Particles in FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz iz Pahrtiklz

Pronunciation
(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈpɑːtɪk(ə)l/
(General American) IPA(key): /ˈpɑɹtɪkəl/

Etymology
From Middle French particule, and its source, Latin particula (“small part, particle”), diminutive of pars (“part, piece”).

Physicists observe particles acting coherently as they undergo phase transitions

The common link between liquid-crystal TVs and the birth of the universe, when you look at the big picture, is that they are both characterized by the intriguing phenomenon in which matter abruptly changes states.

Scientists want to better understand and control the behavior of particles at the exact moment that these so-called phase transitions—a change in energy in a system, much like process in which water evaporates or turns to ice—occur.

A study published Dec. 18 in Nature Physics by University of Chicago scientists observed how particles behave as the change takes place in minute detail. In addition to shedding light on the fundamental rules that govern the universe, understanding such transitions could help design more useful technologies.

One of the questions was whether, as particles prepare to transition between quantum states, they can act as one coherent group that "knows" the states of the others, or whether different particles only act independently of one another, or incoherently.

Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system.

The conventional wisdom was that the atoms should evolve incoherently after the transition—a hallmark of older "classic" rather than quantum models of physics. "In contrast, we found strong evidence for coherent dynamics," said graduate student Lei Feng, the first author on the study. "In no moment do they become classical particles; they always behave as waves that evolve in synchrony with each other, which should give theorists a new ingredient to include in how they model such systems that are out of equilibrium."

This question gets at the fundamental rules that govern the way that matter interacts in our universe—but as always, it also has practical considerations. For example, engineers trying to build quantum computers are very interested in retaining the coherence of a group of interacting quantum bits, because they need to keep their system coherent in order to build faster computers. Cosmologists are interested in the physics of such transitions because they describe the earliest moments of the universe as it rapidly expanded and changed.


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List of Particles

All (elementary) particles are either fermions or bosons.


Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Frmeeonz

Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ˈfɜːmɪɒn/

Etymology
From Enrico Fermi (Italian-American physicist), +‎ -on.

Fermions. (half-integer spin 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.) Matter is made of fermions. Fermions obey the exclusion principle; fermions in the same state cannot be in the same place at the same time.


Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Bohzonz

Bosons. (integer spin 0, 1, 2, etc.) Forces are carried by bosons with non-zero spin. Bosons do not obey the exclusion principle; bosons in the same state can be in the same place at the same time.


Standard Particles

This is a list of all the particles in the current standard model of particle physics plus the graviton [predicted]. (See also the graphical Particles chart.)


Elementary particles


Elementary Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Frmeeonz

Quarks. (spin 1/2) The protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom are made of quarks. There are six types or "flavors" or quarks: down, up, strange, charm, bottom, and top. Each comes in three "color" charges: red, green, and blue.

Leptons. (spin 1/2)

Electron and its two heavier sisters, the muon and tau. Atoms have a nucleus surrounded by electrons.

Neutrinos, the electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino. Lightweight and weakly interacting.


Elementary Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Bohzonz

Graviton. (spin 2) Gravitons [predicted] carry the gravity force.

Gluon. (spin 1) Gluons carry the strong force, also called the nuclear force or color force. The strong force holds quarks together.

W± and Z bosons. (spin 1) W± and Z bosons carry the weak force. The weak force is responsible for radioactivity.

Photon. (spin 1) Photons carry the eletromagnetic force. Photons are particles of light. Light is an electromagnetic wave.

Higgs boson. (spin 0) The Higgs boson is an excitation the Higgs field. The Higgs field gives other particles their inertial mass.

Electroweak W and B bosons. (spin 1) W1, W2, W3, and B bosons carry the electroweak force. When the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces, the W1, W2, W3, B, and Higgs remixed to make W±, Z, photon, and Higgs.


Composite Particles in Funetik Inglish iz Kuhmpozit Pahrtiklz

Hypothetical Composite Particles

Exotic baryons. Fermions composed of multiple particles, but not just three quarks. The pentaquark has five quarks.

Exotic mesons. Bosons composed of multiple particles, but not just two quarks. The tetraquark has four quarks. The glueball is composed of gluons.

Quasi-particles and other non-particles

Many quantized states are not real particles, but are conveniently named and treated as if they were real particles. Some are the quantized modes of collections of particles.

Soliton. A stable solitary wave packet arising from a combination of waves. Solitons are found in many physical phenomena, large and small.

Phonon. A quantized sound wave.

Electron hole. The absence of a negatively-charged electron in a semiconductor, treated as if it were a positively-charged particle.

Cooper pair. A pair of electrons (fermions) in a superconductor, treated like a single boson.

Exciton. A bound state of an electron and an electron hole.

Magnon. A quantized spin wave.

Plasmon. A quantized plasma oscillation.

Polaron. A quantized polarization field.


See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles