Simp Kemz

Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs

Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT

NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).

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Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:


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Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.

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What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.

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What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).


The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.

SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1

SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum:

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".

SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;

Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table


See also:


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Is Fluoride Bad for You? Effects for Thyroid & Body

August 3, 2019 (Updated: September 9, 2019) — by Katie Wells

Dr Scott Sorries Medical Advisor

Wellness Mama Dr Terry Wahls

Medically reviewed by

  • Dr. Scott Soerries, MD,
  • Dr. Terry Wahls, MD

The effects fluoride has on the thyroid and body

Reading Time: 8 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.

You likely know that mercury, lead, and other heavy metals are not great for the body and can cause a host of issues. But whether or not fluoride is safe (or effective) is more controversial.
Is Fluoride Beneficial?

In the early part of the twentieth century, it was discovered that small communities who had higher levels of naturally occurring fluoride in their drinking water had fewer dental caries (cavities). Naturally fluoridated water at about 1mg/L seemed to be beneficial to dental health. (Fluoride that is naturally occurring is calcium fluoride.)

Unfortunately, the fluoride that is often added to water supplies in the U.S. is hydrofluoric acid (an industrial by-product), not elemental fluorine or calcium fluoride. It’s well known that naturally occurring substances (even heavy metals) are generally better tolerated by the body than synthetic counterparts.

But because early studies showed few dental caries in communities using fluoridated water, fluoridated water became known as one of 10 best public health achievements of the twentieth century according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC).

However, rates of dental caries have been going down for all western countries, both using fluoridation and not, suggesting that there is no connection between fluoridated water and fewer cavities.

For example, Sweden does not fluoridate its water and has the same amount of dental caries as the United States. Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Arvid Carlsson argued against its use in Sweden by saying that topical use of fluoride may work for dental caries but drinking fluoride was not a good idea, especially when you consider that the amount any individual consumes can vary quite a bit.

Though some earlier studies showed that fluoride in the water supply can help reduce dental caries, a 2015 Cochrane review found that the most recent and comprehensive evidence shows that there is simply not enough evidence to support fluoridating water.

Though fluoride may help prevent cavities when used topically, there are other (better) ways to improve oral health without fluoride.

Sources of Fluoride

Fluoridated water is an obvious source of fluoride but there are many others as well. Because there are so many sources of fluoride today, it’s especially concerning that water supplies are “spiked” with fluoride. Here are some of the major sources of fluoride:

Packaged foods and drinks (made with fluoridated water)
Tea (the plant naturally absorbs fluoride; herbal teas are fine)
Teflon pans
Mechanically separated meat (fragments of bone can be left behind)
Industry (aluminum, fertilizer, iron, oil refining, semi-conductor, and steel industries)
Fluorinated pharmaceuticals (the fluorine doesn’t usually break down into fluoride, but may)
Dental products

Of course, there are reasons other than fluoride to avoid some of the things on this list. For someone who is interested in natural health (and avoiding many of these things already), avoiding fluoride isn’t all that hard.

How Fluoride Affects the Thyroid

Though there is some debate about whether fluoride is safe, the evidence is pretty clear that it can affect thyroid function, and for anyone at risk to begin with (many women are), fluoride is potentially dangerous. Considering thyroid disease affects 20 million Americans (mostly women), this is an important angle to consider.

In the 1930s a product containing fluoride was used to treat people with hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). The fluoride poisoned the enzymes in the thyroid gland and slowed down the production of thyroid hormones. This drug stopped being used because some people’s thyroid glands were permanently damaged from its use.

Studies show that fluoride affects the thyroid gland specifically. Studies done in India found that children in communities with high fluoride intake had a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Another study found that people with unfluoridated water were less likely to develop hypothyroidism.

Fluoride and Iodine

Fluoride can lead to thyroid inflammation and autoimmune thyroid disease (like Hashimoto’s). Fluoride is also an endocrine disruptor. Dr. Izabella Wentz explains in this post how it’s misidentified as iodine in the body so it is taken up into the body and stored in body tissues the way iodine should be.

One study found that iodine levels directly impact how much harm fluoride can do to the thyroid and may help protect the thyroid from fluoride. On the other hand, many people who have thyroid disease like Hashimoto’s have low levels of iodine but can’t tolerate supplemental iodine either. In those cases, fluoride is particularly problematic.
How Fluoride Affects the Skeletal System

Fluoride is also fairly clearly implicated in bone health issues. Though supporters of fluoride claim that it can help improve bone density, evidence shows that the amount of fluoride plays a very important part in whether fluoride helps or hurts bone health.

This study looked at different populations in China with varying levels of naturally occurring fluoride in the water ranging from 0.25 mg/L to 7.97 mg/L (as a comparison, places that add fluoride to water typically add to .7-1 mg/L). What the study found was that fractures happened less when fluoride levels were at about 1 mg/L but more when they were on the lowest and highest parts of the range. Clearly, there’s a fine line between helpful and harmful here.

Skeletal fluorosis is a serious bone disease which causes hardening and thickening of the bones which makes movement difficult. It can be confused with a number of other skeletal issues including arthritis. Skeletal fluorosis is caused by excessive exposure to fluoride which can happen over time as fluoride can accumulate in the body. The most recent research shows that early signs of skeletal fluorosis can occur with as little as 6 mg of fluoride a day (much less for those with kidney disease).

The Upside

Having good health to begin with, particularly normal levels of vitamins and minerals, can help reduce the negative effects of fluoride. One study found that normal levels of calcium helped prevent fluoride-induced bone issues in rats. Another found that sufficient levels of vitamin D could be protective. Additionally, another study found that magnesium-deficient rats absorbed more fluoride than rats with normal magnesium levels and also had more fluoride in their bones and teeth.

What does this mean? That we can do something about fluoride exposure by doing some of the same things that are good for health overall. Optimizing calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium levels (here are some ideas on that) and eating a nutrient-dense diet is a great first step.

Fluoride and the Brain

Fluoride is a confirmed neurotoxin and many prestigious reviews have dug into the research that is available on the topic over the years. A 2012 Harvard review found that of the 27 studies in the review, 26 of them concluded that there is a relationship between elevated fluoride and reduced IQ.

A 2014 Lancet review documents fluoride as a neurotoxin that could be harmful to child development. The review concludes, “The presumption that new chemicals and technologies are safe until proven otherwise is a fundamental problem.”

Newer research is finding the same neurotoxicity problems as earlier studies. A 2017 study found that fluoride exposure in utero was linked to poorer cognitive performance later in life.

Fluoride Affects Other Parts of the Body

While the effects of fluoride on the thyroid, skeletal system, and brain is fairly clear cut, the science is less clear on how fluoride affects other parts of the body. Here are some other ways fluoride may cause harm:

Cancer – A connection between fluoride and cancer is a hotly debated topic, probably because the research is inconclusive and at times confusing.
Early sexual development – One researcher found that fluoride accumulates in high amounts in the pineal gland (that secretes hormones). A 1997 study found that fluoride was associated with faster sexual development in the female gerbils in the study.
Male infertility – Some data suggest that a decline in male fertility could be associated with topical fluoride use. Animal studies show concern but more information is needed.

So… Should I Be Worried About Fluoride?

There are many conflicting opinions on whether fluoride is safe and whether it’s something to worry about. (I know, you hear me say things like that a lot!) Mark Sisson’s opinion on it is that fluoride isn’t great but that we should focus on improving health in other ways first (clean diet, plenty of sleep, low stress, etc) before worrying about filtering fluoride from the water. On the other hand, if you are filtering your water because of any number of the other pollutants that could be in it, you may as well filter out fluoride too.

There is evidence on either side of the debate. My personal stance is that for people with thyroid issues (like me) it’s clearly best to avoid fluoride. And since fluoride does come with a warning to call the poison control center immediately if ingested (and after seeing a close friend’s scare when her son ingested some fluoride), I buy unfluoridated toothpaste and don’t keep fluoride-containing products around our house.

How to Protect Teeth Without Fluoride

Though fluoride may have a protective effect on teeth, there are other (better) ways to keep teeth healthy than to smear them with fluoride.

Dental Diet

What you eat can impact your oral health even more than brushing or flossing. Teeth are in a constant state of remineralization as the saliva in the mouth provides minerals to the teeth and the cells in the teeth use these minerals to strengthen themselves.

Diet can play a huge part in this process (and the health of your teeth). According to Weston A. Price’s (and others) research, a diet rich in healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals can help heal and protect oral health. I go into more detail in this post.

Balancing Hormones

Hormones can have a huge effect on oral health as they can control the acid/alkaline balance in the mouth. They also affect how well the body can heal from or fight disease. Many of us have symptoms of hormone imbalance and things like optimizing sleep, stress, diet, and fitness can make a big difference in hormone health (and oral health).
Homemade Toothpaste

Many conventional kinds of toothpaste contain chemicals and artificial ingredients that can do more harm than good! That’s why I started making my own remineralizing toothpaste. I’ve been using it for years and have had no new cavities (and have even healed some that were waiting for a filling).

Fluoride: Bottom Line

There’s lots of conflicting evidence surrounding fluoride and fluoridating water. Some agencies and dentists think fluoride use has been a huge health advancement. But there’s also growing evidence that fluoride can be harmful. I like to go on the side of caution (especially when there are natural ways to improve oral health) and avoid it. We use a water filter that removes fluoride as well.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Scott Soerries, MD, Family Physician and Medical Director of SteadyMD. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Terry Wahls, a clinical professor of medicine and clinical research and has published over 60 peer-reviewed scientific abstracts, posters, and papers. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

Do you use fluoride? Why or why not?


Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.

Li, Y., Liang, C., Slemenda, C. W., Ji, R., Sun, S., Cao, J., … Johnston, J. R. (2001, May). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures.

Estimated “Threshold” Doses for Skeletal Fluorosis. (n.d.).

Beary, D. F. (2005, February 02). The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur.

Chapman, S. K., Malagodi, M. H., & Thomas, J. R. (n.d.). Effect of vitamin D in fluoride-treated rats

Impact of fluoride on neurological development in children. (2014, December 22).

Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. J. (2014, March). Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.

Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico. (n.d.).

Regression Analysis of Cancer Incidence Rates. (n.d.).

Fluoride. (n.d.).

J., L. (n.d.). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland.

Male Fertility. (n.d.).

Prystupa, J. (2011, February). Fluorine–a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

Water Fluoridation “Obsolete” According to Nobel Prize Scientist. (n.d.).

Main, D. (2016, April 06). Fluoridation May Not Prevent Cavities, Scientific Review Shows.

Singh, N., Verma, K. G., Verma, P., Sidhu, G. K., & Sachdeva, S. (2014). A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

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Homemade Remineralizing Toothpaste Recipe (Natural + Simple)

August 29, 2017 (Updated: July 30, 2019) — by Katie Wells
How to make your own remineralizing toothpaste with natural ingredients

Reading Time: 5 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.
Table of Contents[Show]

I’ve talked before about the link between nutrition and oral health and the ability of teeth to remineralize and regenerate and shared my own experience with reversing a cavity. The approach I used was two-part: addressing mineral levels in the body/saliva and using a natural remineralizing toothpaste that provided minerals to the surface of the teeth.
A Remineralizing Toothpaste

There is a lot of emerging information about tooth remineralization, a process that many dentists previously thought was impossible. This article goes into detail about the science behind tooth remineralization and the dietary steps necessary. (It also explains why ingredients in most toothpastes, even natural ones, are not optimal!) I also did a podcast interview with a dentist who explains the science of remineralization (listen here).

The information I found in researching this was mirrored by my own experience over the last few years with natural toothpastes and a remineralizing diet.
Natural Toothpaste

I’ve noticed definite changes in my teeth over the last few years of using this toothpaste. My teeth are whiter than they’ve ever been and everyone who I’ve asked to try this remineralizing toothpaste has remarked that it makes their teeth feel very clean.

The most surprising change in my teeth, however, was that they are no longer sensitive to cold! For as long as I can remember, biting into anything cold (or even thinking of it!) made me shudder and hurt my front teeth. After switching toothpaste, I noticed that I could eat cold foods without my teeth hurting at all. I have never been able to do that before!

This toothpaste recipe is kid-approved, and since it has no fluoride, its safe on babies, toddlers, and those with thyroid problems.
Remineralizing Toothpaste Ingredients

5 parts calcium powder (you can use cleaned powdered egg shells!)
1 part diatomaceous earth (optional, contains trace minerals and silica. UPDATE: A reader noted that DE can be abrasive and is not needed with the baking soda, so if you don’t have DE… no worries!)
2 parts baking soda
3 parts xylitol powder – this ingredient is not completely necessary, but just keeps it from tasting bitter
3-5 parts coconut oil to achieve desired texture
Optional ingredients: essential oils for flavor (mint, cinnamon, and orange are all good), myrrh, and trace minerals

Remineralizing Toothpaste Instructions

Mix all powdered ingredients (calcium, baking soda, xylitol) well in a bowl.
Add coconut oil one part at a time until you get desired consistency.
Add any optional ingredients, including essential oils for flavor (my favorite is peppermint orange)
Store in small container like ½ pint glass jar. To use, either dip clean toothbrush into it, or use Popsicle stick or spoon to put on toothbrush. I’ve also thought of storing in a plastic bag with a corner cut off to be able to squeeze like toothpaste, but haven’t tried it yet.


natural homemade remineralizing toothpaste ingredientsFor this recipe, “part” denotes whatever unit of measurement you are using. For instance, if part=tablespoon, you would need 5 tablespoons calcium powder, 1 tablespoon diatomaceous earth, etc.
The Internal Side of Remineralization

It is really important to note that remineralization is not a process that happens only in the mouth and that simply using a toothpaste (like the one above) with a higher concentration of minerals will not likely be enough to help teeth. Remineralization is a whole-body process and in order for it to happen, the body must have adequate levels of certain nutrients, especially fat soluble vitamins and certain minerals.

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