Justice or to an arbitral tribunal, as the General Conference may determine under its Rules of Procedure.

Article XV

Entry into force

1. This Constitution shall be subject to acceptance. The instrument of acceptance shall be deposited with the Government of the United Kingdom.

2. This Constitution shall remain open for signature in the archives of the Government of the United Kingdom. Signature may take place either before or after the deposit of the instrument of acceptance. No acceptance shall be valid unless preceded or followed by signature. However, a state that has withdrawn from the Organization shall simply deposit a new instrument of acceptance in order to resume membership.

3. This Constitution shall come into force when it has been accepted by twenty of its signatories. Subsequent acceptances shall take effect immediately.

4. The Government of the United Kingdom will inform all Members of the United Nations and the Director-General of the receipt of all instruments of acceptance and of the date on which the Constitution comes into force in accordance with the preceding paragraph.

In faith whereof, the undersigned, duly authorized to that effect, have signed this Constitution in the English and French languages, both texts being equally authentic.

Done in London the sixteenth day of November, one thousand nine hundred and forty-five, in a single copy, in the English and French languages, of which certified copies will be communicated by the Government of the United Kingdom to the Governments of all the Members of the United Nations.

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