( NachuhruL Saiuhnss Saiz Ohmz = ReeL Proovd TrooTh Syz Ohmz )

* Uv Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Mynd In Thuh Now Tranz FymyT KuhnTree.

Press [End] Keey Tu Go Tu Thuh End Uhv Thuh Syz Ohmz LisT.


TaeebuL Uhv KonTenTs Fohr Paeej Naeemd " ReeL Proovd TrooTh Syz Ohmz "

ReeL Proovd TrooTh KonsepT Deskrybd

Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Syz Ohmz " Ended Up Expanded Tu Thuh Konsept Naeemd:
" Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr "

End Uhv TaeebuL Uhv KonTenTs Fohr Paeej Naeemd " ReeL Proovd TrooTh Syz Ohmz "


Table of Contents


Included page "reel-proovd-trooth-konsept-deskrybd" does not exist (create it now)



Thuh Paeej With Naeem Speld " Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr "

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT PuT OwT SmahL T

Syenss Baeesikss Kynd Typss KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

Table of Contents

Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Uhv Syenss


Syenss Wrd Ehtimmolluhjee Frum Wiktionary

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Science [ Wrd Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē ]

From Old French science, from Latin scientia (“knowledge”), from sciens, present participle stem of scire (“know”).

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Ehtimmolluhjee Frum Wiktionary ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Our definition of science

Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.


Syenss Wrd Lah Dehfinnishuhn

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

What is SCIENCE?:

Knowledge that is comprised of verifiable and measurable facts that have been acquired by the application of a scientific method.


Thuss Syenss Iz Senss Proovd Reel Syzd TruuTh.


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Lah Dehfinnishuhn ".


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhn Fruhm Wy-Ky-Pee-Dy-Shohrt-A

NexT KwohT Wuhz:

NexT TexT OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

Science is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhn Fruhm Wy-Ky-Pee-Dy-Shohrt-A ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

science

Science is the field of study concerned with discovering and describing the world around us by observing and experimenting. Biology, chemistry, and physics are all branches of science.

Science is an "empirical" field, that is, it develops a body of knowledge by observing things and performing experiments. The meticulous process of gathering and analyzing data is called the "scientific method," and we sometimes use science to describe the knowledge we already have…


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


SyenTiffik MeThuhd Uhv Syenss And SyenTiffik Trmz

Thuh Fraeez Trm "ScienTific MeThod"

SaiunTihfik Methud iz Saiuntihfik + Methuhd,


Syentiffik Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT ETimmoLLuhjee Uv Wrd SyenTiffik Fruhm:

scientific (adj.)

1580s, from Middle French scientifique,

from Medieval Latin scientificus "pertaining to science,"

from Latin scientia "knowledge" (see science) + -ficus "making, doing,"…

Originally used to translate Greek epistemonikos "making knowledge" in Aristotle's "Ethics."…

First record of scientific revolution is from 1803;

scientific method is from 1854;

scientific notation is from 1961.


Thuh NexT Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

scientific…adj
1. (prenominal) of, relating to, derived from, or used in science: scientific equipment.
2. (prenominal) occupied in science: scientific manpower.
3. conforming with the principles or methods used in science: a scientific approach…
Cite: Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition

sci•en•tif•ic…adj.
1. of, pertaining to, or concerned with a science or the sciences.
2. regulated by or conforming to the principles of exact science.
3. systematic or accurate in the manner of an exact [[science]]…
Cite: Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary,


Thuh NexT Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

scientific adjective…

Definition of scientific

1 : of, relating to, or exhibiting the methods or principles of science
2 : conducted in the manner of science or according to results of investigation by science : practicing or using thorough or systematic methods


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Syentiffik Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Methuhd

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

early 15c., "regular, systematic treatment of disease," from Latin methodus "way of teaching or going," from Greek methodos "scientific inquiry, method of inquiry, investigation," originally "pursuit, a following after," from meta "in pursuit or quest of" (see meta-) + hodos "a method, system; a way or manner" (of doing, saying, etc.), also "a traveling, journey," literally "a path, track, road," a word of uncertain origin… Meaning "way of doing anything" is from 1580s; that of "orderliness, regularity" is from 1610s. In reference to a theory of acting associated with Russian director Konstantin Stanislavsky, it is attested from 1923.

Methuhd MyT Get Deskrybd In Simp Lang

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Methuhd ".


Senss Pruuf Fakt Syz Lrn Waee


Deskripshun Uhv Thuh Senss Pruuf Fakt Syz Lrn Waee Wich Iz Uh Uhv Syuhnss } Iz:
1: Yuuzeeng Uh ( Syentiffik = Syenss-Baeesst ) ( Methuhd = PLand Task Akts )
2: Tu Uhkwyr Senst Vehriffyd Faktss
3: Then Syz Eech Fakt
4: Then Klassiffy That Fakt Intu 1 Uhv Thuh Syenss Main Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr.

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd "Senss Pruuf Fakt Syz Lrn Waee ".


Nekst Iz Uh Standrd Deskripshuhn Uhv Syentiffik Methuhdolluhjee.
SyenTiffik-MeThuhd-STeps_V6_UpdaeeTed_2013.png
Thuh Uhbuhv Immaj Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm:

Wuhn SyenTiffik Ed Task Iz

  • Tu KuhmeewnikkaeeT ReezuLTs Uhv SyehnTiffik PrakTiss OpTs.

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " SyenTiffik MeThuhd ".


Basics

THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

basics (n.)

"rudiments or fundamentals of anything," by 1914, from basic. Also see -ics. Phrase back-to-basics was in use by 1962.


Heer: https://www.howtopronounce.com/rudiment/

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

rudiment noun

ru·​di·​ment

Definition of rudiment

1 : a basic principle or element or a fundamental skill

  • usually used in plural teaching themselves the rudiments of rational government— G. B. Galanti

2a : something unformed or undeveloped : beginning

  • usually used in plural the rudiments of a plan

b(1) : a body part so deficient in size or structure as to be entirely unable to perform its normal function
(2) : an organ just beginning to develop : anlage


THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

fundamental (adj.)

mid-15c., "primary, original, pertaining to a foundation," modeled on Late Latin fundamentalis "of the foundation," from Latin fundamentum "foundation" (see fundament). In music (1732) it refers to the lowest note of a chord. Fundamentals (n.) "primary principles or rules" of anything is from 1630s.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

basic (adj.)

"relating to a base," 1832, originally in chemistry, from base (n.) + -ic.

BASIC

computer language, 1964, initialism (acronym) for Beginners' All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code; invented by Hungarian-born U.S. computer scientist John G. Kemeny and U.S. computer scientist Thomas E. Kurtz.


Suhfiks Ikss


Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Suhfiks Ikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

-ics

in the names of sciences or disciplines (acoustics, aerobics, economics, etc.), a 16c.

revival of the classical custom of using the neuter plural of adjectives with Greek -ikos "pertaining to" (see -ic) to mean "matters relevant to" and also as the titles of treatises about them.

Subject matters that acquired their English names before c. 1500, however, tend to be singular in form (arithmetic, logic, magic, music, rhetoric). The grammatical number of words in -ics (mathematics is/mathematics are) is a confused question.


Dikshuhnehree Deskripshuhnz Uhv Suhfiks Ikss

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

-ics noun suffix, plural in form but singular or plural in construction

[ Dehskripshuhnz ] of -ics

1 : study : knowledge : skill : practice

  • linguistics electronics

2 : characteristic actions or activities

  • acrobatics

3 : characteristic qualities, operations, or phenomena

  • mechanics

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Suhfiks Ikss ".


THiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Basics "


See Ahlsoh: Nachuhrul Syenss Az Reel Pruuvd Truuth


Thuh Syensez


Thuh Syenss Main Branch Kyndz Inkluud THuh 2 Main Branch Kyndz.


Syenss Main Branch Kyndz


Thuh Syenss Main Branch Kyndz Inkluud THuh 2 Main Branch Kyndz.


1: PrinsippuL-Lee Ther Iz Syenss Fillossuhfee WiTh Thuh:

1:1: Syenss Fillossuhfee Branch Kyndz wich Inkluudz,

1:1:1 Fillossuhfee Izm Wich Inkluudz Thuh Fillossuhfee Main Branchez.

1:1:2: Fohrmul Syenss

2: Then Ther Iz NachruL Syenss

* WiTh Thuh Evree-Syz-BaeesT Nachrul Syenss Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr Wich InkLuudz:

2:1: NachruL Syenss Wich Inkluudz Thuh SensuhbuL FynyT SyzuhbuL Empirrikkul Syenss

2:1:1: WiTh Thuh FynyT Syz-BaeesT Empirrikkul Syenss Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr.

2:1:2: NachruL Syenss AhLsoh Inkluudz Thuh Reezuhnd Tu EgzisT Tranz FynyT Syzd KuhmpohnenTss Uhv Tranz FynyT Izm.




Syenss Fillossuhfee Ŏlsō Kŏld Fillossuhfee Uhv Syenss


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Philosophy of science

The philosophy of science, a sub-branch of epistemology, is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of science, including the natural sciences such as physics, chemistry, and biology] the social sciences such as psychology, history, and sociology, and sometimes—especially beginning about the second decade of the twentieth century—the formal sciences, such as logic, mathematics, set theory, and proof theory. In this last respect, the [[[philosophy of science]] is often closely related to philosophy of language, philosophy of mathematics, and to formal systems of logic and formal languages. The twentieth century witnessed a proliferation of research and literature on the philosophy of science Debate is robust amongst philosophers of science and within the discipline much remains inconclusive. For nearly every assertion advanced in the discipline, a philosopher can be found who will disagree with it in some fashion.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Formal and Empirical Methods in Philosophy of Science…

Authors: Vincenzo Crupi & Stephan Hartmann

Abstract

This essay addresses the methodology of philosophy of science and illustrates how formal and empirical methods can be fruitfully combined. Special emphasis is given to the application of experimental methods to confirmation theory and to recent work on the conjunction fallacy, a key topic in the rationality debate arising from research in cognitive psychology. Several other issues can be studied in this way…


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Questions Addressed by Philosophy of Science

Philosophy of science investigates and seeks to explain such questions as:

What is science? Is there one thing that constitutes science, or are there many different kinds or fields of inquiry that are different but are nevertheless called sciences?

Does or can science lead to certainty?

How is genuine or true science to be distinguished—demarcated, to use the usual philosopher's term—from non-science or pseudo-science? Or is this impossible, and, if so, what does this do for the claims that some things are pseudosciences? ( See: Suudoh-Syenss Vrsuhss Truu Syenss )

What is the nature of [[[scientific]] statements, concepts, and conclusions; how are they are created; and how are they justified (if justification is indeed possible)?

Is there any such thing as a scientific method? If there is, what are the types of reasoning used to arrive at conclusions and the formulation of it, and is there any limit to this method or methods?

Is the growth of science cumulative or revolutionary?

For a new scientific theory, can one say it is “nearer to the truth,” and, if so, how? Does science make progress, in some sense of that term, or does it merely change? If it does make progress, how is progress determined and measured?

What means should be used for determining the acceptability, validity, or truthfulness of statements in science, i.e. is objectivity possible, and how can it be achieved?

How does science explain, predict and, through technology, harness nature?

What are the implications of scientific methods and models for the larger society, including for the sciences themselves?

What is the relationship, if any, between science and religion and science and ethics, or are these completely separate?

Those questions may always have existed in some form, but they came to the fore in Western philosophy after the coming of what has been called the scientific revolution, and they became especially central and much-discussed in the twentieth century, when philosophy of science became a self-conscious and highly investigated discipline.

It must be noted that, despite what some scientists or other people may say or think, all science is philosophy-embedded. Philosopher Daniel Dennett has written, “There is no such thing as philosophy-free science; there is only science whose philosophical baggage is taken on board without examination.” [ Darwin's Dangerous Idea…Dennett, Daniel. 1995 ]


Syenss Fillossuhfee Branch Kyndz

Fillossuhfee Izm Nōrm Spĕld " Philosophyism "

Fohrmul Syenss Nōrm Spĕld " Formal Science "




Fillossuhfee Izm


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

philosophy (n.)

Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771…

c. 1300, "knowledge, body of knowledge,"…

(12c., Modern French philosophie)…

from Old French filosofie "philosophy, knowledge"…

directly from Latin philosophia

and from Greek philosophia "love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation,"

from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin.


Fillossuhfee Main Branchez


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Traditional…Five…Main Branches [Uhv] Philosophy

Traditionally, there are five main branches of philosophy.

They are:

Metaphysics, which deals with the fundamental questions of reality.
Epistemology, which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we can know.
Logic, which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation
Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is concerned with human values and how individuals should act.
Aesthetics or esthetics, which deals with the notion of beauty and the philosophy of art.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy

Philosophy can be divided into five branches which address the following questions:

Metaphysics Study of Existence What's out there?
Epistemology Study of Knowledge How do I know about it?
Ethics Study of Action What should I do?
Politics Study of Force What actions are permissible?
Esthetics Study of Art What can life be like?

There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen..

At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence.

Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence.

Dependent on Epistemology is Ethics, the study of how man should act.

Ethics is dependent on Epistemology because it is impossible to make choices without knowledge.

A subset of Ethics is Politics: the study of how men should interact in a proper society and what constitutes proper.

Esthetics, the study of art and sense of life is slightly separate, but depends on Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Ethics.


Mehtuhfizzikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Metaphysics

Written By:

Bruce Withington Wilshire A.C. Grayling William Henry Walsh

Metaphysics, the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of things—to determine the meaning, structure, and principles of whatever is insofar as it is. Although this study is popularly conceived as referring to anything excessively subtle and highly theoretical and although it has been subjected to many criticisms, it is presented by metaphysicians as the most fundamental and most comprehensive of inquiries, inasmuch as it is concerned with reality as a whole.

Nature and scope of metaphysics
Origin of the term

Etymologically the term metaphysics is unenlightening. It means “what comes after physics”; it was the phrase used by early students of Aristotle to refer to the contents of Aristotle’s treatise on what he himself called “first philosophy,” and was used as the title of this treatise by Andronicus of Rhodes, one of the first of Aristotle’s editors. Aristotle had distinguished two tasks for the philosopher: first, to investigate the nature and properties of what exists in the natural, or sensible, world, and second, to explore the characteristics of “Being as such” and to inquire into the character of “the substance that is free from movement,” or the most real of all things, the intelligible reality on which everything in the world of nature was thought to be causally dependent. The first constituted “second philosophy” and was carried out primarily in the Aristotelian treatise now known as the Physica; the second, which Aristotle had also referred to as “theology” (because [ Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Shen DeeiTTee ] was the unmoved mover in his system), is roughly the subject matter of his Metaphysica. Modern readers of Aristotle are inclined to take both the Physica and the Metaphysica as philosophical treatises; the distinction their titles suggest between an empirical and a conceptual inquiry has little foundation. Aristotle was not indifferent to factual material either in natural or in metaphysical philosophy, but equally he was not concerned in either case to frame theories for empirical testing. It seems clear, nevertheless, that if the two works had to be distinguished, the Physica would have to be described as the more empirical, just because it deals with things that are objects of the senses, what Aristotle himself called “sensible substance”; the subject matter of the Metaphysica, “that which is eternal, free of movement, and separately existent,” is on any account more [ Abstract ]. It is also evident that the connection marked in the original titles is a genuine one: the inquiries about nature carried out in the Physica lead on naturally to the more fundamental inquiries about Being as such that are taken up in the Metaphysica and indeed go along with the latter to make up a single philosophical discipline.

The background to Aristotle’s divisions is to be found in the thought of Plato, with whom Aristotle had many disagreements but whose basic ideas provided a framework within which much of his own thinking was conducted. Plato, following the early Greek philosopher Parmenides, who is known as the father of metaphysics, had sought to distinguish opinion, or belief, from knowledge and to assign distinct objects to each. Opinion, for Plato, was a form of apprehension that was shifting and unclear, similar to seeing things in a dream or only through their shadows; its objects were correspondingly unstable. Knowledge, by contrast, was wholly lucid; it carried its own guarantee against error, and the objects with which it was concerned were eternally what they were, and so were exempt from change and the deceptive power to appear to be what they were not. Plato called the objects of opinion phenomena, or appearances; he referred to the objects of knowledge as noumena (objects of the intelligence) or quite simply as realities. Much of the burden of his philosophical message was to call men’s attentions to these contrasts and to impress them with the necessity to turn away from concern with mere phenomena to the investigation of true reality. The education of the Platonic philosopher consisted precisely in effecting this transition: he was taught to recognize the contradictions involved in appearances and to fix his gaze on the realities that lay behind them, the realities that Plato himself called Forms, or Ideas. Philosophy for Plato was thus a call to recognize the existence and overwhelming importance of a set of higher realities that ordinary men—even those, like the Sophists of the time, who professed to be enlightened—entirely ignored. That there were such realities, or at least that there was a serious case for thinking that there were, was a fundamental tenet in the discipline that later became known as metaphysics. Conversely, much of the subsequent controversy about the very possibility of metaphysics has turned on the acceptability of this tenet and on whether, if it is rejected, some alternative foundation can be discovered on which the metaphysician can stand.

Tu Reed Thuh Reeemayndr Uhv Thuh Ahrtikkul, Klik:
https://www.britannica.com/topic/metaphysics

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Mehtuhfizzikss ".


Eepistehmolluhjee

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

First published Wed Dec 14, 2005

Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits? As the study of justified belief, epistemology aims to answer questions such as: How we are to understand the concept of justification? What makes justified beliefs justified? Is justification internal or external to one's own mind? Understood more broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. This article will provide a systematic overview of the problems that the questions above raise and focus in some depth on issues relating to the structure and the limits of knowledge and justification.

1. What is Knowledge?

1.1 Knowledge as Justified True Belief

There are various kinds of knowledge: knowing how to do something (for example, how to ride a bicycle), knowing someone in person, and knowing a place or a city. Although such knowledge is of epistemological interest as well, we shall focus on knowledge of propositions and refer to such knowledge using the schema ‘S knows that p’, where ‘S’ stands for the subject who has knowledge and ‘p’ for the proposition that is known.[1] Our question will be: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for S to know that p? We may distinguish, broadly, between a traditional and a non-traditional approach to answering this question. We shall refer to them as ‘TK’ and ‘NTK’.

According to TK, knowledge that p is, at least approximately, justified true belief (JTB). False propositions cannot be known. Therefore, knowledge requires truth. A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows. Therefore, knowledge requires belief. Finally, S's being correct in believing that p might merely be a matter of luck.[2] Therefore, knowledge requires a third element, traditionally identified as justification. Thus we arrive at a tripartite analysis of knowledge as JTB: S knows that p if and only if p is true and S is justified in believing that p. According to this analysis, the three conditions — truth, belief, and justification — are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.[3]

Initially, we may say that the role of justification is to ensure that S's belief is not true merely because of luck. On that, TK and NTK are in agreement. They diverge, however, as soon as we proceed to be more specific about exactly how justification is to fulfill this role. According to TK, S's belief that p is true not merely because of luck when it is reasonable or rational, from S's own point of view, to take p to be true. According to evidentialism, what makes a belief justified in this sense is the possession of evidence. The basic idea is that a belief is justified to the degree it fits S's evidence. NTK, on the other hand, conceives of the role of justification differently. Its job is to ensure that S's belief has a high objective probability of truth and therefore, if true, is not true merely because of luck. One prominent idea is that this is accomplished if, and only if, a belief originates in reliable cognitive processes or faculties. This view is known as reliabilism.

Tu Reed Full Ahrtikkul, Klik:

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Eepistehmolluhjee ".


Lojjik

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Logic
Written By:

Jaakko J. Hintikka

Last Updated: May 21, 2019

Logic [ Iz ] the study of correct reasoning, especially as it involves the drawing of inferences…

Scope and basic concepts

An inference is a rule-governed step from one or more propositions, called premises, to a new proposition, usually called the conclusion. A rule of inference is said to be truth-preserving if the conclusion derived from the application of the rule is true whenever the premises are true. Inferences based on truth-preserving rules are called deductive, and the study of such inferences is known as deductive logic. An inference rule is said to be valid, or deductively valid, if it is necessarily truth-preserving. That is, in any conceivable case in which the premises are true, the conclusion yielded by the inference rule will also be true. Inferences based on valid inference rules are also said to be valid.

Logic in a narrow sense is equivalent to deductive logic. By definition, such reasoning cannot produce any information (in the form of a conclusion) that is not already contained in the premises. In a wider sense, which is close to ordinary usage, logic also includes the study of inferences that may produce conclusions that contain genuinely new information. Such inferences are called ampliative or inductive, and their formal study is known as inductive logic.

Tu Reed Thuh Reemaeendr Uhv This Ahrtikkul, Klik:

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Lojjik ".


Ethics

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

History and Etymology for ethic

Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin ethice, from Greek ēthikē, from ēthikos

Definition of ethic

1 ethics plural in form but singular or plural in construction : the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation

2a : a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values
—often used in plural but singular or plural in construction

b : ethics plural in form but singular or plural in construction : the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group
: a guiding philosophy

d : a consciousness of moral importance

3 : ethics plural : a set of moral issues or aspects (such as rightness)

Ethics vs Morals: Is there a difference?

Ethics and morals are both used in the plural and are often regarded as synonyms, but there is some distinction in how they are used.

Morals often describes one's particular values concerning what is right and what is wrong:

While ethics can refer broadly to moral principles, one often sees it applied to questions of correct behavior within a relatively narrow area of activity:

In addition, morals usually connotes an element of subjective preference, while ethics tends to suggest aspects of universal fairness and the question of whether or not an action is responsible:


Ethics Uhv Self Deefenss

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Self-defense as an ethical ideal

The pacifist dilemma is that non-violence leaves us, as individuals and communities, subject to oppression. One of the favoured examples against non-violence is that Ghandi’s ahimsa only worked because the British were not truly bad people. Ahimsa would never have succeeded against a more brutal regime like that of Nazi Germany. From a spiritual perspective, ahimsa is not about what ‘works’; arguing that non-violence ‘works’ or ‘doesn’t work’ presumes non-violence is about ‘working’, which it is not. Pacifists are generally resolved to embrace the bitter consequences of their philosophy, harbouring no illusions that their path can be both moral and utilitarian.

True pacifists deserve respect, but there is nonetheless a perfectly reasonable ethical distinction to be made between violence and self-defense. If my life and my health are good for me, then I have a right to enjoy these goods. Accordingly, no individual may have a countervailing right to harm these goods or take them away. Unjustified aggression is therefore ethically illegitimate, and the target of that aggression is right to defend against it, to protect their own life and the lives of others.

In defending against unjustified aggression, the target of our defensive actions is not the person, the aggressor, himself. Rather, our aim is the act of aggression, the violence. Hence a legitimate use of defensive force must be constrained by these ethical limits:

– it must be proportional to the threat.

A sense of threat is always somewhat subjective, but in ethics as in law, there is a ‘reasonable person test’ by which defensive actions will be judged. If someone shoves you at a party, it is not – all things being equal – proportional to hit him with a bar stool.

– any injury caused must be an unintended side-effect of self-defense.

In order to stop someone from hurting you or another innocent person, an appropriate use of defensive force may result in injuries to the aggressor. These injuries, though foreseeable, are considered ethically acceptable so long as one’s overriding intention is to defend, not to injure. In medical ethics this is known as the principle of double-effect, the recognition that good actions sometimes have foreseeable yet unintended negative effects.

Some people see self-defense as an excuse for violent retaliation, an opportunity to injure others with moral impunity. This is not true self-defense. If we do not abide by the principles of self-defense, we cannot walk away from a violent confrontation with a clear conscience.

At the same time there is something elegant about this view of self-defense: in merely defending the sphere of your own life and rights, it is the aggressor who bears moral responsibility for the harm and injuries that befall him as a result of his own violent intentions.


[[include Ahkeedoh]]


[[include Justiffyubul-Hommissyd]]



Pure JusT WarrenTs For Searches And ArresTs

Peeuur JusT WohrehnTs Fohr Srch AkTs And UhrehsTs

RTh SiTTizzen RyT 12: Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure;

ReekwyrmehnT Uhv WohrehnTs Fohr Srch AkTs And UhrehsTs.

Thehr Ahr SimpLee Now 2 Lrnd JusT Reezuhnz Fohr Uh Srch WohrehnT.

1: If { Ther Wuhz Uh SeLf giltee Uhv AkTeeng OwT Uh Kung Fu FyT Skill Typ Deskrybd Az uhtak With Wuhn wehpuhn tuul Ohr mohr than wuhn wehpuhn tuulz that myt ( hahrm = ( { injur ( Uh Lyv BeesT ohr Human WiTH Wrkeeng Nrvz ) } ohr|and { dammejyz ( Uh Muhsheen WiTh Wrkeeng EeLekTronniks ) } leeveeng uh ( hahrmd = ( injurd wuund ohr damajd damaj ) ) that kozd Less Fuhngkshuhn Uhv ThaT Wrkeeng Tek } ThaT Wuhz Pruuvd By ( FohToh Ohr|And Vid Ohr|And [ Uh hahrmd VikTim'z Reekohrded STaeeTmenT ] Ohr|And [ Uh WiTness'z Reekohrded STaeeTmenT ] ) Ehvihdehnss Pruuveeng ThaT an ObjekTiv hahrm uhsult vyohlaeeshuhn krym uhkrd } Then ThaT krym Ehvihdehnss Shood GeT Eeuuzd Az Baeesis Fohr Uh ** WohrehnT Fohr JusT Seezhur Uhv [ Eech And Ehvree ] hahrm uhsult wehpuhn Uhv Thuh spehsiffik [ typ ohr typs ] pruuvd tu hav got eewzd tu kuhmit thuh hahrm uhsult krym**.

2: If Ther Iz A Self Huu Iz InnuhsenT Uhv hahrm-wehpuhn-uhsult with ThaT SehLf's JusTLee Uhkwyrd Tu Ohn ProppurTee Wich got unreezuhnuhbullee ahrbitrehrihlee theft seezd Then ThaT theft rongd InnuhsenT SeLF MyT LisT [ Eech And Ehvree ] theft stohld AeeTem And SpehsihfihkuLLee How ThaT AeeTem Wuhz JusTLee Uhkwyred, PreefurruhbLee WiTh uh ReeseeT. THaT JusT[[Lee]]] Uhkwyrd LisT ReepohrT Shood GeT InvesTihgaeeTed Tu Vehrihfy THuh Degree Uhv ITs VaLLihdihTee Then Tu Thuh Degree VaLidaeeTed Eeuuzd Az Thuh Baeesis Fohr Thuh Ishuuanss Uhv Uh WohrehnT Fohr Reezuhnd JusT Seezhur Uhv ThefT STohL ProprTee

Ther Ahr Now 2 Lrnd JusT Reezuhnz Fohr An UhrehsT WohrehnT:

1: Thuh FrsT Iz Tu Az Suun Az PossihbuL STop Uhv hahrm uhsult vyohlaeeshuhn krym And Therby PreevenT Thuh kuhnTihnuueeng uhv hahrm uhsult krym akts;
2:0: Thuh Sehkuhnd Iz If Wen ( { uh pland mrdr } ohr {multi pland mrdrz } ) haz uhkrd Then Shood InvesTihgaeeshuhn Syenss Branch Kyndz Deskrybd Az DeeTekTiv Fohrenzikss PrakTiss AkTss Uhkr ReezuLTeeng WiTh HohpfuLLee UhresTeeng { theft and|ohr uhsuLt and|ohr raeep and|or mrdr } suspektss.


[[Include DeeTekTiv-fohrenzikss]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Ethics ".


Pollittikss


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is Politics?

Politics is ethics applied to a group of people.

Why is this Impohrtant?

Politics tells you how a society must be set up and how one should act within a society. Except for hermits, this comes up a lot.

What is a rational Politics?

The requirement for a political system is that the individuals within that system are allowed to fully function according to their nature. If that's not the case, they will either rebel, as in Czarist Russia, or the system will eventually collapse, as in Communist Russia.

Reason is man's prime means of survival. A human being can not survive in an environment where reason is ineffective, and will thrive or starve to a degree in proportion to the effectiveness of reason. This means that the prime goal of a political system must be the preservation and enabling of the faculty of reason.

Reason does not function under coercion. A man can be forced to act at the point of a gun, but he can not be forced to think. Likewise, in an environment where might makes right, reason can not function because the fruits of rationality can not be enjoyed. Why plant crops and domesticate animals if any raider can come by and take them from you?

A moral political system must ban coercion. Or put another way, a moral political system must ban the initiation of force, since retaliatory force is both just and necessary. This means there must be some way to keep one person from killing, threatening, or robbing another. This is accomplished by bestowing on government a monopoly on retaliatory force and objectifying laws.

Basics

Rights

Right To Life

Right To Liberty

Right to Property

Right to the Pursuit of Happiness

Right to Free Speech

RyT Tu Kom No Ohr Sinuhnem And GeT ReespekTed

Right to Self Defense

Right to Bear Arms


Necessity of Government

Proper Role of Government

Laissez Faire Capitalism

[[Include Just-taxation]]

Fohr Leengks Tu Thuh Nekst Toppikss See:

Law

Rule of Law

Lah Syz Ohmz

Constitution

Separation of Powers

Checks and Balances

Federalism

Trial by Jury

Voting

Technicalities

Capitalism

Financing a Government

The Death Penalty


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Pollittikss ".


Baeest Fruhm https://www.howtopronounce.com/aesthetics/

Asthettikss


Ettimmolluhjee Uhv Asthettikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

aesthetics (n.)

1803, from aesthetic (adj.); also see suffix-ics.


[[include aesthetic]]


[[include suhfiks-ikss]]


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Aesthetics and Esthetics

January 15, 2012 Posted by Olivia

Aesthetics vs Esthetics

Aesthetics is often confused with esthetics, which has almost identical meaning and used in some parts of the world. Whenever a critical appraisal of objects in the realm of art, culture and nature is done, words like aesthetics and esthetics come into play…

Aesthetics…

Aesthetics is a word that is commonly used to describe the outer appearance of an object, person, or an idea. It is talked about the sense of beauty and taste… If there is something that is artistic or looks appealing to our senses, we are quick to use the word aesthetic that concerns itself with outer beauty or appearance, and appreciates the beauty of an object or the taste of a person.

Aesthetics is also a field of philosophy that is related with a sense of beauty, especially appreciation of beauty in nature and art. The word has been derived from a Greek word Aisthetikos, which means ‘sensory’ or ‘sensitive.’ The word is used to describe a sense of beauty by most of the Europeans and the entire commonwealth.


[[include Esthetics]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Asthettikss ".




Fohrmul Syenss


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Kwohted Durreeng 1 June 2019 Fruhm:

Formal Science

Formal sciences are formal language disciplines concerned with formal systems

The formal sciences are language tools concerned with characterizing abstract structures described by symbolic systems.

The formal sciences aid the natural and social sciences by providing information about the structures the latter use to describe the world, and what inferences may be made about them.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Kwohted Durreeng 1 June 2019 Fruhm:

Formal Systems

Formal Systems play an important role in computer science, linguisitics, and logic. What are they? …

A formal system consists of a language over some alphabet of symbols together with (axioms and inference rules) that distinguish some of the strings in the language as theorems…

Components of a Formal System

A formal system has the following components:

  • A finite alphabet of symbols. The alphabet must be finite because if it were not, each symbol could stand for any thought and so what kind of a model would that be? There would be no need to "process" anything. Furthermore, we are finite beings and let's keep in mind what we are trying to model.
  • A syntax that defines which strings of symbol are in the language of our formal system.
  • A decidable set of axioms and a finite set of rules from which the set of theorems of the system is generated. The rules must take a finite number of steps to apply.

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Each formal system uses primitive symbols (which collectively form an alphabet) to finitely construct a formal language from a set of axioms through inferential rules of formation.

The system thus consists of valid formulas built up through finite combinations of the primitive symbols—combinations that are formed from the axioms in accordance with the stated rules.[3]

More formally, this can be expressed as the following:

1: A finite set of symbols, known as the alphabet, which concatenate formulas, so that a formula is just a finite string of symbols taken from the alphabet.
2: A grammar consisting of rules to form formulas from simpler formulas. A formula is said to be well-formed if it can be formed using the rules of the formal grammar. It is often required that there be a decision procedure for deciding whether a formula is well-formed.
3: A set of axioms, or axiom schemata, consisting of well-formed formulas.
4: A set of inference rules. A well-formed formula that can be inferred from the axioms is known as a theorem of the formal system.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Each formal system has a formal language composed of primitive symbols acted on by certain rules of formation (statements concerning the symbols, functions, and sentences allowable in the system) and developed by inference from a set of axioms. The system thus consists of any number of formulas built up through finite combinations of the primitive symbols—combinations that are formed from the axioms in accordance with the stated rules….

From the primitive symbols, certain formulas are defined as well formed, some of which are listed as axioms; and rules are stated for inferring one formula as a conclusion from one or more other formulas taken as premises.

A theorem within such a system is a formula capable of proof through a finite sequence of well-formed formulas, each of which either is an axiom or is inferred from earlier formulas.

A formal system that is treated apart from intended interpretation is a mathematical construct and is more properly called logical calculus; this kind of formulation deals rather with validity and satisfiability than with truth or falsity, which are at the root of formal systems.

In general, then, a formal system provides an ideal language by means of which to abstract and analyze the deductive structure of thought apart from specific meanings. Together with the concept of a model, such systems have formed the basis for a rapidly expanding inquiry into the foundations of mathematics and of other deductive sciences and have even been used to a limited extent in analyzing the empirical sciences.


Included page "fohrmul-syenss-branch-kyndz" does not exist (create it now)


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

1 Branches of formal science
1.1 Logic
1.2 Mathematics
1.3 Statistics
1.4 Systems science
1.5 Computer science


Fillossuhfee Izm


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

philosophy (n.)

Meaning "system a person forms for conduct of life" is attested from 1771…

c. 1300, "knowledge, body of knowledge,"…

(12c., Modern French philosophie)…

from Old French filosofie "philosophy, knowledge"…

directly from Latin philosophia

and from Greek philosophia "love of knowledge, pursuit of wisdom; systematic investigation,"

from philo- "loving" (see philo-) + sophia "knowledge, wisdom," from sophis "wise, learned;" of unknown origin.


Fillossuhfee Main Branchez


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Traditional…Five…Main Branches [Uhv] Philosophy

Traditionally, there are five main branches of philosophy.

They are:

Metaphysics, which deals with the fundamental questions of reality.
Epistemology, which deals with our concept of knowledge, how we learn and what we can know.
Logic, which studies the rules of valid reasoning and argumentation
Ethics, or moral philosophy, which is concerned with human values and how individuals should act.
Aesthetics or esthetics, which deals with the notion of beauty and the philosophy of art.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Introduction to the Five Branches of Philosophy

Philosophy can be divided into five branches which address the following questions:

Metaphysics Study of Existence What's out there?
Epistemology Study of Knowledge How do I know about it?
Ethics Study of Action What should I do?
Politics Study of Force What actions are permissible?
Esthetics Study of Art What can life be like?

There is a hierarchical relationship between these branches as can be seen..

At the root is Metaphysics, the study of existence and the nature of existence.

Closely related is Epistemology, the study of knowledge and how we know about reality and existence.

Dependent on Epistemology is Ethics, the study of how man should act.

Ethics is dependent on Epistemology because it is impossible to make choices without knowledge.

A subset of Ethics is Politics: the study of how men should interact in a proper society and what constitutes proper.

Esthetics, the study of art and sense of life is slightly separate, but depends on Metaphysics, Epistemology, and Ethics.


Mehtuhfizzikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Metaphysics

Written By:

Bruce Withington Wilshire A.C. Grayling William Henry Walsh

Metaphysics, the philosophical study whose object is to determine the real nature of things—to determine the meaning, structure, and principles of whatever is insofar as it is. Although this study is popularly conceived as referring to anything excessively subtle and highly theoretical and although it has been subjected to many criticisms, it is presented by metaphysicians as the most fundamental and most comprehensive of inquiries, inasmuch as it is concerned with reality as a whole.

Nature and scope of metaphysics
Origin of the term

Etymologically the term metaphysics is unenlightening. It means “what comes after physics”; it was the phrase used by early students of Aristotle to refer to the contents of Aristotle’s treatise on what he himself called “first philosophy,” and was used as the title of this treatise by Andronicus of Rhodes, one of the first of Aristotle’s editors. Aristotle had distinguished two tasks for the philosopher: first, to investigate the nature and properties of what exists in the natural, or sensible, world, and second, to explore the characteristics of “Being as such” and to inquire into the character of “the substance that is free from movement,” or the most real of all things, the intelligible reality on which everything in the world of nature was thought to be causally dependent. The first constituted “second philosophy” and was carried out primarily in the Aristotelian treatise now known as the Physica; the second, which Aristotle had also referred to as “theology” (because [ Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Shen DeeiTTee ] was the unmoved mover in his system), is roughly the subject matter of his Metaphysica. Modern readers of Aristotle are inclined to take both the Physica and the Metaphysica as philosophical treatises; the distinction their titles suggest between an empirical and a conceptual inquiry has little foundation. Aristotle was not indifferent to factual material either in natural or in metaphysical philosophy, but equally he was not concerned in either case to frame theories for empirical testing. It seems clear, nevertheless, that if the two works had to be distinguished, the Physica would have to be described as the more empirical, just because it deals with things that are objects of the senses, what Aristotle himself called “sensible substance”; the subject matter of the Metaphysica, “that which is eternal, free of movement, and separately existent,” is on any account more [ Abstract ]. It is also evident that the connection marked in the original titles is a genuine one: the inquiries about nature carried out in the Physica lead on naturally to the more fundamental inquiries about Being as such that are taken up in the Metaphysica and indeed go along with the latter to make up a single philosophical discipline.

The background to Aristotle’s divisions is to be found in the thought of Plato, with whom Aristotle had many disagreements but whose basic ideas provided a framework within which much of his own thinking was conducted. Plato, following the early Greek philosopher Parmenides, who is known as the father of metaphysics, had sought to distinguish opinion, or belief, from knowledge and to assign distinct objects to each. Opinion, for Plato, was a form of apprehension that was shifting and unclear, similar to seeing things in a dream or only through their shadows; its objects were correspondingly unstable. Knowledge, by contrast, was wholly lucid; it carried its own guarantee against error, and the objects with which it was concerned were eternally what they were, and so were exempt from change and the deceptive power to appear to be what they were not. Plato called the objects of opinion phenomena, or appearances; he referred to the objects of knowledge as noumena (objects of the intelligence) or quite simply as realities. Much of the burden of his philosophical message was to call men’s attentions to these contrasts and to impress them with the necessity to turn away from concern with mere phenomena to the investigation of true reality. The education of the Platonic philosopher consisted precisely in effecting this transition: he was taught to recognize the contradictions involved in appearances and to fix his gaze on the realities that lay behind them, the realities that Plato himself called Forms, or Ideas. Philosophy for Plato was thus a call to recognize the existence and overwhelming importance of a set of higher realities that ordinary men—even those, like the Sophists of the time, who professed to be enlightened—entirely ignored. That there were such realities, or at least that there was a serious case for thinking that there were, was a fundamental tenet in the discipline that later became known as metaphysics. Conversely, much of the subsequent controversy about the very possibility of metaphysics has turned on the acceptability of this tenet and on whether, if it is rejected, some alternative foundation can be discovered on which the metaphysician can stand.

Tu Reed Thuh Reeemayndr Uhv Thuh Ahrtikkul, Klik:
https://www.britannica.com/topic/metaphysics

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Mehtuhfizzikss ".


Eepistehmolluhjee

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

First published Wed Dec 14, 2005

Defined narrowly, epistemology is the study of knowledge and justified belief. As the study of knowledge, epistemology is concerned with the following questions: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions of knowledge? What are its sources? What is its structure, and what are its limits? As the study of justified belief, epistemology aims to answer questions such as: How we are to understand the concept of justification? What makes justified beliefs justified? Is justification internal or external to one's own mind? Understood more broadly, epistemology is about issues having to do with the creation and dissemination of knowledge in particular areas of inquiry. This article will provide a systematic overview of the problems that the questions above raise and focus in some depth on issues relating to the structure and the limits of knowledge and justification.

1. What is Knowledge?

1.1 Knowledge as Justified True Belief

There are various kinds of knowledge: knowing how to do something (for example, how to ride a bicycle), knowing someone in person, and knowing a place or a city. Although such knowledge is of epistemological interest as well, we shall focus on knowledge of propositions and refer to such knowledge using the schema ‘S knows that p’, where ‘S’ stands for the subject who has knowledge and ‘p’ for the proposition that is known.[1] Our question will be: What are the necessary and sufficient conditions for S to know that p? We may distinguish, broadly, between a traditional and a non-traditional approach to answering this question. We shall refer to them as ‘TK’ and ‘NTK’.

According to TK, knowledge that p is, at least approximately, justified true belief (JTB). False propositions cannot be known. Therefore, knowledge requires truth. A proposition S doesn't even believe can't be a proposition that S knows. Therefore, knowledge requires belief. Finally, S's being correct in believing that p might merely be a matter of luck.[2] Therefore, knowledge requires a third element, traditionally identified as justification. Thus we arrive at a tripartite analysis of knowledge as JTB: S knows that p if and only if p is true and S is justified in believing that p. According to this analysis, the three conditions — truth, belief, and justification — are individually necessary and jointly sufficient for knowledge.[3]

Initially, we may say that the role of justification is to ensure that S's belief is not true merely because of luck. On that, TK and NTK are in agreement. They diverge, however, as soon as we proceed to be more specific about exactly how justification is to fulfill this role. According to TK, S's belief that p is true not merely because of luck when it is reasonable or rational, from S's own point of view, to take p to be true. According to evidentialism, what makes a belief justified in this sense is the possession of evidence. The basic idea is that a belief is justified to the degree it fits S's evidence. NTK, on the other hand, conceives of the role of justification differently. Its job is to ensure that S's belief has a high objective probability of truth and therefore, if true, is not true merely because of luck. One prominent idea is that this is accomplished if, and only if, a belief originates in reliable cognitive processes or faculties. This view is known as reliabilism.

Tu Reed Full Ahrtikkul, Klik:

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Eepistehmolluhjee ".


Lojjik

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Logic
Written By:

Jaakko J. Hintikka

Last Updated: May 21, 2019

Logic [ Iz ] the study of correct reasoning, especially as it involves the drawing of inferences…

Scope and basic concepts

An inference is a rule-governed step from one or more propositions, called premises, to a new proposition, usually called the conclusion. A rule of inference is said to be truth-preserving if the conclusion derived from the application of the rule is true whenever the premises are true. Inferences based on truth-preserving rules are called deductive, and the study of such inferences is known as deductive logic. An inference rule is said to be valid, or deductively valid, if it is necessarily truth-preserving. That is, in any conceivable case in which the premises are true, the conclusion yielded by the inference rule will also be true. Inferences based on valid inference rules are also said to be valid.

Logic in a narrow sense is equivalent to deductive logic. By definition, such reasoning cannot produce any information (in the form of a conclusion) that is not already contained in the premises. In a wider sense, which is close to ordinary usage, logic also includes the study of inferences that may produce conclusions that contain genuinely new information. Such inferences are called ampliative or inductive, and their formal study is known as inductive logic.

Tu Reed Thuh Reemaeendr Uhv This Ahrtikkul, Klik:

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Lojjik ".


Ethics

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

History and Etymology for ethic

Middle English ethik, from Middle French ethique, from Latin ethice, from Greek ēthikē, from ēthikos

Definition of ethic

1 ethics plural in form but singular or plural in construction : the discipline dealing with what is good and bad and with moral duty and obligation

2a : a set of moral principles : a theory or system of moral values
—often used in plural but singular or plural in construction

b : ethics plural in form but singular or plural in construction : the principles of conduct governing an individual or a group
: a guiding philosophy

d : a consciousness of moral importance

3 : ethics plural : a set of moral issues or aspects (such as rightness)

Ethics vs Morals: Is there a difference?

Ethics and morals are both used in the plural and are often regarded as synonyms, but there is some distinction in how they are used.

Morals often describes one's particular values concerning what is right and what is wrong:

While ethics can refer broadly to moral principles, one often sees it applied to questions of correct behavior within a relatively narrow area of activity:

In addition, morals usually connotes an element of subjective preference, while ethics tends to suggest aspects of universal fairness and the question of whether or not an action is responsible:


Ethics Uhv Self Deefenss

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Self-defense as an ethical ideal

The pacifist dilemma is that non-violence leaves us, as individuals and communities, subject to oppression. One of the favoured examples against non-violence is that Ghandi’s ahimsa only worked because the British were not truly bad people. Ahimsa would never have succeeded against a more brutal regime like that of Nazi Germany. From a spiritual perspective, ahimsa is not about what ‘works’; arguing that non-violence ‘works’ or ‘doesn’t work’ presumes non-violence is about ‘working’, which it is not. Pacifists are generally resolved to embrace the bitter consequences of their philosophy, harbouring no illusions that their path can be both moral and utilitarian.

True pacifists deserve respect, but there is nonetheless a perfectly reasonable ethical distinction to be made between violence and self-defense. If my life and my health are good for me, then I have a right to enjoy these goods. Accordingly, no individual may have a countervailing right to harm these goods or take them away. Unjustified aggression is therefore ethically illegitimate, and the target of that aggression is right to defend against it, to protect their own life and the lives of others.

In defending against unjustified aggression, the target of our defensive actions is not the person, the aggressor, himself. Rather, our aim is the act of aggression, the violence. Hence a legitimate use of defensive force must be constrained by these ethical limits:

– it must be proportional to the threat.

A sense of threat is always somewhat subjective, but in ethics as in law, there is a ‘reasonable person test’ by which defensive actions will be judged. If someone shoves you at a party, it is not – all things being equal – proportional to hit him with a bar stool.

– any injury caused must be an unintended side-effect of self-defense.

In order to stop someone from hurting you or another innocent person, an appropriate use of defensive force may result in injuries to the aggressor. These injuries, though foreseeable, are considered ethically acceptable so long as one’s overriding intention is to defend, not to injure. In medical ethics this is known as the principle of double-effect, the recognition that good actions sometimes have foreseeable yet unintended negative effects.

Some people see self-defense as an excuse for violent retaliation, an opportunity to injure others with moral impunity. This is not true self-defense. If we do not abide by the principles of self-defense, we cannot walk away from a violent confrontation with a clear conscience.

At the same time there is something elegant about this view of self-defense: in merely defending the sphere of your own life and rights, it is the aggressor who bears moral responsibility for the harm and injuries that befall him as a result of his own violent intentions.


Ŏēkēdō Ĭz Wĭθ Ēŋgliʃ LĭsT Ŭv JŭsT Wŭn Ĉŏr Fōr Ēĉ Wŭn Spēĉ Săōnd

* Ănd Ahkeedoh Ĭz Wĭθ FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

The word "aikido" is formed of three kanji:

– ai – joining, unifying, combining, fitting
– ki – spirit, energy, mood, morale
– dō – way, path


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

What is Aikido?

Aikido is a powerful martial art developed throughout the mid 20th century by a Japanese named Morihei Ueshiba.

Aikido differs from most other martial arts in that the practitioner seeks to achieve self-defense without injury to attackers.

Furthermore, there are no competitions or tournaments in Aikido. Therefore, Aikido is non-competitive…

Instead of using potentially crippling kicks or punches, the Aikido student trains to apply various wristlocks, arm pins, or unbalancing throws to neutralize aggressors without injury.

Aikido is a 100% defensive martial art.

The so-called "attacks" taught in Aikido are merely for purposes of learning to defend against those attacks rather than for the purpose of injuring an opponent.


Thuh Mōst Kümmpăshŭnnĕt Străttĕjjē Uhv FyTeeng Iz ( Ŏ-ēēkēēdō = Ahkeedoh = [[[Aikidp]] ) Jĕntül Sĕlf Dēfĕnss ĂttĭTTūd Ănd Sĭstĕm Wĭĉ Myt Ĭnklūd Thŭ Tēchēngz:

1: Try Tū Nŏn-kŏz Sŭfrēēng Tu Ĕnnēē Ŭttăkr.

2: Prĕf Tū Flēē Ðăn Tū Fyt.

3: Prĕf Tū Dŏj Ðăn Tū Blŏk.

4: Prĕf Tū Blŏk Ðăn Tū ŬTTăk.


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd Ahkeedoh.


Justiffyubul Hommissyd


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Justifiable_homicide

The concept of justifiable homicide in criminal law is a defense to culpable homicide (criminal or negligent homicide), and requires exculpatory evidence in the legal defense of justification. In most countries, a homicide is justified when there is sufficient evidence to prove beyond a reasonable doubt that it was reasonable for the subject to believe that there was an imminent and otherwise unavoidable danger of death or grave bodily harm to the innocent. A homicide in this instance is blameless[1] and distinct from the less stringent criteria authorizing deadly force in stand your ground rulings.


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

RCWs > Title 9A > Chapter 9A.16 > Section 9A.16.050

RCW 9A.16.050: Homicide—By other person—When justifiable.

Homicide is also justifiable when committed either:

(1) In the lawful defense of the slayer, or his or her husband, wife, parent, child, brother, or sister, or of any other person in his or her presence or company, when there is reasonable ground to apprehend a design on the part of the person slain to commit a felony or to do some great personal injury to the slayer or to any such person, and there is imminent danger of such design being accomplished; or

(2) In the actual resistance of an attempt to commit a felony upon the slayer, in his or her presence, or upon or in a dwelling, or other place of abode, in which he or she is.


[[include fehluhnee]]


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd Justiffyubul Hommissyd.



Pure JusT WarrenTs For Searches And ArresTs

Peeuur JusT WohrehnTs Fohr Srch AkTs And UhrehsTs

RTh SiTTizzen RyT 12: Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure;

ReekwyrmehnT Uhv WohrehnTs Fohr Srch AkTs And UhrehsTs.

Thehr Ahr SimpLee Now 2 Lrnd JusT Reezuhnz Fohr Uh Srch WohrehnT.

1: If { Ther Wuhz Uh SeLf giltee Uhv AkTeeng OwT Uh Kung Fu FyT Skill Typ Deskrybd Az uhtak With Wuhn wehpuhn tuul Ohr mohr than wuhn wehpuhn tuulz that myt ( hahrm = ( { injur ( Uh Lyv BeesT ohr Human WiTH Wrkeeng Nrvz ) } ohr|and { dammejyz ( Uh Muhsheen WiTh Wrkeeng EeLekTronniks ) } leeveeng uh ( hahrmd = ( injurd wuund ohr damajd damaj ) ) that kozd Less Fuhngkshuhn Uhv ThaT Wrkeeng Tek } ThaT Wuhz Pruuvd By ( FohToh Ohr|And Vid Ohr|And [ Uh hahrmd VikTim'z Reekohrded STaeeTmenT ] Ohr|And [ Uh WiTness'z Reekohrded STaeeTmenT ] ) Ehvihdehnss Pruuveeng ThaT an ObjekTiv hahrm uhsult vyohlaeeshuhn krym uhkrd } Then ThaT krym Ehvihdehnss Shood GeT Eeuuzd Az Baeesis Fohr Uh ** WohrehnT Fohr JusT Seezhur Uhv [ Eech And Ehvree ] hahrm uhsult wehpuhn Uhv Thuh spehsiffik [ typ ohr typs ] pruuvd tu hav got eewzd tu kuhmit thuh hahrm uhsult krym**.

2: If Ther Iz A Self Huu Iz InnuhsenT Uhv hahrm-wehpuhn-uhsult with ThaT SehLf's JusTLee Uhkwyrd Tu Ohn ProppurTee Wich got unreezuhnuhbullee ahrbitrehrihlee theft seezd Then ThaT theft rongd InnuhsenT SeLF MyT LisT [ Eech And Ehvree ] theft stohld AeeTem And SpehsihfihkuLLee How ThaT AeeTem Wuhz JusTLee Uhkwyred, PreefurruhbLee WiTh uh ReeseeT. THaT JusT[[Lee]]] Uhkwyrd LisT ReepohrT Shood GeT InvesTihgaeeTed Tu Vehrihfy THuh Degree Uhv ITs VaLLihdihTee Then Tu Thuh Degree VaLidaeeTed Eeuuzd Az Thuh Baeesis Fohr Thuh Ishuuanss Uhv Uh WohrehnT Fohr Reezuhnd JusT Seezhur Uhv ThefT STohL ProprTee

Ther Ahr Now 2 Lrnd JusT Reezuhnz Fohr An UhrehsT WohrehnT:

1: Thuh FrsT Iz Tu Az Suun Az PossihbuL STop Uhv hahrm uhsult vyohlaeeshuhn krym And Therby PreevenT Thuh kuhnTihnuueeng uhv hahrm uhsult krym akts;
2:0: Thuh Sehkuhnd Iz If Wen ( { uh pland mrdr } ohr {multi pland mrdrz } ) haz uhkrd Then Shood InvesTihgaeeshuhn Syenss Branch Kyndz Deskrybd Az DeeTekTiv Fohrenzikss PrakTiss AkTss Uhkr ReezuLTeeng WiTh HohpfuLLee UhresTeeng { theft and|ohr uhsuLt and|ohr raeep and|or mrdr } suspektss.


DeeTekTiv Fohrenzikss Branch Kyndz Deskrybd AT https://www.thebalancecareers.com/detective-and-criminal-investigator-job-information-974467 fohr UhresTing { theft and|ohr uhsuLt=assult and|ohr raeep=rape and|ohr mrdr=murder } suspects:

{ theft and|ohr uhsuLt and|ohr raeep and|ohr mrdr } krym PLaeess InvesTihgaeeshuhn

Evidence collection

AhTopsee

WiTness Intrveewz

ReepohrT RyTeeng

Record keeping

Writing probable cause affidavits

Preparing arrest warrants

Courtroom testimony

Preparing and executing search warrants

UhresTeeng ( ThefT and|eethr raeep=rape And|AiThr UhsuLT And|AiThr Mrdr ) SuspekTs

KohrT Fohrenziks TryuL

KohrT Juj Adjuudihkaeeshuhn

KohrT Jurree { DeeLibraeeshuhnz Then KuhnkLuuzhuhnz }

Krym SuhspekT { PeenuLyzd PehnuLTee And|Ohr ReeLeesT }


Krym PehnuLTeez InkLuud:

Ishuu Peeuur JusT WahrenT Tu:

Seez Theef ThefT STohL Suudoh-ProprTee

And|AeeThr Uhsess STohL ProprTee WrTh Az Neg DeT BaLLanss Uhv Nuu DeT UhkownT Uhv Hyrd DeT KohLehkshuhn Aeejehnsee Tu GradjuuaLLee RehgeeuuLrLee KohLehkT DeT PaeemehnTs Tu GeT Fohrwrded Tu STohL Fruhm VikTim.

And|AeeThr Seez Hahrm UhsuLT Wehpuhn Ohr Wehpuhnz

And|AeeThr Koz Eech Pruuvd UhsuLT Ohpressohr And Eech raeep akt vyohlaeetr And Eech KuhnvikTed Mrdrur Tu Bee { Took Tu Then PuT In Then LokT In } JaeeL Fohr:

Pluhs|eethr Uh ShohrT Peereeuhd Fohr Wuhn uhsult beetrayul krym

Pluhs|Eethr a short peereeuhd for 1 raeep krym

Pluhs|eeThr Uh Mohr Long Peereeuhd Fohr muLty-uhsuLt tohrchr Ohpreshuhn beetrayul krym

Pluhs|eeThr Uh KohrT Juj Chohz Peereeuhd fohr kuhvikshuhn uhv wuhn rape akt dehskrybd az: If uh ReejehkTor [Heeuumuhn]]] Duhz kom ( ReejehkTeeng = No Ohr Synuhnym Uhv No Lyk Wuhn Ohr Mohr Uhv Thohz AT https://www.merriam-webster.com/thesaurus/no ) Tu Uh ReejehkTed Sex Fuk AkT By Uh Dif ReejehkT [[Heeuumuhmn]]] Then if that reejekt duz fuk vyohlaeet into that rejekted sex fuk akt tu ThaT ReejehkTohr VikTim human Then that iz sex vyohlaeeshhn rape fuk sex uhbeewss akt beetrayeeng that reelaeeshuhnship.

Pluhs|eeThr a Mohr long peereeuhd for multy-raeep sex vyohlaeeshuhnz

Pluhs|eeThr uh mohr Mohr long peereeuhd for mohr multy-raeep sex vyohlaeeshuhnz

Ohr Fohr Thuh ResT Uhv Thuh LyfTym Fohr A deelihbureht mrdrur konvikt kuhnvikted Uhv less mrdrz Than ( DuhbuL Thuh GLohbuL Nuhmbr Uhv spureeuhss kuhnvikshuhnz uhv wuhn IhnuhsenT SuspekT uhv deeLihbureht mrdr ).

Ohr If Uh DeeLihburehT Mass-Mrdrur KonvikT Wuhz KuhnvikTed Uhv ( duhbul thuh GLohbuL nuhmbr uhv spureeuhss kuhnvikshuhnz uhv wuhn IhnuhsenT SuspekT uhv deeLihburehT mrdr ) then shood issuu uh deth wahrehnt tu koz that duhbuL GLohbuL spureeuhss mass mrdrurz kovikt tu get put in a min kruuehl leethul eeLehktrik chehr that wehn trnd on duz koz min suhfreeng then leest suun deth.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Ethics ".


Pollittikss


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is Politics?

Politics is ethics applied to a group of people.

Why is this Impohrtant?

Politics tells you how a society must be set up and how one should act within a society. Except for hermits, this comes up a lot.

What is a rational Politics?

The requirement for a political system is that the individuals within that system are allowed to fully function according to their nature. If that's not the case, they will either rebel, as in Czarist Russia, or the system will eventually collapse, as in Communist Russia.

Reason is man's prime means of survival. A human being can not survive in an environment where reason is ineffective, and will thrive or starve to a degree in proportion to the effectiveness of reason. This means that the prime goal of a political system must be the preservation and enabling of the faculty of reason.

Reason does not function under coercion. A man can be forced to act at the point of a gun, but he can not be forced to think. Likewise, in an environment where might makes right, reason can not function because the fruits of rationality can not be enjoyed. Why plant crops and domesticate animals if any raider can come by and take them from you?

A moral political system must ban coercion. Or put another way, a moral political system must ban the initiation of force, since retaliatory force is both just and necessary. This means there must be some way to keep one person from killing, threatening, or robbing another. This is accomplished by bestowing on government a monopoly on retaliatory force and objectifying laws.

Basics

Rights

Right To Life

Right To Liberty

Right to Property

Right to the Pursuit of Happiness

Right to Free Speech

RyT Tu Kom No Ohr Sinuhnem And GeT ReespekTed

Right to Self Defense

Right to Bear Arms


Necessity of Government

Proper Role of Government

Laissez Faire Capitalism

Just Taxation

Non-theft sales Tax Iz needed tu pay police tu investigate And Prisons tu prevent And Court Personel tu prosecute and anti-violence psichiatric treatment hospitals tu treat criminal mentality that violates the innocent.

What should get investigated and prosecuted and treated?

1: Mrdr norm miss speld murder
2: Assault
3: sex violation rape
4: theft

See Ahlsoh:

Fohr Leengks Tu Thuh Nekst Toppikss See:

Law

Rule of Law

Lah Syz Ohmz

Constitution

Separation of Powers

Checks and Balances

Federalism

Trial by Jury

Voting

Technicalities

Capitalism

Financing a Government

The Death Penalty


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Pollittikss ".


Baeest Fruhm https://www.howtopronounce.com/aesthetics/

Asthettikss


Ettimmolluhjee Uhv Asthettikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

aesthetics (n.)

1803, from aesthetic (adj.); also see suffix-ics.


[[Include Asthettik]]


Suhfiks Ikss


Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Suhfiks Ikss

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

-ics

in the names of sciences or disciplines (acoustics, aerobics, economics, etc.), a 16c.

revival of the classical custom of using the neuter plural of adjectives with Greek -ikos "pertaining to" (see -ic) to mean "matters relevant to" and also as the titles of treatises about them.

Subject matters that acquired their English names before c. 1500, however, tend to be singular in form (arithmetic, logic, magic, music, rhetoric). The grammatical number of words in -ics (mathematics is/mathematics are) is a confused question.


Dikshuhnehree Deskripshuhnz Uhv Suhfiks Ikss

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

-ics noun suffix, plural in form but singular or plural in construction

[ Dehskripshuhnz ] of -ics

1 : study : knowledge : skill : practice

  • linguistics electronics

2 : characteristic actions or activities

  • acrobatics

3 : characteristic qualities, operations, or phenomena

  • mechanics

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Suhfiks Ikss ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Aesthetics and Esthetics

January 15, 2012 Posted by Olivia

Aesthetics vs Esthetics

Aesthetics is often confused with esthetics, which has almost identical meaning and used in some parts of the world. Whenever a critical appraisal of objects in the realm of art, culture and nature is done, words like aesthetics and esthetics come into play…

Aesthetics…

Aesthetics is a word that is commonly used to describe the outer appearance of an object, person, or an idea. It is talked about the sense of beauty and taste… If there is something that is artistic or looks appealing to our senses, we are quick to use the word aesthetic that concerns itself with outer beauty or appearance, and appreciates the beauty of an object or the taste of a person.

Aesthetics is also a field of philosophy that is related with a sense of beauty, especially appreciation of beauty in nature and art. The word has been derived from a Greek word Aisthetikos, which means ‘sensory’ or ‘sensitive.’ The word is used to describe a sense of beauty by most of the Europeans and the entire commonwealth.


Esthetics

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Aesthetics and Esthetics

January 15, 2012 Posted by Olivia

Esthetics

In American countries, the spelling of aesthetics has been changed in much the same way as has been done for words like color, especially words that contain ae and oe in British English. Thus, aesthetic becomes esthetic that makes more sense for the Americans…

Esthetics is also a word specifically used for the cosmetic industry that is devoted to beauty and appreciation of human beauty. All beauty treatments, which work to make women more appealing and beautiful, classify under esthetics. For example, waxing, shaping of eyebrow, aromatherapy, facial treatments and plastic surgery to improve upon what one has got since birth, all classify under esthetics.


Esthetics Myt Get Deskrybd Az Sumtymz Yuuzd Interchaynjuhblee With Aesthetics.

Thoh Esthetics Iz Nohrm Yuuzd In Kozmehtiks Espeshullee Tu Reefr Tu Admyreeng And Enhanseeng Human Beeuutee.

Thuss, Asthettikss Mezhrz Thuh Beeuutee Uhv Ehnee Theeng And 1'z Senss Uhv Tayst


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Esthetics ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Asthettikss ".




NachruL Syenss



NaturaL

Natural Iz Nature + Suffix-al.


Naeechr Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz
Fohr Nature

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Pronunciation

(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈneɪtʃə/
(General American) IPA(key): /ˈneɪtʃɚ/
(Northern England) IPA(key): /ˈnɛːtʃɐ/

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

OhfishuL ETymoLogy nature (n.)

late 13c., "restorative powers of the body, bodily processes; powers of growth;" from Old French nature "nature, being, principle of life; character, essence," from Latin natura "course of things; natural character, constitution, quality; the universe," literally "birth," from natus "born," past participle of nasci "to be born," from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget."

From late 14c. as "creation, the universe;" also "heredity, birth, hereditary circumstance; essential qualities, innate disposition" (as in human nature); "nature personified, Mother Nature." Specifically as "material world beyond human civilization or society" from 1660s. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since 1874.

Nature should be avoided in such vague expressions as 'a lover of nature,' 'poems about nature.' Unless more specific statements follow, the reader cannot tell whether the poems have to do with natural scenery, rural life, the sunset, the untouched wilderness, or the habits of squirrels. [Strunk & White, "The Elements of Style," 3rd ed., 1979]

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Encyclopedia Definition uv Nature

all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations

Biology: the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotype

Thus, Naichr Meenz "Bohrn Essenss".


Thuh Trm Speld " Suffix UhL " Wuhz Fixt Tu Suhfix UhL.


Suffix aL in Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Pronunciation

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Suffix -al

Of or pertaining to. Adjectival suffix appended to various words, often nouns, to make an adjective form. Often added to words of Latin origin, but used with other words also.

Forming nouns, especially of verbal action.


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " NaturaL ".



Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Uhv Syenss


Syenss Wrd Ehtimmolluhjee Frum Wiktionary

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Science [ Wrd Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē ]

From Old French science, from Latin scientia (“knowledge”), from sciens, present participle stem of scire (“know”).

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Ehtimmolluhjee Frum Wiktionary ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Our definition of science

Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.


Syenss Wrd Lah Dehfinnishuhn

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

What is SCIENCE?:

Knowledge that is comprised of verifiable and measurable facts that have been acquired by the application of a scientific method.


Thuss Syenss Iz Senss Proovd Reel Syzd TruuTh.


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Lah Dehfinnishuhn ".


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhn Fruhm Wy-Ky-Pee-Dy-Shohrt-A

NexT KwohT Wuhz:

NexT TexT OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

Science is an enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge in the form of testable explanations and predictions about the world. An older and closely related meaning still in use today is that of Aristotle, for whom scientific knowledge was a body of reliable knowledge that can be logically and rationally explained.

Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhn Fruhm Wy-Ky-Pee-Dy-Shohrt-A ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

science

Science is the field of study concerned with discovering and describing the world around us by observing and experimenting. Biology, chemistry, and physics are all branches of science.

Science is an "empirical" field, that is, it develops a body of knowledge by observing things and performing experiments. The meticulous process of gathering and analyzing data is called the "scientific method," and we sometimes use science to describe the knowledge we already have…


Thĭs Ĭz Thŭ Lăst Lyn Ŭv Tĕkst Ĭn Thŭ Păēj Năēmd " Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".



Thuh Trm Spohk Az

NachruL Syenss Branch Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

NachruL Syenss Branch Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr InkLuudz:

EmpirrikkuL Syenss

WiTh Thuh FynyT Syzd Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

  • And

Tranz FynyT Izm

WiTH Thuh Tranz FynyT Syzd



Empirrikkul Syenss

Table of Contents

Kozmolluhjee Az Empirrikkul Syenss Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr


KozmoLLuhJee Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

EhTimolluhjee Uhv Cosmology (n.)

1650s, "general science or theory of the material universe as an ordered whole," from Modern Latin cosmologia, from Greek kosmos (see cosmos) + -logia "discourse" (see -logy). By 1753 as "the branch of metaphysics which discusses the ultimate philosophical problems relating to the existence of the universe." Related: Cosmologist.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " KozmoLLuhJee Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".



Thuh Kozmolluhjee Suhmuhree Iz Naeemd


Empirrikkul Syenss Maeen Branch Kynd Typs KlasT By Syz Ohrdr


If Wee Wr Reel SyenTisTs, Eech Theeng Wee See Wood Bee Stuhdeed Az Uh Branch Uhv Syenss.


MaTh KonsepTs ToT NeksT

* Zeeroh RooT Wrd Kynd Typss KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

* GeomeTry Shaeepss Uhv (( KwahnTuhm Fizziks hlsoh Kohld Frst Heer*Mykroh-Fizziksws )) Nohrm Speld QuanTum Physics Also First Here Called Micro-Physics ))


KehmisTree Nohrm Speld ChemisTry


Uhplyd Syenss Nohrm Soeld Applied Science

* Lyf Syenss Nohrm Speld Life Science

* Beehaeevyohrul Syenss Nohrm Speld Behavioral Science

* Sohshul Syenss Nohrm Speld Social Science

* Tek Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz


RTh Syenss Nohrm Speld EarTh Science


Uhstronnuhmee Nohrm Speld Astronomy


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Empirrikkul Syenss Maeen Branch Kynd Typs KlasT By Syz Ohrdr ".



SkaeeL_Uhv_Universe-And-Hyrahrkeez_Uhv_Syenss_Branch_Kyndz.jpg

Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KlasT By Syz Ohrdr

Wut Iz Thuh Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KlasT By Syz Ohrdr?


Thuh Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KlasT By Syz Ohrdr

  • Ahr OpTs Tu Get ( { ThoT Uhv } And|Ohr { Red Fruhm } ) AT Dif Tymz.

GohL: AkT Az Wun OpTs Izm OpT IsT.

Wohrneeng: Suhm TexT In This Paedj And In Thuh Leengks Tu Paedj FyLz

  • MyT Hav GoT hakr prvrted tu a degree Non ReesrchT YeT.

Thuh Full Kozmolluhjee Iz Thuh
Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KlasT By Syz Ohrdr

Zeeroh RooT Wrd Kynd Typss KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

MaTh Lang Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz

KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz

Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz

PrimmiTTiv Tek Izm

Lyf Izm

Tek Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

Tek Ohrganz Needed Fohr Wrkeeng Mynd

Man Shaeept Az Android Ohr Heeuumuhnoid Ohr Mehtuhman

Mynd KuhmpohnenTs Needed Fohr A Lrneeng Mynd

Wen BeesT Growz InTu Prsuhn

Prsuhn

Zen Fohr NohbuL TruuThs

World NaTuropathic Federation

MeewnissippuL Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

Uhstronnuhmee Nohrm Speld Astronomy

Urantia Gaia Earth Geoscience Sizomes

GLohb

SaTTuhLyT Syzohmz

Lwnr Week Syzohmz

SeezuhnuL KaLLendr Syz Ohmz

See AhLSoh:

SohLr SisTem + SohLr Sfeer Saiz Ohmz = SohLr BahL Syz Ohmz

LohkuL InTrSTeLr KLowd Syz Ohmz

Galaxy Cloud Sizomes

Local Bubble

SyenTiffik ReeLidjuhn

Lehsr KreeayTrz

Astronomy Constellation Sizomes

Dark STar Sizomes

Scorpius-Centaurus Association Sizomes

Gould Belt

Orion Arm Our Hohm Spyrul Ahrm

Thuh Milkee Waee Owr Hohm Gallaksee

MiLkee Waee GaLLakTik UhsTronnuhmee

Extragalactic AsTronomy

Superuniverse

Local Group Sizomes

Virgo Galaxy Cluster Sizomes

Galactic Filament Sizomes

Galactic Sheets Sizomes

GraeeT UhTrakTr

Lahneeuhkeeuh SuuprKLuhsTr Syz Ohmz

ShapLee SuuprKLuhsTr

Kozmogguhnee, Cosmogony Sizomes,

Cosmology Sizomes

GrayTr KreeayTrz Uhv SyenTiffik ReeLidjuhn

UhbzrvuhbuL Eewnivrss

FayT Uhv Thuh UhbzrvuhbuL-Eewnivrss

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Empirrikkul Syenss Sub Branch Kynd Typss KLasT By Syz Ohrdr ".



Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Empirrikkul Syenss Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr ".




Meeuuzik With Tahkeeng Uhbowt Eetrnul TranzfynyTiTTee Izm.


Tranz FynyT Izm


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T


Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Paeej Naemd Tranz FynyT Izm

Tranz FynyT Trm Deskripshuhn

TranzfynyTiTTee

EeTrnuL Tranz FynyT Izm

Now Tranz FynyT Izm

AhLuh Uu Ahbhah

ENd Uhv Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Paeej Naemd Tranz FynyT Izm


Tranz FynyT Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Tranz FynyT izm

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

FynyT


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

finite adjective
fi·​nite | \ ˈfī-ˌnīt
Definition of finite

1a : having definite or definable limits a finite number of possibilities
b : having a limited nature or existence finite beings
2 : completely determinable in theory or in fact by counting, measurement, or thought the finite velocity of light
3a : less than an arbitrary positive integer and greater than the negative of that integer
b : having a finite number of elements a finite set
4 : of, relating to, or being a verb or verb form that can function as a predicate or as the initial element of one and that is limited (as in tense, person, and number)


FynyT IndikaeeTs " KownTUhbuL Ohr Bowndyzd " Wich Deskrybz Thuh KonsepT " Non Tranz LimmiTs ".

Tranz Wrd Deskrybd

Simp Lang Wrd Tranz Uhv Tranz Izm

Simp Lang Wrd Tranz In FuhnehTik EengLish Iz BaeesT On Thuh NexT TekSTs And Leengks

Tranz Wrd Deskrybd Uhv Tranz Izm Uhv Tranz FynyT Izm Uhv Omneeon Izm


[[Include tranz-wrd-deskripshuhn-fruhm-dictionary-dot-com]]


[[Include tranz-wrd-root-sohrst-konsepts]]


[[include tranz-root-trmz]]

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

InfinniT MyT GeT SpLiT Tu Simp Lang Wrdz Az:

  • "In Fin IT" Wich MyT GeT Dehskrybd Az: "IT Iz In A Fin".

Tranz FynyT MyT GeT Dehskrybd Az: Beeyond KownTuhbuL And Tranz Bowndz.

Thuh RealiTy Uhv ( ( Now Tranz FynyT Izm: "Ther Iz Always Mohr OuT" ) ) …, IZ NOT A DREEM!!!


Thuh Wrd TranzfynyTiTTee

  • Iz An UhsembuLd Trm Maeed WiTh FohnehTik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz
  • Fohr Thuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az Infinity
  • ThaT Shood GeT Sownded OwT Az Ĭ->n->f-> ( ī = Ŏ->ē ) ->n->ĭ->T-> ( y = Ŏ->ē )
  • Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az In->Fin->IT->Ee
  • RooT Trm In->Fin->IT
  • Wich Seems Tu IndikkaeeT Thuh Trm " IT Iz In Uh Fin ( Uhv Uh Fish ) ".

Thuh Wrd TranzfynyTiTTee Indikkaeets Thuh Trm " Tranz FynyT IT Bee " And Haz Thuh Nuumerrikkul VaLLyuu Uhv Uh Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr.


Tranz FynyT Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Tranz FynyT izm

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

FynyT


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

finite adjective
fi·​nite | \ ˈfī-ˌnīt
Definition of finite

1a : having definite or definable limits a finite number of possibilities
b : having a limited nature or existence finite beings
2 : completely determinable in theory or in fact by counting, measurement, or thought the finite velocity of light
3a : less than an arbitrary positive integer and greater than the negative of that integer
b : having a finite number of elements a finite set
4 : of, relating to, or being a verb or verb form that can function as a predicate or as the initial element of one and that is limited (as in tense, person, and number)


FynyT IndikaeeTs " KownTUhbuL Ohr Bowndyzd " Wich Deskrybz Thuh KonsepT " Non Tranz LimmiTs ".

Tranz Wrd Deskrybd

Simp Lang Wrd Tranz Uhv Tranz Izm

Simp Lang Wrd Tranz In FuhnehTik EengLish Iz BaeesT On Thuh NexT TekSTs And Leengks

[[include tranz-wrd-deskrybd]]

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

InfinniT MyT GeT SpLiT Tu Simp Lang Wrdz Az:

  • "In Fin IT" Wich MyT GeT Dehskrybd Az: "IT Iz In A Fin".

Tranz FynyT MyT GeT Dehskrybd Az: Beeyond KownTuhbuL And Tranz Bowndz.

Thuh RealiTy Uhv ( ( Now Tranz FynyT Izm: "Ther Iz Always Mohr OuT" ) ) …, IZ NOT A DREEM!!!


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EeTrnuL Tranz FynyT Izm

* Uhv Tranz FynyT Izm
* Uhv Thuh Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm


Opt Meeuuzik With Tahkeeng Uhbowt EeTrnuL TranzfynyTiTTee Izm.


EeTrnuL Tranz FynyT Izm Deskripshuhn:

  • Tranz FynyT Theengz ThaT Ahr Reezuhnd Wich Evr Wuhz, Evr Iz & Evr ShaL Bee:

EeTrnuL

Iz FohnehTik Eeng-gLish Speech Sownd Synz

  • Fohr Thuh Wrd Nohrm SpeLd ETernaL.

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EeTrnul Kohr KonsepTss

EeTrnuL iz Thuh Tranz FynyT Durraeeshuhn Thru ( EeTrniTTee Az Thuh Evr-PasT Pree Thuh Evr-Now InsTanT Uhv Tym-FLow Pree Thuh Evr-Feewchr Shall Bee Wich Never Kan Bee DeepleeTed )

EeTrnuL Iz Thuh Now Tranz FynyT StaeeT And Uhv Each Tranz FynyT KuhmpohnenT In Thuh Now Tranz FynyT StaeeT.


[[include EeTrniTTee]]

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " EeTrnul Kohr KonsepTs "


Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr


Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr

EeTrniTTee

Evr-PasT Evr-Now Evr-Shall-Bee

Evr-PasT-Tranz-FynyT-Izm

Thuh Konsepts Uhv Now Tranz FynyT Izm Ahr Beeleevd Tu Evr Now EgzisT.

Tranz FynyT Feewchr Evr Now Non YeT EgzisT.

TranzfynyTiTTee STuhTisTikss Ahlsoh Kahld InfiniTy StaTisTics

Now Tranz FynyT Kohr KonsepTss

Now Tranz FynyT STaeeT

End Uhv Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr


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Thuh Konsepts Uhv Now Tranz FynyT Izm Ahr Beeleevd Tu Evr Now EgzisT.


Tranz FynyT Feewchr PohTenchuLz Evr Now Non YeT EgzisT.


[[include TranzfynyTiTTee-STuhTisTikss]]


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Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " EeTrnuL "


Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr


Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr

EeTrniTTee

Evr-PasT Evr-Now Evr-Shall-Bee

Evr-PasT-Tranz-FynyT-Izm

Thuh Konsepts Uhv Now Tranz FynyT Izm Ahr Beeleevd Tu Evr Now EgzisT.

Tranz FynyT Feewchr Evr Now Non YeT EgzisT.

TranzfynyTiTTee STuhTisTikss Ahlsoh Kahld InfiniTy StaTisTics

Now Tranz FynyT Kohr KonsepTss

Now Tranz FynyT STaeeT

End Uhv Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Uhv Eetrnul Kynd Typs Klast In Lojik Ohrdr


EeTrniTTee

EeTrniTTee Iz:

Neg TranzfynyTiTTee: Thuh Evr-PasT Pree-Eech-STahrT Uhv Eech Theeng FynyT

Neg FynyT: Eech STahrT Uhv Eech FynyT Theeng Iz Pree ITs FynyT Durraeeshuhn Till ITs MohrTul Endx

Neg 1: Wich Iz Pree Ohr Durreeng Thuh ( InsTanT = LeesT Smahl PahrT Uhv Tym ) ImmeedeeaT-Lee Pree And Evr-Kwik-Lee Chaeengjeeng Tu ITs ImmeedeeaT-Lee Followeeng

0: Thuh Temp-Now-InsTanT Wich Evr-Soh-Breef-Lee EgzisTs And Iz Evr ( Floweeng And Passeeng ) InTu Thuh Neer-PasT-InsTanT Simp-Lee Tu Ree-Chaeengj Tu Uh Nuu Temp-Now-InsTanT.

Poz FynyT: Eech Uhv Thuh Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv FynyT Theengz Iz Durreeng ITs FynyT Durraeeshuhn Till ITs MohrTul End, Uhkurreeng Now Uh TranzfynyTiTee Nuhmbr Uhv Tymz.

Poz TranzfynyTiTTee: Thuh AfTr-Now And AfTr-Eech-End Kan-Chaeengj-Tu-Bee Ehvree-Kynd-Uhv-PohTenchuL Evr Non-Iz-Heer-YeT Tho Evr-Shall-Bee Evr-In Thuh Evr-Feewchr.

EeTrniTTee Iz Thuh Tranz FynyT Durraeeshuhn Uhv Eech ( Tranz FynyT And EeTrnuL ) KuhmpohnenT Uhv Thuh Now Tranz FynyT STaeeT.

See: Evr Past Evr Now Evr Shall Bee

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " EeTrniTTee "


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Evr PasT Tranz FynyT Izm

AhL PasT Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv Vrzhuhnz

Now non-EegzesT.


Thuh Konsepts Uhv Now Tranz FynyT Izm Ahr Beeleevd Tu Evr Now EgzisT.


Tranz FynyT Feewchr PohTenchuLz Evr Now Non YeT EgzisT.


Tranzfynytittee Stuhtistikss

Tranzfynytittee Stuhtistikss Iz Thuh NeksT 2 Konsepts:

Frst: Eech Kynd Uv Theeng That Kan Happen:

  1. Haz Happend An Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv Tymz
  2. Now Iz Happehneeng A Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv Tymz
  3. ShaL Happen A Tranz FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv Tymz.

Sehkuhnd: ( In An Ehreeuh ), Eech Kynd Uh Thing MyT Happen

  • With ( Mohr Ohr Thuh Saeem Ohr Less ) Freekwehnsee
    • Than Dif Kyndz Uhv Theengz.**

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT Smahl T

Now Tranz FynyT Kohr KonsepTss


Opt Meeuuzik With Tahkeeng Uhbowt Eetrnul Infinnitee Izm.

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Now Tranz FynyT Kohr KonsepTss InkLuud:

( Tranz FynyT InsTanTs Uhv Tym -> Now Tranz FynyT Tym FLash ) Inkluudeeng:

An InsTanT Deskrybd Az " LeesT SmahL [Syz Uhv Tym Wich KuhnTinyuuz Tu Tym Now FLash "

1.1: Thuh Now Tranz FynyT MaThehmaTTikkuL ReeaLLiTTee Prossesr

1.2: Huu Iz ( OmniPrehzehnt Beeyeeng EhvreeWer WyL Sehnsseeng EhvreeTheeng Tu Get Kuhmpeewted )

1:3: And Iz ( OmnishenT Inkluudeeng Ahl Lrneeng Evree Mynd Haz Lrnd ).

1.3: Wich Ahr Thuh Fuhnkshuhnz It Duz Az Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Mynd )

1.4.0: Wich Iz BohTh:

1.4.1 Thuh Ahl PehruhnT Uhv Ahl Lyf Az Uh Tranz-FynyT Poppyuulaeeshuhn +++ Uhv An OmninaTion Aspekt Uhv Thuh Now Tranz FynyT StaeeT

1.4.2 And Thuh ( OmnishehnT MenTuLLee AhL+Uhwehr Uhv AhL Lrneeng )

1.5: Az Thuh OmnyMynd Uhv Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Shen DeeiTTee

1.6: Wich KuhnTinnyuuz Tu Fuhnkshuhn Az OmnyPohTenT Az Thuh Now Tranz FynyT Muuveeng

1.8: Wich In Eech ( InsTanT = " LeesT SmahL [Syz Uhv Tym Wich KuhnTinyuuz Tu Tym Now FLash " ) Fohrss-Enrjee Moovz Eech Fohrss In Thuh LisT Uhv Pruuvd Fohrss Kynd Typz KLasT By Syz Ohrdr


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Now Tranz FynyT STaeeT Naymd Omnyoh


[[include Now-Tranz-FynyT-Staeet-Kohr-Konsepts]]


An Ohld Name Fohr Thuh Now Tranz FynyT STaeeT Iz Thuh Ahl-Staeet.


[[include AhL-STaeeT]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn UhvTeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " EeTrnuL Tranz FynyT Izm ".


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Allah-u-Abha In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz iz AhLuh Uu Ahbhah


AhLuh Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr [Allah.

AhLuh In Simp Lang Iz AhL Uh Ohr AhL Wuhn

THuh Mysterious Li Ohridjind Koran ReporT Ed KonsepT Uhv Allah ( Kuhnfeewzez = Non-Disrnz Tween ):
1: Thuh EetrnuL Now Tranz FynyT Shen DeeihTee
2: WiTh Thuh AncienT ( Supposed Immortal = Lyf WiTh Supposed Evr LasTing Longevity ) Lesser Creators Gyz: Semitic EL Dad And Hiz Suhn Hebrew=Heebrw YaHWeH ELohim.

Allah In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz AhLuh.

AhLuh Iz SumTymz ProhnownsT In EengLish Az AhL-Uh,

Thuh Lohn Char "A" ProhnownsT Az "Uh" Nohrm Meenz THuh Nuhmbr Wuhn.

Thus, "AhL Uh" Uh" MyT GeT Tranz Skrybd Az Tranz FynyT Shen DeeiTTee Uhv "AhL Now Wuhn".

See AhLsoh: Now Tranz FynyT Shen DeeiTTee


Abha In FuhnehTik IngLish Iz Ahbhah Uhv Ahluh Uu Ahbhah And EL Abha Iz Dehskrybd Az "AhL Glohreeuhss".

This Haz THuh Saeem EefekTiv Dehskripshuhn Az THuh Trm "ALL LighT" Gess TypT Then PublishT In Thuh Oahspe Bible.


THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: http://thebabhistory.blogspot.com/2010/01/bahai-greeting-of-allah-u-abha.html
January 21, 2010

The Baha’i Greeting of Alláh-u-Abhá

• Allah-u-Abha is an Arabic word that means “[AhL Wuhn DeeiTTee] is the Most Glorious or [AhL Wuhn DeeiTTee] is All-Glorious.” (Wendy Momen, Baha’i Dictionary, p. 15)

• It is “a form of Bahá'í greeting ..” (Shoghi Effendi, Letters from the Guardian to Australia and New Zealand, p. 16) It was during the period in Adrianople after Baha’u’llah’s public proclamation “that the greeting of ‘Allah-u-Abha’ superseded the old salutation of ‘Allah-u-Akbar’ [which the Babis used], and was simultaneously adopted in Persia and Adrianople (Shoghi Effendi, God Passes By, p. 176)

• “The Bahá'ís are free to greet each other with Allah-u-Abha when they meet, if they want to, but they should avoid anything which to outsiders, in a western country, might seem like some strange Oriental password. We must be very firm on principles and laws, but very normal and natural in our ways, so as to attract strangers.” (Shoghi Effendi, Directives from the Guardian, p. 3)

• ‘Allah-u-Abha’ and ‘Ya Baha'u'l-Abha’ [an invocation meaning: "O Thou Glory of Glories"]” both refer to the “the Greatest Name” of God, and “both refer to Baha’u’llah”. “The Greatest Name is the Name of Bahá'u'lláh … By Greatest Name is meant that Bahá'u'lláh has appeared in God's Greatest Name, in other words, that He is the Supreme Manifestation of God.” (Adapted from a letter written on behalf of Shoghi Effendi, Letters from the Guardian to Australia and New Zealand, p. 41)

Baha'u'llah wrote in His Most Holy Book called the Kitab-i-Aqdas and the Mother Book Verse 18, "It hath been ordained that every believer in God, the Lord of Judgment, shall, each day, having washed his hands and then his face, seat himself and, turning unto God, repeat 'Alláh-u-Abhá' ninety-five times."


See AhLsoh: EL Ahbhah


AhLah Uu Ahbhah May AhLsoh Reefr Tu:

All Light: incomprehensible, 14/9.13.

asking the All Light, 21/15.3.

angels and mortals shall understand that there is only One All Light, 23/12.6.

answers everything in heaven and earth after its own manner, 21/29.28.

to the summit of All Light, even Gods have not attained, 36/1.22.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

AhLuh Uu Ahbhah MyT GeT Tranz Skrybd Az: "Thuh AhL Wuhn DeeiTTee Huu Shynzz AhL GLohreeuhss".


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EeLekTronz Uhbsohrbeeng And ReeLeeseeng FohTohnz

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Electrons can absorb energy from external [LyT] sources…and be promoted to higher energy levels. [P]hoton energy is absorbed by an electron to elevate it into a higher energy level and how the energy can subsequently be released, in the form of a lower energy photon, when the electron falls back to the original ground state.

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

The lines in an emission spectrum occur when the electron loses energy, "falls back", from a higher energy state to a lower one emitting photons at different frequencies for different energy transitions.

This IndikkayTs ThaT Ther Iz MohsT Lyk Lee Mohr Than Wuhn Syz Uhv ( LyT Sfeer Nohrm Naymd a "PhoTon" ) ThaT Ahr FohTonnikLee RaydeeaeeTed Fruhm EeLekTronz Chayngjeeng OhrbiTs.

BaysT On ThaT KwahnTuhm Fizziks Deskripshuhn,

Duz "Uhbzohrb InTuu EeLehkTronz And ReeLeess Fruhm EeLehkTronz " A Trans FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv
1: PhohTonnik PoeenTs, ProbbubLee Eech Uhv Thuh MohsT Dim Shayd Uhv Dahrk Dim BehrLee VizzibuL LyT, And
2: PhohTonnik Sfeerz Uhv Groheeng Syz, ProbbuhbLee If Mohr Big Then Mohr BryT.


Chek OwT books/music featuring Allah-u-Abha AT:


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Tranz FynyT Izm ".




Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In THuh Paeej Naeemd " Nachrul Syenss Branch Kynd Typs KLastT By Syz Ohrdr ".




See Ahlsoh:


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Syenss Main Branch Kyndz ".


See Ahlsoh: syenss-sub-branch-kyndz-KlasT-by-syz-ohrdr