Syenss Tek Saeevd 2011ce 5may 31d 20h 32m 14s

Syenss Tek Saeevd 2011ce 5may 31d 20h 32m 14s

Fruhm:

Leengk Kohdz Wrk In Uhbuhv OhridjinnuL Kuz HTML FyL Preezrvd Address Kohdz.

Science Tek

NexT TexT Fruhm: http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/science#Etymology_1

Science Etymology: From Old French science, from Latin scientia (“knowledge”), from sciens, present participle stem of scire (“know”).

NexT TexT Fruhn: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Science

Science is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained (see "History and etymology" section).

Tek

Tech: Etymology From Ancient Greek *τεκτ-, τέκτων, < τέχνη(téchni,“art, splendour, mastermind, craftsmanship, trade, skill”)

abbreviation of technology
abbreviation of technician
abbreviation of technique

The Formal, Empirical and Applied Sciences are the techniques of Science, the external & internal areas of study of scientists (the technicians of science), and forms of technology produced by engineers, architects and similar artists of science…

Formal sciences: the Techniques of Science

The formal sciences are the branches of knowledge that are concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, theoretical computer science, information theory, systems theory, decision theory, statistics, and some aspects of linguistics.

Unlike other sciences, the formal sciences are not concerned with the validity of theories based on observations in the real world, but instead with the properties of formal systems based on definitions and rules. Methods of the formal sciences are, however, applied in constructing and testing scientific models dealing with observable reality.

As opposed to empirical sciences (natural, social), formal sciences presuppose no knowledge of contingent fact, they do not describe the real world and do not involve empirical procedures. In this sense, formal sciences are both logically and methodologically a priori, for their content and validity are independent of any empirical procedures.

Basic Fields of Formal sciences
1 Fields of Computer sciences
2 Fields of Mathematics
3 Fields of Statistics
4Fields ofSystems science

Behavioural sciences

The term behavioural science encompasses all the disciplines that explore the activities of and interactions among organisms in the natural world. It involves the systematic analysis and investigation of human and animal behaviour through controlled and naturalistic experimental observations and rigorous formulations (E. D. Klemke, R. Hollinger, and A. D. Kline, (ed) (1980)). Examples of behavioral sciences include psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.

Behavioural sciences abstract empirical data to investigate the decision processes and communication strategies within and between organisms in a social system. This involves fields like psychology and social neuroscience, among others.

The term behavioural sciences is often confused with the term social sciences. Though these two broad areas are interrelated and study systematic processes of behaviour, they differ on their level of scientific analysis of various dimensions of behaviour.

Behavioural sciences includes two broad categories: neural - decision sciences - and social - communication sciences.

Neural/decision sciences

Decision sciences involves those disciplines primarily dealing with the decision processes and individual functioning used in the survival of organism in a social environment. These include anthropology, psychology, cognitive science, organization theory, psychobiology, and social neuroscience.

Scope of Neural/decisioan sciences

1 Artificial intelligence
2 Attention
3 Knowledge, and Processing, of Language
4 Learning and development
5 Memory
6 Perception and action

Communication and Social Sciences

On the other hand, communication sciences include those fields which study the communication strategies used by organisms and its dynamics between organisms in an environment. These include fields like anthropology, organizational behaviour, organization studies, sociology and social networks.
In contrast, social sciences provide a perceptive framework to study the processes of a social system through impacts of social organisation on structural adjustment of the individual and of groups. They typically include fields like sociology, economics, history, counselling, public health, anthropology, and political science (E. D. Klemke, R. Hollinger and A. D. Kline, eds., 1988).

"Social science" is commonly used as an umbrella term to refer to a plurality of fields outside of the natural sciences. These include: anthropology, archaeology, business administration, criminology, economics, geography, linguistics, political science, sociology, international relations, communication, and, in some contexts, history, law, and psychology.

Standard Fields of the Social sciences include:
1 Anthropology
2 Economics
3 Linguistics
4 Psychology
5 Geography
6 Philosophy
7 Political science
8 Sociology

Scientists: the Technicians of Science

A scientist in a broad sense is one engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge. In a more restricted sense, a scientist is an individual who uses the scientific method.[1] The person may be an expert in one or more areas of science. Scientists perform research toward a more comprehensive understanding of nature, including physical, mathematical and social realms.

This is distinct from philosophers, those who use logic toward a more comprehensive understanding of intangible aspects of reality that lack a direct connection to nature, focusing on the realm of thought itself..

Scientists are also distinct from engineers, those who develop devices that serve practical purposes. When science is done with a goal toward practical utility, it is called 'applied science' (short of the creation of new devices that fall into the realm of engineering).

When science is done with an inclusion of intangible aspects of reality it is called 'natural philosophy'.

The Scientific Method: the basic Behavioral Technique of Science

The Scientific methodrefers to a body of techniques for investigating phenomena, acquiring new knowledge, or correcting and integrating previous knowledge.

To be termed scientific, a method of inquiry must be based on gathering observable, empirical and measurable evidence subject to specific principles of reasoning.

Four essential elements of a scientific method are iterations,[39][40] recursions,[41] interleavings, or orderings of the following:

Characterizations (observations,[42] definitions, and measurements of the subject of inquiry)
Hypotheses[43][44] (theoretical, hypothetical explanations of observations and measurements of the subject)[45]
Predictions (reasoning including logical deduction[46] from the hypothesis or theory)
Experiments[47] (tests of all of the above)

A linearized, pragmatic scheme of the four points above is sometimes offered as a guideline for proceeding:

Define the question
Gather information and resources (observe)
Form hypothesis
Perform experiment and collect data
Analyze data
Interpret data and draw conclusions that serve as a starting point for new hypothesis
Publish results
Retest (frequently done by other scientists)

The iterative cycle inherent in this step-by-step methodology goes from point 3 to 6 back to 3 again.

Hard Science and Soft Science

Hard science and soft science are colloquial terms often used when comparing fields of academic research or scholarship, with hard meaning perceived as being more scientific, rigorous, or accurate.

Fields of the natural, physical, and computing sciences are often described as hard, while the social sciences and similar fields are often described as soft.

The hard sciences are characterized as relying on experimental, empirical, quantifiable data, relying on the scientific method, and focusing on accuracy and objectivity.

Empirical Science

Look up empirical in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
The word empirical denotes information gained by means of observation or experiments.[1] Empirical data is data produced by an experiment or observation.

A central concept in modern science and the scientific method is that all evidence must be empirical, or empirically based, that is, dependent on evidence or consequences that are observable by the senses. It is usually differentiated from the philosophic usage of empiricism by the use of the adjective empirical or the adverb empirically. The term refers to the use of working hypotheses that are testable using observation or experiment. In this sense of the word, scientific statements are subject to, and derived from, our experiences or observations.

The standard positivist view of empirically acquired information has been that observation, experience, and experiment serve as neutral arbiters between competing theories. However, since the 1960s, Thomas Kuhn [2] has promoted the concept that these methods are influenced by prior beliefs and experiences.

Consequently it cannot be expected that two scientists when observing, experiencing, or experimenting on the same event will make the same theory-neutral observations. The role of observation as a theory-neutral arbiter may not be possible. Theory-dependence of observation means that, even if there were agreed methods of inference and interpretation, scientists may still disagree on the nature of empirical data.

Empirical Science includes the fields of the Natural Sciences and Social Sciences

Fields of Natural sciences
Fields of Physical sciences
1 Chemistry
2 Physics
3 Astronomy
4 Earth science
5 Environmental science

Fields of Life Science also known as Biology
The life sciences comprise all fields of science that involve the scientific study of living organisms, like plants, animals, and human beings. However, the study of behaviour of organisms, such as practised in ethology and psychology, is only included in as much as it involves a clearly biological aspect. While biology remains the centerpiece of the life sciences, technological advances in molecular biology and biotechnology have led to a burgeoning of specializations and new, often interdisciplinary, fields.

Standard Fields of the Social sciences are listed here and above

Fundamental science

Fundamental science (or basic science, pure science) is science that describes the most basic objects, forces, relations between them and laws governing them, such that all other phenomena may be in principle derived from them following the logic of scientific reductionism

There is a difference between fundamental science and applied science (or practical science).[1] Fundamental science, in contrast to applied science, is defined as a fundamental knowledge it develops.

The progress of fundamental science is based on well controlled experiments and careful observation. Fundamental science is dependent upon deductions from demonstrated truths, or is studied without regard to practical applications.

Fundamental science has traditionally been associated with the natural sciences, however, research in the social and behavioral sciences can be deemed fundamental (e.g., cognitive neuroscience, personality).

Applied Science: the development of Technology

Applied science is the application of scientific knowledge transferred into a physical environment.

Applied science differs from fundamental science, which seeks to describe the most basic objects and forces, having less emphasis on practical applications.

Applied science can be like branches of natural science including biological science and physical science.

Applied science is important for technology development. Its use in industrial settings is usually referred to as research and development (R&D).

Examples include testing a theoretical model through the use of formal science or solving a practical problem through the use of natural science.

Fields of Applied sciences include
1 Agronomy
2 Architecture
3 Education
4 Engineering
5 Health sciences
6 Management
7 Military Science
8 Spatial science

General guidelines for the development of the concentrations of study of Science Tek

Formal
1 Fields of Computer sciences
2 Fields of Mathematics
3 Fields of Statistics
4Fields of Systems science

Behavioral
Neural
1 Artificial intelligence
2 Attention
3 Knowledge, and Processing, of Language
4 Learning and development
5 Memory
6 Perception and action
Social
1 Anthropology
2 Economics
See section under Business Economy
3 Linguistics
4 Psychology
5 Geography
Summary of the Natural Geographical Features of Planet Earth
Summary of the Manmade Geographical Divisions of Planet Earth
6 Philosophy
See section under Philosophical Spirituality
7 (Political science)
8 Sociology

Applied
1 Agronomy
2 Architecture
3 Education
See section under Human Well-Being
4 Engineering
Technology:
There should be a single article about the history of technology, which would be discussed according to chronological development.
5 Health sciences
6 Management
7 Military Science
8 Spatial science

Empirical
Natural
Physical
1 Chemistry
List of the Most Significant Discoveries and Theories of Chemistry
The Periodic Table of Elements
Molecules and Their Formation and Interaction
Types of Substances and Their Properties
2Physics
List of the Most Significant Discoveries and Theories of Physics
Elementary Particles
Forces of Nature
The Theory of Relativity
3Astronomy
List of the Most Significant Discoveries and Theories of Astronomy and Cosmology
The Solar System
The Milky Way Galaxy
The Origin, Structure, and Fate of the Universe
4Earth science
List of the Most Significant Discoveries and Theories of Earth Sciences
Geology
Meteorology and Climatology
Botany
Ecology
Agriculture, Forestry, and Managed Ecosystems
5 Environmental science
Life
List of the Most Significant Discoveries and Theories of Biology
Cellular Biology
Anatomy of Humans and Other Animals
Evolution of Species
These are the main branches of biology:[67][68]
Aerobiology — the study of airborne organic particles
Agriculture — the study of producing crops from the land, with an emphasis on practical applications
Anatomy — the study of form and function, in plants, animals, and other organisms, or specifically in humans
Astrobiology — the study of evolution, distribution, and future of life in the universe—also known as exobiology, exopaleontology, and bioastronomy
Biochemistry — the study of the chemical reactions required for life to exist and function, usually a focus on the cellular level
Bioengineering — the study of biology through the means of engineering with an emphasis on applied knowledge and especially related to biotechnology
Bioinformatics — the use of information technology for the study, collection, and storage of genomic and other biological data
Biomathematics or Mathematical Biology — the quantitative or mathematical study of biological processes, with an emphasis on modeling
Biomechanics — often considered a branch of medicine, the study of the mechanics of living beings, with an emphasis on applied use through prosthetics or orthotics
Biomedical research — the study of the human body in health and disease
Biophysics — the study of biological processes through physics, by applying the theories and methods traditionally used in the physical sciences
Biotechnology — a new and sometimes controversial branch of biology that studies the manipulation of living matter, including genetic modification and synthetic biology
Building biology — the study of the indoor living environment
Botany — the study of plants
Cell biology — the study of the cell as a complete unit, and the molecular and chemical interactions that occur within a living cell
Conservation Biology — the study of the preservation, protection, or restoration of the natural environment, natural ecosystems, vegetation, and wildlife
Cryobiology — the study of the effects of lower than normally preferred temperatures on living beings.
Developmental biology — the study of the processes through which an organism forms, from zygote to full structure
Ecology — the study of the interactions of living organisms with one another and with the non-living elements of their environment
Embryology — the study of the development of embryo (from fecundation to birth). See also topobiology.
Entomology — the study of insects
Environmental Biology — the study of the natural world, as a whole or in a particular area, especially as affected by human activity
Epidemiology — a major component of public health research, studying factors affecting the health of populations
Ethology — the study of animal behavior
Evolutionary Biology — the study of the origin and descent of species over time
Genetics — the study of genes and heredity
Herpetology — the study of reptiles and amphibians
Histology — the study of cells and tissues, a microscopic branch of anatomy
Ichthyology — the study of fish
Integrative biology — the study of whole organisms
Limnology — the study of inland waters
Mammalogy — the study of mammals
Marine Biology — the study of ocean ecosystems, plants, animals, and other living beings
Microbiology — the study of microscopic organisms (microorganisms) and their interactions with other living things
Molecular Biology — the study of biology and biological functions at the molecular level, some cross over with biochemistry
Mycology — the study of fungi
Neurobiology — the study of the nervous system, including anatomy, physiology and pathology
Oceanography — the study of the ocean, including ocean life, environment, geography, weather, and other aspects influencing the ocean
Oncology — the study of cancer processes, including virus or mutationoncogenesis, angiogenesis and tissues remoldings
Ornithology — the study of birds
Paleontology — the study of fossils and sometimes geographic evidence of prehistoric life
Pathobiology or pathology — the study of diseases, and the causes, processes, nature, and development of disease
Parasitology — the study of parasites and parasitism
Pharmacology — the study and practical application of preparation, use, and effects of drugs and synthetic medicines
Physiology — the study of the functioning of living organisms and the organs and parts of living organisms
Phytopathology — the study of plant diseases (also called Plant Pathology)
Population biology— the study of groups of conspecific organisms, including
Population ecology — the study of how population dynamics and extinction
Population genetics — the study of changes in gene frequencies in populations of organisms
Psychobiology — the study of the biological bases of psychology
Sociobiology — the study of the biological bases of sociology
Structural biology — a branch of molecular biology, biochemistry, and biophysics concerned with the molecular structure of biological macromolecules
Virology — the study of viruses and some other virus-like agents
Zoology — the study of animals, including classification, physiology, development, and behavior (See also Entomology, Ethology, Herpetology, Ichthyology, Mammalogy, and Ornithology)

Unless otherwise stated, the content of this page is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 License