Physics in Funetik Inglish iz Fiziks uv Science Laws

Pronunciation
IPA: /ˈfɪz.ɪks/

Etymology
From Ancient Greek φυσικός (phusikós, “natural”)

Zii Sizome in Funetik Inglish iz Zee Syzohm uv Syzohmz uv Omneeonizm uv Omnio.

Simp Lang Zii In Funetik Inglish Iz Zee

Zii Pronunciation: Z + ee

"A zii is…the last and final division of the [Neg = NehgaTTiv Force]."
-Children of Mu, Chapter 16, by James Churchward

Soh the Zee iz:

  • Uh LeesT SmahL STrechT KwahnTuhm STreeng ThaT Duz Koz -Neg PuLL Chahrj Fohrss PoeenT Uhv Enrjee.

Included page "kwahntuhm-streeng-syzohmz" does not exist (create it now)

Quantum Wave Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Kwahntuhm Waeev Syzohmz.

Quantum in Funetik Inglish iz KwahnTuhm Uhv Omneeonizm.

Pronunciation

  • (UK) IPA(key): /ˈkwɒntəm/
  • (US) IPA(key): /ˈkwɑːntəm/, IPA(key): /ˈkwɑːnəm/ (syncope)

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/quantum

quantum (n.)

1610s, "one's share or portion," from Latin quantum (plural quanta) "as much as, so much as; how much? how far? how great an extent?" neuter singular of correlative pronominal adjective quantus "as much" (see quantity). Introduced in physics directly from Latin by Max Planck, 1900; reinforced by Einstein, 1905. Quantum theory is from 1912; quantum mechanics, 1922; quantum jump is first recorded 1954; quantum leap, 1963, often figurative.


Definition of quantum

plural quanta \ˈkwän-tə
1 a : quantity, amount
b : portion, part
c : gross quantity : bulk
2 a : any of the very small increments or parcels into which many forms of energy are subdivided
b : any of the small subdivisions of a quantized physical magnitude (such as magnetic moment)


Quantum Definition in Physics and Chemistry:

In physics and chemistry, a quantum is a discrete packet of energy or matter. The term quantum also means the minimum value of a physical property involved in an interaction. The plural of quantum is quanta.

For example: the quantum of charge is the charge of an electron. Electric charge can only increase or decrease by discrete energy levels. So, there is no half-charge. A photon is a single quantum of light.

Light and other electromagnetic energy is absorbed or emitted in quanta or packets.

The word quantum comes from the Latin word quantus, which means "how great." The word came into use before the year 1900, in reference to quantum satis in medicine, which means "the amount which is sufficient".

pilot-wave-theory-gains-experimental-support:

Of the many counterintuitive features of quantum mechanics, perhaps the most challenging to our notions of common sense is that particles do not have locations until they are observed. This is exactly what the standard view of quantum mechanics, often called the Copenhagen interpretation, asks us to believe. Instead of the clear-cut positions and movements of Newtonian physics, we have a cloud of probabilities described by a mathematical structure known as a wave function. The wave function, meanwhile, evolves over time, its evolution governed by precise rules codified in something called the Schrödinger equation. The mathematics are clear enough; the actual whereabouts of particles, less so. Until a particle is observed, an act that causes the wave function to “collapse,” we can say nothing about its location. Albert Einstein, among others, objected to this idea. As his biographer Abraham Pais wrote: “We often discussed his notions on objective reality. I recall that during one walk Einstein suddenly stopped, turned to me and asked whether I really believed that the moon exists only when I look at it.”

But there’s another view — one that’s been around for almost a century — in which particles really do have precise positions at all times. This alternative view, known as pilot-wave theory or Bohmian mechanics, never became as popular as the Copenhagen view, in part because Bohmian mechanics implies that the world must be strange in other ways. In particular, a 1992 study claimed to crystalize certain bizarre consequences of Bohmian mechanics and in doing so deal it a fatal conceptual blow. The authors of that paper concluded that a particle following the laws of Bohmian mechanics would end up taking a trajectory that was so unphysical — even by the warped standards of quantum theory — that they described it as “surreal.”

Nearly a quarter-century later, a group of scientists has carried out an experiment in a Toronto laboratory that aims to test this idea. And if their results, first reported earlier this year, hold up to scrutiny, the Bohmian view of quantum mechanics — less fuzzy but in some ways more strange than the traditional view — may be poised for a comeback.

Saving Particle Positions
Bohmian mechanics was worked out by Louis de Broglie in 1927 and again, independently, by David Bohm in 1952, who developed it further until his death in 1992. (It’s also sometimes called the de Broglie–Bohm theory.) As with the Copenhagen view, there’s a wave function governed by the Schrödinger equation. In addition, every particle has an actual, definite location, even when it’s not being observed. Changes in the positions of the particles are given by another equation, known as the “pilot wave” equation (or “guiding equation”). The theory is fully deterministic; if you know the initial state of a system, and you’ve got the wave function, you can calculate where each particle will end up.

That may sound like a throwback to classical mechanics, but there’s a crucial difference. Classical mechanics is purely “local” — stuff can affect other stuff only if it is adjacent to it (or via the influence of some kind of field, like an electric field, which can send impulses no faster than the speed of light). Quantum mechanics, in contrast, is inherently nonlocal. The best-known example of a nonlocal effect — one that Einstein himself considered, back in the 1930s — is when a pair of particles are connected in such a way that a measurement of one particle appears to affect the state of another, distant particle. The idea was ridiculed by Einstein as “spooky action at a distance.” But hundreds of experiments, beginning in the 1980s, have confirmed that this spooky action is a very real characteristic of our universe.

In the Bohmian view, nonlocality is even more conspicuous. The trajectory of any one particle depends on what all the other particles described by the same wave function are doing. And, critically, the wave function has no geographic limits; it might, in principle, span the entire universe. Which means that the universe is weirdly interdependent, even across vast stretches of space. The wave function “combines — or binds — distant particles into a single irreducible reality,” as Sheldon Goldstein, a mathematician and physicist at Rutgers University, has written.

The differences between Bohm and Copenhagen become clear when we look at the classic “double slit” experiment, in which particles (let’s say electrons) pass through a pair of narrow slits, eventually reaching a screen where each particle can be recorded. When the experiment is carried out, the electrons behave like waves, creating on the screen a particular pattern called an “interference pattern.” Remarkably, this pattern gradually emerges even if the electrons are sent one at a time, suggesting that each electron passes through both slits simultaneously…

By comparison, the Bohmian view sounds rather tame: The electrons act like actual particles, their velocities at any moment fully determined by the pilot wave, which in turn depends on the wave function. In this view, each electron is like a surfer: It occupies a particular place at every specific moment in time, yet its motion is dictated by the motion of a spread-out wave. Although each electron takes a fully determined path through just one slit, the pilot wave passes through both slits. The end result exactly matches the pattern one sees in standard quantum mechanics.

Quantum Particle Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Kwahntuhm Pahrtikl Syzohmz

PahrTikuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Particles

Pronunciation
(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈpɑːtɪk(ə)l/
(General American) IPA(key): /ˈpɑɹtɪkəl/


quantum_particles_1_205596.jpg

NexT TekST Fruhm: http://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

KrenT STandrd ModdeL LisT Uhv AhL PahrTikkuLz

Standard Particles

This is a list of all the particles in the current standard model of particle physics plus the graviton [predicted]…


All (elementary) particles are either fermions or bosons.


Elementary particles


Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Frmeeonz

Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ˈfɜːmɪɒn/

Etymology
From Enrico Fermi (Italian-American physicist), +‎ -on.

Fermions. (half-integer spin 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.) Matter is made of fermions. Fermions obey the exclusion principle; fermions in the same state cannot be in the same place at the same time.


Elementary Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Frmeeonz

Quarks. (spin 1/2) The protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom are made of quarks. There are six types or "flavors" or quarks: down, up, strange, charm, bottom, and top. Each comes in three "color" charges: red, green, and blue.

Leptons. (spin 1/2)

Electron and its two heavier sisters, the muon and tau. Atoms have a nucleus surrounded by electrons.

Neutrinos, the electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino. Lightweight and weakly interacting.


Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Bohzonz

THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Boson?

by Andrew Zimmerman Jones

In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. These bosons also have a quantum spin with contains an integer value, such as 0, 1, -1, -2, 2, etc. (By comparison, there are other types of particles, called fermions, that have a half-integer spin, such as 1/2, -1/2, -3/2, and so on.)
What's So Special About a Boson?

Bosons are sometimes called force particles, because it is the bosons that control the interaction of physical forces, such as electromagnetism and possibly even gravity itself.

The name boson comes from the surname of Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, a brilliant physicist from the early twentieth century who worked with Albert Einstein to develop a method of analysis called Bose-Einstein statistics. In an effort to fully understand Planck's law (the thermodynamics equilibrium equation that came out of Max Planck's work on the blackbody radiation problem), Bose first proposed the method in a 1924 paper trying to analyze the behavior of photons. He sent the paper to Einstein, who was able to get it published … and then went on to extend Bose's reasoning beyond mere photons, but also to apply to matter particles.

One of the most dramatic effects of Bose-Einstein statistics is the prediction that bosons can overlap and coexist with other bosons. Fermions, on the other hand, cannot do this, because they follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle (chemists focus primarily on the way the Pauli Exclusion Principle impacts the behavior of electrons in orbit around an atomic nucleus.) Because of this, it is possible for photons to become a laser and some matter is able to form the exotic state of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Fundamental Bosons

According to the Standard Model of quantum physics, there are a number of fundamental bosons, which are not made up of smaller particles. This includes the basic gauge bosons, the particles that mediate the fundamental forces of physics (except for gravity, which we'll get to in a moment). These four gauge bosons have spin 1 and have all been experimentally observed:

Photon - Known as the particle of light, photons carry all electromagnetic energy and act as the gauge boson that mediates the force of electromagnetic interactions.
Gluon - Gluons mediate the interactions of the strong nuclear force, which binds together quarks to form protons and neutrons and also holds the protons and neutrons together within an atom's nucleus.
W Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.
Z Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.

In addition to the above, there are other fundamental bosons predicted, but without clear experimental confirmation (yet):

Higgs Boson - According to the Standard Model, the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives rise to all mass. On July 4, 2012, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider announced that they had good reason to believe they'd found evidence of the Higgs Boson. Further research is ongoing in an attempt to get better information about the particle's exact properties. The particle is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 0, which is why it is classified as a boson.
Graviton - The graviton is a theoretical particle which has not yet been experimentally detected. Since the other fundamental forces - electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force - are all explained in terms of a gauge boson that mediates the force, it was only natural to attempt to use the same mechanism to explain gravity. The resulting theoretical particle is the graviton, which is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 2.
Bosonic Superpartners - Under the theory of supersymmetry, every fermion would have a so-far-undetected bosonic counterpart. Since there are 12 fundamental fermions, this would suggest that - if supersymmetry is true - there are another 12 fundamental bosons that have not yet been detected, presumably because they are highly unstable and have decayed into other forms.

Composite Bosons

Some bosons are formed when two or more particles join together to create an integer-spin particle, such as:

Mesons - Mesons are formed when two quarks bond together. Since quarks are fermions and have half-integer spins, if two of them are bonded together, then the spin of the resulting particle (which is the sum of the individual spins) would be an integer, making it a boson.
Helium-4 atom - A helium-4 atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons … and if you add up all of those spins, you'll end up with an integer every time. Helium-4 is particularly noteworthy because it becomes a superfluid when cooled to ultra-low temperatures, making it a brilliant example of Bose-Einstein statistics in action.

If you're following the math, any composite particle that contains an even number of fermions is going to be a boson, because an even number of half-integers is always going to add up to an integer.


Elementary Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Bohzonz

Graviton. (spin 2) Gravitons [predicted] carry the gravity force.

Gluon. (spin 1) Gluons carry the strong force, also called the nuclear force or color force. The strong force holds quarks together.

W± and Z bosons. (spin 1) W± and Z bosons carry the weak force. The weak force is responsible for radioactivity.

Photon. (spin 1) Photons carry the eletromagnetic force. Photons are particles of light. Light is an electromagnetic wave.

Higgs boson. (spin 0) The Higgs boson is an excitation the Higgs field. The Higgs field gives other particles their inertial mass.

Electroweak W and B bosons. (spin 1) W1, W2, W3, and B bosons carry the electroweak force. When the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces, the W1, W2, W3, B, and Higgs remixed to make W±, Z, photon, and Higgs.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr ComposiTe ParTicles


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Composite particles.

Composite particles (hadrons) are composed of other particles.

Mesons. (spin 0, 1) Mesons are bosons composed of a quark and antiquark. Some mesons are the pion, kaon, eta, rho, omega, and phi…

Baryons. (spin 1/2, 3/2) Baryons are fermions composed of three quarks. The most important baryons are the two nucleons: the proton (up-up-down quarks) and the neutron (up-down-down quarks). Some other baryons are the sigma, lambda, xi, delta, and omega-minus.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Hypothetical Composite Particles

Exotic baryons. Fermions composed of multiple particles, but not just three quarks. The pentaquark has five quarks.

Exotic mesons. Bosons composed of multiple particles, but not just two quarks. The tetraquark has four quarks. The glueball is composed of gluons.


ParticlesSM-page-0.jpg

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles

Quantum Foam Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Kwahntuhm Fohm Syzohmz

KwahnTuhm Fohm Iz FuhnehTik EengLish iz Quantum Foam

KwahnTuhm Fohm Iz KwahnTuhm Plus Fohm.

"There is no such thing as empty space;
there is only ‘quantum foam,’ everywhere."
-https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2015/31dec_quantumfoam

"Quantum foam (or space time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics. It was created by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be thought of as the foundation of the things that make up the universe."
-https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_foam

See also:

Basic Science Physics

Within the framework of the Basic Sciences Programme, UNESCO fosters international cooperation in physics and applied physics, capacity-building for research and advanced training, especially in developing countries.

The advanced training of women and young scientists in physics and applied physics is pursued by strengthening collaboration with the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), the International Union of Pure and Applied Physics (IUPAP) and other centers of excellence and networks. In particular, the need for upgrading and providing foundation to the conceptual knowledge of many university physics teachers and lecturers, especially those in developing countries, is addressed in cooperation with the International Commission for Physics Education (ICPE-IUPAP), physics education networks, universities and institutes. UNESCO initiatives in physics and physics education, enhance research and teaching capacities of young physicists, specialists, and physics teachers. Moreover, access to research and training facilities in developed countries will be broadened for scientists from developing countries.