Thuh Paeej Naeemd " MiLkee Waee GaLLakTik UhsTronnuhmee Kynd Typs SohrTed By Syz "

Wuhz ReepLaeesT By And Inkluudz Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Milkee Waee Kynd Typs KlasT By Syz Ohrdr ".

Milkee Waee Kynd Typs KlasT By Syz Ohrdr


Thuh Milkee Waee Owr Hohm Gallaksee


Thuh [(Milkee Waee Iz "estimated to contain 100–400 billion stars" Wich Iz UhbowT Thuh Saeem Az Splandon Major Sector) ThaT Iz ReepohrTed Tu Hav "100,000,000,000 worlds" Uhkohrdeeng Tu Paeepr 15: vrs 11: Uhv Thuh Urantia Book.


MiLkee Waee WiTh UhsTronnuhmee UhbzrvuhTohree Pikchr

If In DowT, Heer: https://www.howtopronounce.com/observatory/

MiLkee_Waee_GaLLaksee-WiTh-UhsTronnuhmee_UhbzrvuhTohree-Pikchr.jpg

SadjihTehreeuhs

In FohnehTik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz

Sagittarius-Teapot-Messiers.jpg
Sagitarius Iz In Our Zodiac Towardz Thuh Milky Way Galactic Core.
2_Thrdz-OwT-In-SpyruL_Ahrm-Uhv-MiLkee_Waee-720Wyd_By_540Hy.jpg

MiLkee Waee GaLLaksee Map

Milky_Way_Ahrms-WiTh-KuhLrd_Naymz-And-AeengGuL_Degreez-600w_By_540H.jpg

GallakTik Yeer

GallakTik Yeerz

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Galactic year [ Trm Deskripshuhnz ]

Approximate orbit of the Sun (yellow circle) around the Galactic Centre. The galactic year…is the duration of time required for the Solar System to orbit once around the center of the Milky Way Galaxy. Estimates of the length of one orbit range from 225 to 250 million terrestrial years.

A galactic year is roughly the time it takes for the Solar System to make one complete revolution around the Milky Way Galaxy. That itself takes approximately 225 million Earth years.

[How many Earh Years Are In One Galactic Year?] 225-250 Million Yeerz

[What Is The EarTh's Age in Galactic Years?]

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Earth is actually a fast-moving spacecraft. It orbits around Sun with an average speed of about 30 km/s (67,000 mph or 108,000 kmh), but what’s more, our galaxy, the Milky Way also rotates. It makes one rotation every 250 million years or so. As a result, our planet is approximately 18 galactic years old.

[What Is The Sun's Age in Galactic Years?]

[How Many Galactic Years ago Was The Big Bang?]



Thuh Orion Arm Our Hohm Spiral Arm

500px-OrionSpur.png

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Emile de Groot
Answered Mar 18, 2019

At a radius of 2000 light years it is estimated there are roughly 80 million stars.

The Orion Arm is roughly 10,000 light years long and almost 4000 ly across.

A very rough estimate would be somewhere around 800 million stars.

There might very well be a lot more stars near the major arms. The number is likely higher.



Gould BelT

Gould Belt myt be Simmilr In Syz Tu Local Universe Nebadon = vrs 11: "10 million wrldz"

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Gould Belt

Reputedly the largest galactic structure in the Solar region, the Gould Belt is an apparently ringlike assembly of molecular clouds, star forming regions, and young stars, star clusters and OB associations encircling the Sun at a radius of about 300 parsecs.

The Belt was first noticed by John Herschel in 1847, while observing in South Africa, as a corridor of unusually bright stars lying across the Milky Way band. It was later described and inventoried by Benjamin Gould as "a belt or stream of bright stars [that] appears to girdle the heavens very nearly in a great circle" in the text accompanying his Uranometria Argentina (1879, the "Flamsteed catalog" of southern skies).

The appearance of the Belt is striking during southern spring nights, when the Milky Way is spangled with bright stars and OB concentrations, as the figure (below left) illustrates. The opposite view of the Milky Way during northern fall evenings is less impressive (figure, below right): although adorned with scattered bright stars, the Milky Way is faint and patchy from Cygnus to Canis Major. The tilt of the Belt away from the Galactic equator (green line) is obvious in the southern view, but substantially obscured in the northern view.

beltsky.jpg

The very different appearance of the Belt in the northern and southern hemispheres arises from the position of the Local Arm. The northern view from Cygnus to Taurus is covered by the dark clouds of several active star forming regions and, toward the galactic center, the visually large areas of nearby dark molecular clouds such as the Cygnus Coal Sack and the Aquila Rift. In contrast, the southern view looks toward the products of star formation: new massive stars, dissolving star clusters and OB associations with dispersing molecular clouds and supernova shells.

The form, dimensions and dynamics of the Gould Belt depend on the features used to define it, and different features seem to require different astrophysical explanations for its origin. Hough & Halm (1910) identified peculiar proper motions among the Gould Belt stars, and Edwin Hubble (1922) added nearby H II regions and molecular clouds. The diagram (below) summarizes the features currently associated with the Gould Belt, in galactic coordinates.

gouldx.gif

There is quibbling in the literature as to whether the gould Belt is a ring, a disk, a cloud — or a sausage (Clube, 1967) — and there is research to suggest that it is more likely a "2D projection effect, and not a physical ring" (Buoy & Alves, 2015). A basic problem in all these studies is distinguishing Gould Belt objects from "background" galactic disk features — the problem of circular reasoning, or confirming your assumptions. If proper motion is used to distinguish Gould Belt stars from unrelated stars, then it is not surprising to discover that Gould Belt stars have unusual proper motions.

Its inner border is usually rendered as an elliptical ring about 360 pc long and 230 pc wide, but the disk of stars around this border extends out to about 600 pc with a scale height of 60 to 100 pc. The figure (below) shows that the disk is tilted from the Galactic plane by ~18° with the long axis approximately toward l = 45° and the ascending node at l = ~285° (it tips farthest above the galactic plane in Scorpius and farthest below in Orion). The Sun is displaced from the ellipse center toward the Scorpius-Centaurus OB association.

chimney.gif

The age of the Gould Belt is estimated to be 30 to 60 million years. Over 60% of OB stars within 600 pc and younger than 60 Myr appear to belong to the Belt, and the youngest (< 30 Myr) stars within ~400 pc in Quadrants III & IV are receding from the disk center. However, the kinematics of Gould Belt stars (as peculiar motions in relation to the local standard of rest) are highly disordered, due to the separate trajectories of the many different OB associations involved (cf. Torra & alia, 2000).

Theories to account for the recent origin, tilt and kinematics of the Gould Belt include the collision of a ~107M⊙ molecular cloud with the Local Arm, or the gamma ray burst from a hypernova. Viewing the Gould Belt as a large, active star forming region is consistent with the theory that the assembly resulted from a series of about 20 supernova explosions over the past 60 million years — a rate that is about 5 times the Galactic average. These explosions are linked to the many radio loops, nova remnants and neutron stars of varying ages within the region, and are invoked to explain the tilt of the disk to the galactic plane.

Somewhat contradicting this "origin story" explanation for the Gould Belt the remarkable contrast between the Scorpius–Centaurus association and the Orion star forming complex. In the Scorpius-Centuarus region, an epoch of prolonged and spatially extended star formation, which produced no young star clusters or H II regions, has passed its peak: the extended Scorpius-Centaurus OB associations have dispersed their natal gas and are slowly expanding (see Elias & alia, 2009). In Orion, rapid, dense and centralized star formation seems to be nearing its climax: the area contains several dark clouds and H II regions, including the Great Orion Nebula; a dozen very young star clusters; three compact OB associations; and a burst in stellar radiation that apparently formed the Eridanus bubble. There does not seem a simple way to relate these very different structures to a single initiating event.

It's also instructive to compare the Gould Belt with the concentration of H II regions and OB associations connected with the Cygnus Superbubble, about 2000 parsecs distant at l = 82° and about 600 by 450 parsecs large with a roughly horseshoe profile. This feature is also the center of extensive star formation and is characterized by a belt of molecular material, tilted to the Galactic plane by about 30° (see Uyaniker et al., 2001)…

From our lucky vantage, the active star forming regions around us are consistent with the pattern observed near spiral arm shock waves and spurs. Dense molecular clouds and active star forming regions are predominately located "ahead" of us in Galactic rotation, within the area defined by the Local Arm; mature or completed star formation regions and many supernova remnants are located "behind" us in the span between the Sco-Cen and Ori associations.

This Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Gould BelT ".



UhsTronnuhmee KonsTehlaeeshuhnz


THuh NeksT Constllations Map Wuhz Fruhm:

constellations.png

See ALso=AhLsoh: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/88_modern_constellations


Zohdeeak

(Zohdeeak := SrkL Uv AnnihmuL-Lyk Shayps Dreem Drahn Tween Solid BryT Stahrz):


sky-map-zodiac-constellations-titles-18726328.jpg

SadjihTehreeuhs

In FohnehTik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz

Sagittarius-Teapot-Messiers.jpg
Sagitarius Iz In Our Zodiac Towardz Thuh Milky Way Galactic Core.

Gemini Iz In Our Zodiac Thuh MohsT Fahr Away Frum Thuh Milky Way Galactic Core.


Zodiac Calendar In FohnehTik EenGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

[[[Zohdiakk

1200-534002652-circle-with-signs-of-zodiac.jpg1200-471387944-golden-zodiac-circle.jpgZodiac Calendar 2018:
calendar-zodiac-2018-smart-design_1363-208.jpg?size=338&ext=jpg
OhridjinuL Immaj Wuhz Fruhm https://img.freepik.com/free-vector/calendar-zodiac-2018-smart-design_1363-208.jpg?size=338&ext=jpg22-Indian-Zohdeeak-MuhnThs%20Uhv%20Nirayana-SaidreeL-Yeer%202018-Tu-2019.jpg?w=400

Sohrss Adress Fohr Immaj Wuhz:

Immaj RefrensT In DokkyuumehnT AT:


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Zohdeeak ".




Scorpius Centaurus Association (Sco-Cen)


Table of Contents

O B Uhsohseeaeeshuhn

Thuh NeksT TexT Wuhz Fruhn:

OB Association - Loose grouping of O and B stars, which are the most luminous, most massive, and shortest-lived stars…

OB Association
A loose gathering of O and B stars that typically stretches over hundreds of light-years …

Young associations will contain 10-100 massive stars of spectral class O and B, and are known as OB associations.

In addition, these associations also contain hundreds or thousands of low- and intermediate-mass stars.

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " O B Uhsohseeaeeshuhn ".


Thuh Scorpius-Centaurus Association MyT Bee Uh Universe Local System.

Uhkohrdeeng Tu http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/S/Sco-Cen_Association.html,


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Scorpius-Centaurus Association [ Ensyklohpeedeeuh Deskripshuhnz ]

Wide field X-ray image of the Scorpius-Centaurus association constructed from the data of the ROSAT All Sky Survey Background maps. The yellow dots mark the positions of bright X-ray sources detected in the survey (only about 10% of the brightest X-ray sources are shown). The blue circles mark the three subgroups Upper Scorpius, Upper Centaurus-Lupus, and Lower Centaurus-Crux (from left to right).

Scorpius-Centaurus_Association.jpg

The Scorpius-Centaurus (Sco-Cen) Association is the nearest O B Association to the Sun. It is centered about 470 light-years away in the Gould Belt and contains several hundred stars, mostly of type B, including Shaula, Lesath, and Antares. Though born roughly at the same time, the association's stars are not gravitationally bound, and the association is rapidly expanding.

Subcomponents of the Scorpius-Centaurus Association include the Upper Scorpius (the youngest), Upper Centaurus-Lupus (the oldest), and Lower Centaurus-Crux associations. The star formation process in Scorpius-Centaurus started in the Upper Centaurus-Lupus Association some 15 million years ago. About 12 million years ago the most massive star in Upper Centaurus-Lupus went supernova, creating a large shock wave. This shock wave passed through the Upper Scorpius cloud about 5 million years ago, and triggered the star formation process there. Shortly after, the strong winds of the numerous massive stars in Upper Scorpius started to disperse the molecular cloud and halted the star formation process. About 1.5 million years ago the most massive star in Upper Scorpius exploded as a supernova. This shock wave fully dispersed the Upper Scorpius molecular cloud and now passes through the Rho Ophiuchi Nebula, where it might well have started the star formation process about 1 million years ago. The superbubble known as Loop I, generated by supernovae around the Association is impinging on our own Local Bubble and directly affecting the environment in the solar neighborhood




Local Bubble

Local_bubble.jpg

Following Fruhn: http://www.daviddarling.info/encyclopedia/L/Local_Bubble.html

The Local Bubble is a great cavity in the interstellar medium (ISM), at least 300 light-years across, within which the Sun and many nearby stars reside. The Local Bubble has a neutral hydrogen density of only about 0.07 atoms per cubic centimeter – at least 10 times lower than the average ISM in the Galaxy – and also contains a thin gruel of million-degree X-ray-emitting plasma. These observations have led astronomers to conclude that the Bubble was formed between a few hundred thousand and a few million years ago by several relatively nearby supernova explosions that pushed aside gas and dust in the ISM leaving the current depleted expanse of hot, low density material.



" Uh Dahrk STahr Izn'T Uh Hohl Thuhss Izn'T Uh Blak HohL "


THuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

No Black Holes Exist, Says Stephen Hawking—At Least Not Like We Think

Black holes do not have "event horizons" beyond which there is no return, according to renowned physicist.

4 Minute Read

By Charles Q. Choi, for National Geographic

PUBLISHED January 27, 2014

Black holes do not exist—at least, not as we know them, says renowned physicist Stephen Hawking, potentially provoking a rethink of one of space's most mysterious objects.
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A new study from Hawking also says that black holes may not possess "firewalls," destructive belts of radiation that some researchers have proposed would incinerate anything that passes through them but others scientists deem an impossibility.

(Editor's note: Watch for our feature "The Truth About Black Holes" in the March issue of National Geographic magazine, out February 15.)

The conventional view of black holes posits that their gravitational pull is so powerful that nothing can escape from them—not even light, which is why they're called black holes. The boundary past which there is supposedly no return is known as the event horizon.

In this conception, all information about anything that ventures past a black hole's event horizon is destroyed. On the other hand, quantum physics, the best description so far of how the universe behaves on a subatomic level, suggests that information cannot ever be destroyed, leading to a fundamental conflict in theory.

No Event Horizons

Now Hawking is suggesting a resolution to the paradox: Black holes do not possess event horizons after all, so they do not destroy information.

"The absence of event horizons means that there are no black holes, in the sense of regimes from which light can't escape," Hawking wrote in a paper he posted online on January 22. The paper was based on a talk he gave last August at a workshop at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara, California.

Instead, Hawking proposes that black holes possess "apparent horizons" that only temporarily entrap matter and energy that can eventually reemerge as radiation. This outgoing radiation possesses all the original information about what fell into the black hole, although in radically different form. Since the outgoing information is scrambled, Hawking writes, there's no practical way to reconstruct anything that fell in based on what comes out. The scrambling occurs because the apparent horizon is chaotic in nature, kind of like weather on Earth.

We can't reconstruct what an object that fell into a black hole was like based on information leaking from it, Hawking writes, just as "one can't predict the weather more than a few days in advance."

Firewalls Removed

Hawking's reasoning against event horizons also seems to eliminate so-called firewalls, which are searing zones of intense radiation that some scientists recently (and controversially) suggested may exist at or near event horizons.

To grasp the significance of this revision, it helps to know that Hawking revealed decades ago that black holes are not perfectly "black." Instead, they emit radiation just beyond their event horizons, the energy of their gravitational fields causing pairs of particles to pop into existence in the surrounding vacuum.

Over time, generating this so-called Hawking radiation makes black holes lose mass—or even completely evaporate.

According to this theory, the pairs of particles created around black holes should be entangled with each other. This means the behavior of each pair's particles is connected, regardless of distance. One member of each pair falls into the black hole while the other escapes.

But recent analyses suggest that each particle leaving a black hole must also be entangled with every outgoing particle that has already left. This runs head-on into a well-tested principle of quantum physics stating that entanglement is always "monogamous," meaning two particles, and only two, are paired from the time of their creation.

Since no particle can have two kinds of entanglement at the same time—one pairing it with another particle at the time of its origin, and one pairing it with all other particles that have left a black hole—one of those entanglements theoretically must get uncoupled, releasing vast amounts of energy and generating a firewall.

Firewalls obey quantum physics, solving the conundrum black holes pose regarding entanglement. But they pose another problem by contradicting Einstein's well-tested "equivalence principle," which implies that crossing a black hole's event horizon should be an unremarkable event. A hypothetical astronaut passing across an event horizon would not even be aware of the transit. If there were a firewall, however, the astronaut would be instantly incinerated. Since that violates Einstein's principle, Hawking and others have sought to prove that firewalls are impossible.

"It almost sounds like he is replacing the firewall with a chaos-wall," said Kavli Institute physicist Joe Polchinski, who did not participate in Hawking's work.

Open Questions

Although quantum physicist Seth Lloyd of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology felt Hawking's idea was a good way to avoid firewalls, he said it doesn't really address the problems that firewalls raise.

"I would caution against any belief that Hawking has come up with a dramatic new solution answering all questions regarding black holes," said theoretical physicist Sean Carroll at the California Institute of Technology, who did not participate in this study. "These problems are very far from being resolved."

Theoretical physicist Leonard Susskind at Stanford University in California, who also did not take part in Hawking's research, suggests there may be another solution to the conundrums that black holes pose. For instance, work by Susskind and his colleague Juan Maldacena hint that entanglement might be linked to wormholes: shortcuts that can in theory connect distant points in space and time. This line of thought might serve as the foundation for research that could solve the firewall controversy, Susskind said.

Theoretical physicist Don Page at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada, noted that there will be no way to find evidence to support Hawking's idea in the immediate future. Astronomers will not be able to detect any difference in the behavior of black holes from what they have already observed.

Nevertheless, Hawking's new proposal "might lead to a more complete theory regarding quantum gravity that makes other predictions that are testable," Page said.

Carroll plans to keep an eye on Hawking in the days ahead: "It's very plausible Hawking has a much better argument that he hasn't yet gotten down on paper."


THuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Are Black Holes Actually Dark Energy Stars?

Posted By Jesse Stone on Oct 15, 2018

What does the supermassive black hole at the center of the Milky Way look like? Early next year, we might find out. The Event Horizon Telescope—really a virtual telescope with an effective diameter of the Earth—has been pointing at Sagittarius A* for the last several years. Most researchers in the astrophysics community expect that its images, taken from telescopes all over the Earth, will show the telltale signs of a black hole: a bright swirl of light, produced by a disc of gases trapped in the black hole’s orbit, surrounding a black shadow at the center—the event horizon. This encloses the region of space where the black-hole singularity’s gravitational pull is too strong for light to escape.

But George Chapline, a physicist at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, doesn’t expect to see a black hole. He doesn’t believe they’re real. In 2005, he told Nature that “it’s a near certainty that black holes don’t exist” and—building on previous work he’d done with physics Nobel laureate Robert Laughlin—introduced an alternative model that he dubbed “dark energy stars.” Dark energy is a term physicists use to describe a peculiar kind of energy that appears to permeate the entire universe. It expands the fabric of spacetime itself, even as gravity attempts to bring objects closer together. Chapline believes that the immense energies in a collapsing star cause its protons and neutrons to decay into a gas of photons and other elementary particles, along with what he refers to as “droplets of vacuum energy.” These form a “condensed” phase of spacetime—much like a gas under enough pressure transitions to liquid—that has a much higher density of dark energy than the spacetime surrounding the star. This provides the pressure necessary to hold gravity at bay and prevent a singularity from forming. Without a singularity in spacetime, there is no black hole.

The idea has found no support in the astrophysical community—over the last decade, Chapline’s papers on this topic have garnered only single-digit citations. His most popular paper in particle physics, by contrast, has been cited over 600 times. But Chapline suspects his days of wandering in the scientific wilderness may soon be over. He believes that the Event Horizon Telescope will offer evidence that dark energy stars are real.

This strange toroidal geometry isn’t a bug of dark energy stars, but a feature.

The idea goes back to a 2000 paper, with Evan Hohlfeld and David Santiago, in which Chapline and Laughlin modeled spacetime as a Bose-Einstein condensate—a state of matter that arises when taking an extremely low-density gas to extremely low temperatures, near absolute zero. Chapline and Laughlin’s model is quantum mechanical in nature: General relativity emerges as a consequence of the way that the spacetime condensate behaves on large scales. Spacetime in this model also undergoes phase transformations when it gains or loses energy. Other scientists find this to be a promising path, too. A 2009 paper by a group of Japanese physicists stated that “[Bose-Einstein Condensates] are one of the most promising quantum fluids for” analogizing curved spacetime.

Chapline and Laughlin argue that they can describe the collapsed stars that most scientists take to be black holes as regions where spacetime has undergone a phase transition. They find that the laws of general relativity are valid everywhere in the vicinity of the collapsed star, except at the event horizon, which marks the boundary between two different phases of spacetime.

In the condensate model the event horizon surrounding a collapsed star is no longer a point of no return but instead a traversable, physical surface. This feature, along with the lack of a singularity that is the signature feature of black holes, means that paradoxes associated with black holes, like the destruction of information, don’t arise. Laughlin has been reticent to conjecture too far beyond his and Chapline’s initial ideas. He believes Chapline is onto something with dark energy stars, “but where we part company is in the amount of speculating we are willing to do about what ‘phase’ of the vacuum might be inside” what most scientists call black holes, Laughlin said. He’s holding off until experimental data reveals more about the interior phase. “I will then write my second paper on the subject,” he said.

In recent years Chapline has continued to refine his dark energy star model in collaboration with several other authors, including Pawel Mazur of the University of South Carolina and Piotr Marecki of Leipzig University. He’s concluded that dark energy stars aren’t spherical or oblate, like black holes. Instead, they have the shape of a torus, or donut. In a rotating compact object, like a dark energy star, Chapline believes quantum effects in the spacetime condensate generate a large vortex along the object’s axis of rotation. Because the region inside the vortex is empty—think of the depression that forms at the center of whirlpool—the center of the dark energy star is hollow, like an apple without its core. A similar effect is observed when quantum mechanics is used to model rotating drops of superfluid. There too, a central vortex can form at the center of a rotating drop and, surprisingly, change its shape from a sphere to a torus.

In the condensate model the event horizon surrounding a collapsed star is no longer a point of no return but instead a traversable, physical surface.

For Chapline, this strange toroidal geometry isn’t a bug of dark energy stars, but a feature, as it helps explain the origin and shape of astrophysical jets—the highly energetic beams of ionized matter that are generated along the axis of rotation of a compact object like a black hole. Chapline believes he’s identified a mechanism in dark energy stars that explains observations of astrophysical jets better than mainstream ones, which posit that energy is extracted from the accretion disk outside of a black hole and focused into a narrow beam along the black hole’s axis of rotation. To Chapline, matter and energy falling toward a dark energy star would make its way to the inner throat (the “donut hole”), where electrons orbiting the throat would, as in a Biermann Battery, generate magnetic fields powerful enough to drive the jets.

Chapline points to recent experimental work where scientists, at the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester, created magnetized jets using lasers to form a ring-like excitation on a flat surface. Though the experiments were not conducted with dark energy stars in mind, Chapline believes it provides support for his theory since the ring-like excitation—Chapline calls it a “ring of fire”—is exactly what he would expect to happen along the throat of a dark energy star. He believes the ring could be the key to supporting the existence of dark energy stars. “This ought to eventually show up clearly” in the Event Horizon Telescope images, Chapline said, referring to the ring.

Chapline also points out that dark energy stars will not be completely opaque to light, as matter and light can pass into, but also out of, a dark energy star. A dark energy star won’t have a completely black interior—instead it will show a distorted image of any stars behind it. Other physicists, though, are skeptical that these kinds of deviations from conventional black hole models would show up in the Event Horizon Telescope data. Raul Carballo-Rubio, a physicist at the International School for Advanced Studies, in Trieste, Italy, has developed his own alternative model to black holes known as semi-classical relativistic stars. Speaking more generally about alternative black hole models Caraballo-Rubio said, “The differences [with black holes] that would arise in these models are too minute to be detected” by the Event Horizon Telescope.

Chapline plans to discuss his dark energy star predictions in December, at the Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics in Santa Barbara. But even if his predictions are confirmed, he said he doesn’t expect the scientific community to become convinced overnight. “I expect that for the next few years the [Event Horizon Telescope] people will be confused by what they see.”

Jesse Stone is a freelance writer based in Iowa City, Iowa. Reach him at moc.liamg|enotsbessej#moc.liamg|enotsbessej.


THuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Where is the closest black hole?

March 21, 2016 by Fraser Cain, Universe Today**

(edited for accuracy by FrstUrantianOmneeonist)

Where is the closest black hole?

whereisthecl.jpg

…You know that saying, "keep your friends close, but keep your enemies closer?" That advice needs to go right out the window when we're talking black holes. They're the worst enemies you could have and you want them as far away as possible.

We're talking (about) regions of space where matter is compressed so densely that the only way to escape is to be traveling faster than the speed of light. And as we know, you can't go faster than the speed of light. So… there's no escape.

Get too close to the black hole and you'll be compressed [eventually] into [neutrons].

But you can be reasonably distant from a black hole too, and still have your day ruined. A black hole reaches out through the light years with its gravity. And if one were to wander too close to our Solar System, it would wreak havoc on all our precious planets.

The planets and even the Sun would be gobbled up, or smashed together, or even thrown out of the Solar System entirely.

Black holes are (usually) unkillable. Anything you might try to do to them just makes them bigger, stronger and angrier. Your only hope is to just wait them out over the eons it takes for them to evaporate. (Idea: dark star evaporation myt be enkrajd artificially.)

It makes sense to keep track of all the black holes out there, just in case we might need to evacuate this Solar System in a hurry.

Where is the closest black hole?

…There are two kinds of black holes out there: the supermassive black holes at the heart of every galaxy, and the stellar mass black holes formed when massive stars die in a supernova.

The supermassive ones are relatively straightforward. There's one at the heart of (almost) every single galaxy in the Universe. One in the middle of the Milky Way, located about 27,000 light-years away. One in Andromeda 2.5 million light years away, and so on.

No problem, the' supermassive ones are really far away, no threat to us (now).

The stellar mass ones might be more of a problem…

Here's the problem. Black holes don't emit any radiation, they're completely invisible, so there's no easy way to see them in the sky. The only you'd know there's a black hole is if you were close enough to see the background starlight getting distorted. And if you're close enough to see that, you're already dead.

The closest black hole we know of is V616 Monocerotis, also known as V616 Mon. It's located about 3,000 light years away, and has between 9-13 times the mass of the Sun. We know it's there because it's located in a binary system with a star with about half the mass of the Sun. Only a black hole could make its binary partner buzz around so quickly. Astronomers can't see the black hole, they just know it's there by the whirling gravity dance.

See: Vid: What If the Smallest Black Hole Entered the Solar System?

  • (According tu Sohlr Sistem Simulation, ohnlee Mercury and Earth stay in ohrbit uhrownd our Sun!!! Thuh mohshun uv owr sun in reeleyshun tu thuh mohshun uv Dahrk Stahr V616 Mon iz not shown.

The next closest black hole is the classic Cygnus X-1, which is about 6,000 light-years away. It has about 15 times the mass of the Sun, and once again, it's in a binary system.

The third closest black hole, is also in a binary system.

See the problem here? The reality is that (only) a fraction of black holes are in binary systems, but that's our only way to detect them.

More likely there are more black holes much more close than the ones astronomers have been able to discover.

This all sounds terrifying, I'm sure, and now you've probably got one eye on the sky, watching for that telltale distortion of light from an approaching black hole. But these events are impossibly rare.

The Solar System has been around for more than 4.5 billion years, with all the planets going around and around without interruption. Even if a black hole passed the [[Solar System]]] within a few dozen light years, it would have messed up the orbits significantly, and life probably wouldn't be here to consider this fact.

We didn't encounter a black hole in billions of years, and probably won't encounter one for (an uncumpeewted numbr uv) years.

Sadly, the answer to this question is… we don't know. We just don't know if the closest black holes is a few light years away, or it's actually V616 Mon… (Ohnlee tym and reesrch will tell.)

Read more at: https://phys.org/news/2016-03-closest-black-hole.html#jCp


Ther ahr 2 kynkz uv Dahrk Stahrz: Nwtron Lyt Stahr swprnohvuh reemeyndrz and Swprmassiv Dahrk Stahrz in thuh mid uv mohst gallakseez…

Swprnohvuh and (Supermassive=Swprmassiv) Dark Star Black Hole Syzohmz kommentehree uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh

Infihnit numbrz uv gallakseez usually form with a supermassive black hole Dark Star in their sentr. Gallaxeez ahr lyk gravity funnelz uv the galactic central bulj, which usually contain a (supermassive=swprmassiv) black hole dark star. Supermassive Dark Stars grow by accretion of matter. Therefore the gravity uv each galactic central supermassive dark star iz increasing, thus causing thu galactic radius uv orbit uv solar systems lyk ours tu slightly lessen due tu the increase uv central gravity uv thu growing black hole. Therefore the millions uv years orbits uv solar systems lyk ourz gradually lessenz az all galactic matter iz very slowly pulled into thu galactic central bulge which iz food for the central dark star hwz srfas iz kahld blak hohl.

Thu only way tu hopefully someday eventually tu steybulyz thu orbits uv our and other solar systems in our Milky Way (or any other galaxy ohr Dahrk Stahr grav fuhnul) iz for some organization(z) tu at some time become Anti-Black-Hole- Ists, hw ahr realistically Anti-Dark+Star+Izm/Ists with sum uv them eventually organizing appropriate Syuhntist Fizzissist Engineering Institwts, tho our wrld'z civilizations hav thousands uv Lyt Yearz tu accomplish this. Some galaxiez don't hav central dark stars and this might be explained az either the formation uv a galaxy and its central bulge without a supermassive black hole or evidence uv intelligence there by kozzing the destruction of uv the central black hole, possibly tu seyv a civilization from dahrk stahr destruction.


See Also-AhLsoh:



SohLr SisTem, Wich In Simp Lang Iz SohL Sun WrLdz,


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:
UranTia Book [http://www.urantiabook.org/newbook/papers/p057.htm#P057_6_0

Paper 57…Section 6 THE_SOLAR_SYSTEM_STAGE_THE_PLANET-FORMING_ERA

57:6.8 3,000,000,000 years ago the solar system was functioning much as it does today. Its members continued to grow in size as space meteors continued to pour in upon the planets and their satellites at a prodigious rate.

57:6.9 About this time your Solar SysTem was placed on the physical registry of Nebadon and given its name, Monmatia.



Sohl Suhn Wrldz Map

Solar-system-L1075-004_detail.jpg
THuh Uhbuhv Immaj Wuhz Fruhm:

See ALso=AHLsoh:

THis Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeed " Sohl Suhn Wrldz Map ".



Sun Uv SohL Sun WrLdz SheeLd Sfeer Uv Sohrss Uv AhL PLan:

500px-Sun_poster.svg.png

After our sun's core hydrogen is exhausted

The Sun does not have enough mass to explode as a supernova. Instead it will exit the main sequence in approximately 5 billion years and start to turn into a red giant. As a red giant, the Sun will grow so large that it will engulf Mercury, Venus, and probably EarTh.

800px-The_life_of_Sun-like_stars.jpg
Frum: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stellar_evolution

Planetary Nebula: Gas and Dust, and No Planets Involved

In about 5 billion years, when the sun shucks off its outer layers, it will create a beautiful shell of diffuse gas known as a PLaneTary NebuLa. About 10,000 of these short-lived, glowing objects are estimated to exist in the Milky Way, although only about 1,500 have been detected; the unseen rest hide behind interstellar dust.

See ALso=AhLsoh: Google Image Srch Fohr "Planetary Nebula"



Mercury in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Mrkyree uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh.

the-planet-mercury-2-638.jpg?cb=1493048200

See also:



Fuhnehtik IngLish Venus uv SohLr Sistem uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh

main-qimg-04955f30fe840f7da03630735fc69061-c

Thuh Wrd SpeLd UranTia Az Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/urantia/


YranTeeuh HisTurree

Table of Contents

UranTia Wrd Ohridjin STohree

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm Thuh UranTia Book:In Paeepr 57 The Origin of Urantia

8.1]: [ UhbowT ] 1,000,000,000 years ago is the date of the actual beginning of UranTia history. The planet had attained approximately its present size. And about this time it was placed upon the physical registries of Nebadon and given its name, UranTia.

WuT Duu Yuu THeengk? Iz Thuh Uhbuhv Vrss FakT Ohr Fikshuhn?


Pree Man Ehruhs

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Frum:

Urantia Book: Part 4: History Of Urantia

Paper 57: The Origin of Urantia
5. Origin of Monmatia - The Urantia Solar System
6. The Solar System Stage
7. The Meteoric Era
8. Crustal Stabilization

Paper 58: Life Establishment on Urantia
1. Physical-Life Prerequisites
2. The Urantia Atmosphere
3. Spatial Environment
4. The Life-Dawn Era
5. The Continental Drift
6. The Transition Period
7. The Geologic History Book

Paper 59: The Marine-Life Era on Urantia
1. Early Marine Life in the Shallow Seas
2. The First Continental Flood Stage
3. The Second Great Flood Stage
4. The Great Land-Emergence Stage
5. The Crustal-shifting Stage
6. The Climatic Transition Stage

Paper 60: Urantia During the Early Land-Life Era
1. The Early Reptilian Age
2. The Later Reptilian Age
3. The Cretaceous Stage
4. The End of the Chalk Period

Paper 61: The Mammalian Era on Urantia
1. The New Continental Land Stage
2. The Recent Flood Stage
3. The Modern Mountain Stage
4. The Recent Continental-Elevation Stage
5. The Early Ice Age…
7. The Continuing Ice Age


Dahn Man Kyndz

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Paper 62: The Dawn Races of Early Man

1. The Early Lemur Types
2. The Dawn Mammals
3. The Mid-Mammals
4. The Primates
5. The First Human Beings
6. Evolution of the Human Mind
7. Recognition as an Inhabited World


Andonnik Evvuhluushuhnehree Kyndz

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Paper 63: The First Human Family
1. Andon and Fonta
2. The Flight of the Twins
3. Andon's Family
4. The Andonic Clans
5. Dispersion of the Andonites
6. Onagar - The First Truth Teacher
7. The Survival of Andon and Fonta

Paper 64: The Evolutionary Races of Color
1. The Andonic Aborigines
2. The Foxhall Peoples
3. The Badonan Tribes
4. The Neanderthal Races
5. Origin of the Colored Races
6. The Six Sangik Races of Urantia
7. Dispersion of the Colored Races


PlannehTehree MohrTul Ehpokss

Urantia Book Paper 52: Planetary Mortal Epochs

1. Primitive Man
2. Post-Planetary Prince Man
3. Post-Adamic Man
4. Post-Magisterial Son Man
5. Post-Bestowal Son Man
6. Urantia's Post-Bestowal Age
7. Post-Teacher Son Man


YranTeeuh Feeuuchr


Spheres Of LighT And Life

Urantia Book PAPER 55: THE SPHERES OF LIGHT AND LIFE

5:0.1 The age of light and life is the final evolutionary attainment of a world of time and space. From the early times of primitive man, such an inhabited world has passed through the successive planetary ages—the pre- and the post-Planetary Prince ages, the post-Adamic age, the post-Magisterial Son age, and the postbestowal Son age. And then is such a world made ready for the culminating evolutionary attainment, the settled status of light and life… In these endeavors the Teacher Sons enjoy the assistance of the Brilliant Evening Stars always, and the Melchizedeks sometimes, in establishing the final planetary age.

55:0.2 This era of light and life, inaugurated by the Teacher Sons at the conclusion of their final planetary mission, continues indefinitely on the inhabited worlds. Each advancing stage of settled status may be segregated by the judicial actions of the Magisterial Sons into a succession of dispensations; but all such judicial actions are purely technical, in no way modifying the course of planetary events.

55:0.3 Only those planets which attain existence in the main circuits of the superuniverse are assured of continuous survival, but as far as we know, these worlds settled in light and life are destined to go on throughout the eternal ages of all future time.

55:0.4 There are seven stages in the unfoldment of the era of light and life on an evolutionary world, and in this connection it should be noted that the worlds of the Spirit-fused mortals evolve along lines identical with those of the Adjuster-fusion series. These seven stages of light and life are:

The first or planetary stage.
The second or system stage.
The third or constellation stage.
The fourth or local universe stage.
The fifth or minor sector stage.
The sixth or major sector stage.
The seventh or superuniverse stage.


Spheres Of LighT And Life

Urantia Book PAPER 55: THE SPHERES OF LIGHT AND LIFE

5:0.1 The age of light and life is the final evolutionary attainment of a world of time and space. From the early times of primitive man, such an inhabited world has passed through the successive planetary ages—the pre- and the post-Planetary Prince ages, the post-Adamic age, the post-Magisterial Son age, and the postbestowal Son age. And then is such a world made ready for the culminating evolutionary attainment, the settled status of light and life… In these endeavors the Teacher Sons enjoy the assistance of the Brilliant Evening Stars always, and the Melchizedeks sometimes, in establishing the final planetary age.

55:0.2 This era of light and life, inaugurated by the Teacher Sons at the conclusion of their final planetary mission, continues indefinitely on the inhabited worlds. Each advancing stage of settled status may be segregated by the judicial actions of the Magisterial Sons into a succession of dispensations; but all such judicial actions are purely technical, in no way modifying the course of planetary events.

55:0.3 Only those planets which attain existence in the main circuits of the superuniverse are assured of continuous survival, but as far as we know, these worlds settled in light and life are destined to go on throughout the eternal ages of all future time.

55:0.4 There are seven stages in the unfoldment of the era of light and life on an evolutionary world, and in this connection it should be noted that the worlds of the Spirit-fused mortals evolve along lines identical with those of the Adjuster-fusion series. These seven stages of light and life are:

The first or planetary stage.
The second or system stage.
The third or constellation stage.
The fourth or local universe stage.
The fifth or minor sector stage.
The sixth or major sector stage.
The seventh or superuniverse stage.



Simp Lang Mars in Funetik Inglish iz Mahrz uv Lwnr Week Syzohmz uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh

Size-Mars-Facts.gif

Jupiter in Funetik Inglish iz Jwpitr uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh.

main-qimg-63ac40f07372f6a2f22f1d15746e0459-c

See: https://phys.org/news/2017-01-metallic-hydrogen-theory-reality.html

doesjupiterh.png

Jupiter Moons OVERVIEW
Jupiter has 53 named moons. Sixteen more have been discovered but not given official status or names. Combined, scientists now think Jupiter has 69 moons. There are many interesting moons orbiting the planet, but the ones of most scientific interest are the first four moons discovered beyond Earth—the Galilean satellites…:

Adrastea

Aitne

Amalthea

Ananke

Aoede

Arche

Autonoe

Callirrhoe

Callisto

Carme

Carpo

Chaldene

Cyllene

Dia

Elara

Erinome

Euanthe

Eukelade

Euporie

Europa

Eurydome

Ganymede

Harpalyke

Hegemone

Helike

Hermippe

Herse

Himalia

Io

Iocaste

Isonoe

Jupiter LI

Jupiter LII

Kale

Kallichore

Kalyke

Kore

Leda

Lysithea

Megaclite

Metis

Mneme

Orthosie

Pasiphae

Pasithee

Praxidike

S/2003 J10

S/2003 J12

S/2003 J15

S/2003 J16

S/2003 J18

S/2003 J19

S/2003 J2

S/2003 J23

S/2003 J3

S/2003 J4

S/2003 J5

S/2003 J9

S/2011 J1

S/2011 J2

S/2016 J 1

S/2017 J 1

Sinope

Sponde

Taygete

Thebe

Thelxinoe

Themisto

Thyone

See also:



Saturn in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Satrn uv Sohlr Sistem Syzohmz

2000px-Saturn_diagram.svg.png

Saturn Moons OVERVIEW

The Voyager and Pioneer flybys of the 1970s and 1980s provided rough sketches of Saturn’s moons. But during its many years in Saturn orbit, NASA’s Cassini spacecraft discovered previously unknown moons, solved mysteries about known ones, studied their interactions with the rings and uncovered new mysteries—including the discovery on an ocean moon with potential ingredients for life—that will engage a whole new generation of space scientists.​

Aegaeon

Aegir

Albiorix

Anthe

Atlas

Bebhionn

Bergelmir

Bestla

Calypso

Daphnis

Dione

Enceladus

Epimetheus

Erriapus

Farbauti

Fenrir

Fornjot

Greip

Hati

Helene

Hyperion

Hyrrokkin

Iapetus

Ijiraq

Janus

Jarnsaxa

Kari

Kiviuq

Loge

Methone

Mimas

Mundilfari

Narvi

Paaliaq

Pallene

Pan

Pandora

Phoebe

Polydeuces

Prometheus

Rhea

Siarnaq

Skathi

Skoll

Surtur

Suttungr

Tarqeq

Tarvos

Telesto

Tethys

Thrymr

Titan

Ymir

See also:
https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/moons/saturn-moons/in-depth/



Uranus


Uranus-Compositoin-and-Atmosphere.png

What is Uranus composed of?

The atmosphere of the planet is mostly composed of Hydrogen and Helium gases. The planet has a rocky core which is believed to be layered by an icy material made up of water, methane and ammonia ice. Scientists also believe that a vast liquid body with high temperatures is present in the surface of the planet, hidden by the thick atmosphere.

Does Uranus have rings?

Till now 13 distinct rings have been identified around Uranus that, unlike the rings of other gas giants, are narrow and dark.


uranus.jpg
Thuh Uhbuhv Pikchr Wuhz Fruhm:
Uranus-Moons.jpg

Does Uranus have moons?

Till now, 27 moons have been discovered with Titania being the largest of them. Like Titania, other moons of Uranus are named after characters created by William Shakespeare and Alexander Pope like Oberon, Ariel and Miranda.


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Paeej Naeemd Uranus.



NepTune

Neptune_with_rings.jpgneptune_int-browse.jpg

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Formation

Neptune took shape when the rest of the solar system formed about 4.5 billion years ago, when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become this ice giant. Like its neighbor Uranus, Neptune likely formed closer to the Sun and moved to the outer solar system about 4 billion years ago…

Size and Distance

With a radius of 15,299.4 miles (24,622 kilometers), Neptune is about four times wider than Earth. If Earth were the size of a nickel, Neptune would be about as big as a baseball.

From an average distance of 2.8 billion miles (4.5 billion kilometers), Neptune is 30 astronomical units away from the Sun. One astronomical unit (abbreviated as AU), is the distance from the Sun to Earth. From this distance, it takes sunlight 4 hours to travel from the Sun to Neptune…

Orbit and Rotation

One day on Neptune takes about 16 hours (the time it takes for Neptune to rotate or spin once). And Neptune makes a complete orbit around the Sun (a year in Neptunian time) in about 165 Earth years (60,190 Earth days).

Sometimes Neptune is even farther from the Sun than dwarf planet Pluto. Pluto's highly eccentric, oval-shaped orbit brings it inside Neptune's orbit for a 20-year period every 248 Earth years. This switch, in which Pluto is closer to the Sun than Neptune, happened most recently from 1979 to 1999. Pluto can never crash into Neptune, though, because for every three laps Neptune takes around the Sun, Pluto makes two. This repeating pattern prevents close approaches of the two bodies.

Neptune’s axis of rotation is tilted 28 degrees with respect to the plane of its orbit around the Sun, which is similar to the axial tilts of Mars and Earth. This means that Neptune experiences seasons just like we do on Earth; however, since its year is so long, each of the four seasons lasts for over 40 years…

Magnetosphere

The main axis of Neptune's magnetic field is tipped over by about 47 degrees compared with the planet's rotation axis. Like Uranus, whose magnetic axis is tilted about 60 degrees from the axis of rotation, Neptune's magnetosphere undergoes wild variations during each rotation because of this misalignment. The magnetic field of Neptune is about 27 times more powerful than that of Earth.​..

Structure

Neptune is one of two ice giants in the outer solar system (the other is Uranus). Most (80 percent or more) of the planet's mass is made up of a hot dense fluid of "icy" materials—water, methane and ammonia—above a small, rocky core. Of the giant planets, Neptune is the densest.

Scientists think there might be an ocean of super hot water under Neptune's cold clouds. It does not boil away because incredibly high pressure keeps it locked inside.

Surface

Neptune does not have a solid surface. Its atmosphere (made up mostly of hydrogen, helium and methane) extends to great depths, gradually merging into water and other melted ices over a heavier, solid core with about the same mass as Earth.

Atmosphere

Neptune's atmosphere is made up mostly of hydrogen and helium with just a little bit of methane. Neptune's neighbor Uranus is a blue-green color due to such atmospheric methane, but Neptune is a more vivid, brighter blue, so there must be an unknown component that causes the more intense color.

Neptune is our solar system's windiest world. Despite its great distance and low energy input from the Sun, Neptune's winds can be three times stronger than Jupiter's and nine times stronger than Earth's. These winds whip clouds of frozen methane across the planet at speeds of more than 1,200 miles per hour (2,000 kilometers per hour). Even Earth's most powerful winds hit only about 250 miles per hour (400 kilometers per hour)

In 1989 a large, oval-shaped storm in Neptune's southern hemisphere dubbed the "Great Dark Spot" was large enough to contain the entire Earth. That storm has since disappeared, but new ones have appeared on different parts of the planet.

Potential for Life

Neptune's environment is not conducive to life as we know it. The temperatures, pressures and materials that characterize this planet are most likely too extreme and volatile for organisms to adapt to…

Moons

Neptune has 13 known moons and one provisional moon that is awaiting official confirmation. Neptune's largest moon Triton was discovered on October 10, 1846, by William Lassell, just 17 days after Johann Gottfried Galle discovered the planet. Since Neptune was named for the Roman god of the sea, its moons are named for various lesser sea gods and nymphs in Greek mythology.

Triton is the only large moon in the solar system that circles its planet in a direction opposite to the planet's rotation (a retrograde orbit), which suggests that it may once have been an independent object that Neptune captured. Triton is extremely cold, with surface temperatures around minus 391 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 235 degrees Celsius). And yet, despite this deep freeze at Triton, Voyager 2 discovered geysers spewing icy material upward more than 5 miles (8 kilometers). Triton's thin atmosphere, also discovered by Voyager, has been detected from Earth several times since, and is growing warmer, but scientists do not yet know why

Rings

Neptune has five known rings. Starting near the planet and moving outward, they are named Galle, Leverrier, Lassell, Arago and Adams. The rings are thought to be relatively young and short-lived.

Neptune's rings also have peculiar clumps of dust called arcs. Four prominent arcs named Liberté (Liberty), Egalité (Equality), Fraternité (Fraternity) and Courage are in the outermost ring, Adams. The arcs are strange because the laws of motion would predict that they would spread out evenly rather than stay clumped together. Scientists now think the gravitational effects of Galatea, a moon just inward from the ring, stabilizes these arcs…


Naiad_Recovery_v3.jpg

Posted on March 12, 2012 by Fraser Cain

The Rings of Neptune

Neptune is one of four planets in our Solar System with planetary rings. Neptune was not discovered until 1846 and its rings were only discovered definitively in 1989 by the Voyager 2 probe. Although the rings were not discovered until the late 1900’s, William Lassell who discovered Titan recorded that he had observed a ring. However, this was never confirmed. The first ring was actually discovered in 1968, but scientists were unable to determine if it was a complete ring. The Voyager’s evidence was the definitive proof for the existence of the rings.

Neptune has five rings: Galle, Le Verrier, Lassell, Arago, and Adams. Its rings were named after the astronomers who made an important discovery regarding the planet. The rings are composed of at least 20% dust with some of the rings containing as much as 70% dust; the rest of the material comprising the rings is small rocks. The planet’s rings are difficult to see because they are dark and vary in density and size. Astronomers think Neptune’s rings are young compared to the age of the planet, and that they were probably formed when one of Neptune’s moons was destroyed.

The Galle ring was named after Johann Gottfried Galle, the first person to see the planet using a telescope. It is the nearest of Neptune’s rings at 41,000–43,000 km. The La Verrier ring was named after the man who predicted Neptune’s position. Very narrow, this ring is only about 113 kilometers wide. The Lassell ring is the widest of Neptune’s rings. Named after William Lassell, it lies between 53,200 kilometers and 57,200 kilometers from Neptune, making it 4,000 kilometers wide. The Arago ring is 57,200 kilometers from the planet and less than 100 kilometers wide.

The outer ring, Adams, was named after John Couch Adams who is credited with the co-discovery of Neptune. Although the ring is narrow at only 35 kilometers wide, it is the most famous of the five due to its arcs. Adams’ arcs are areas where the material of the rings is grouped together in a clump. Although the Adams ring has five arcs, the three most famous ones are Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity. The arcs are the brightest parts of the rings and the first to be discovered. Scientists are unable to explain the existence of these arcs because according to the laws of motion they should distribute the material uniformly throughout the rings.

The rings of Neptune are very dark, and probably made of organic compounds that have been baked in the radiation of space. This is similar to the rings of Uranus, but very different to the icy rings around Saturn. They seem to contain a large quantity of micrometer-sized dust, similar in size to the particles in the rings of Jupiter.

It’s believed that the rings of Neptune are relatively young – much younger than the age of the Solar System, and much younger than the age of Uranus’ rings. They were probably created when one of Neptune’s inner moons got to close to the planet and was torn apart by gravity.

The innermost ring of Neptune orbits at a distance of 41,000 km from the planet, and extends to a width of 2,000 km. It’s named after Johann Gottfried Galle, the first person to see Neptune through a telescope. The next ring is the narrower LeVerrier ring, named after Neptune’s co-discoverer, Urbain Le Verrier. It’s only 113 km wide. Then comes the Lassell ring, the widest ring in the system at about 4,000 km. Then comes the Arago ring, and finally the very thin Adams ring, named after Neptune’s other co-discoverer.

We have written many articles about Neptune here at Universe Today. Here’s The Gas (and Ice) Giant Neptune, What is the Surface of Neptune Like?, 10 Interesting Facts About Neptune, and The Rings of Neptune.

If you’d like more information on Neptune, take a look at Hubblesite’s News Releases about Neptune, and here’s a link to NASA’s Solar System Exploration Guide to Neptune.

We have recorded an entire episode of Astronomy Cast just about Neptune. You can listen to it here, Episode 63: Neptune.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

SIZE COMPARISON
Neptune is 3.9x larger than Earth

Neptune COMPARISON Earth
23 September 1846 DATE OF DISCOVERY Unknown
Urbain Le Verrier, John Couch Adams, Johann Galle DISCOVERED BY Known by the Ancients
4,498,396,441km AVERAGE ORBIT DISTANCE 149,598,262km
19,566km/h MEAN ORBIT VELOCITY
0.00859048 ORBIT ECCENTRICITY 0.01671123
28.3 degrees EQUATORIAL INCLINATION 23.4393 degrees
24,622km EQUATORIAL RADIUS 6,371.00km
154,704.6km EQUATORIAL CIRCUMFERENCE 40,030.2km
62,525,703,987,421km3 VOLUME 1,083,206,916,846km3
1.638g/cm3 DENSITY 5.513g/cm3
102,410,000,000,000,000,000,000,000kg MASS 5,972,190,000,000,000,000,000,000kg
7,618,272,763km2 SURFACE AREA 510,064,472km2
11.15m/s2 SURFACE GRAVITY 9.80665m/s2
84,816km/h ESCAPE VELOCITY 40,284km/h
Hydrogen, Helium, Methane ATMOSPHERIC CONSTITUENTS Nitrogen, Oxygen


PluTo

Table of Contents

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Pluto's formation & origins

The leading hypothesis for the formation of Pluto and Charon is that a nascent Pluto was struck with a glancing blow by another Pluto-size object. Most of the combined matter became Pluto, while the rest spun off to become Charon, this idea suggests.


Immaj PluTo FacTs

pluto-facts.jpg

Immaj PluTo Core

pluto_core.jpg?w=600&h=454

Thuh NeksT InTrneT Paeej Wuhz Fruhm:

Pluto: A Dwarf Planet Oddity ( MulTippul Graphics WiTh Info )


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Dwarf Planet Pluto: Facts About the Icy Former Planet

By Charles Q. Choi November 14, 2017

Pluto, once considered the ninth and most distant planet from the sun, is now the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system. It is also one of the largest known members of the Kuiper Belt, a shadowy zone beyond the orbit of Neptune thought to be populated by hundreds of thousands of rocky, icy bodies each larger than 62 miles (100 kilometers) across, along with 1 trillion or more comets.

In 2006, Pluto was reclassified as a dwarf planet, a change widely thought of as a demotion. The question of Pluto's planet status has attracted controversy and stirred debate in the scientific community, and among the general public, since then. In 2017, a science group (including members of the New Horizon mission) proposed a new definition of planethood based on "round objects in space smaller than stars," which would make the number of planets in our solar system expand from 8 to roughly 100.

American astronomer Percival Lowell first caught hints of Pluto's existence in 1905 from odd deviations he observed in the orbits of Neptune and Uranus, suggesting that another world's gravity was tugging at these two planets from beyond. Lowell predicted the mystery planet's location in 1915, but died without finding it. Pluto was finally discovered in 1930 by Clyde Tombaugh at the Lowell Observatory, based on predictions by Lowell and other astronomers.

Pluto got its name from 11-year-old Venetia Burney of Oxford, England, who suggested to her grandfather that the new world get its name from the Roman god of the underworld. Her grandfather then passed the name on to Lowell Observatory. The name also honors Percival Lowell, whose initials are the first two letters of Pluto…

Research & exploration

NASA's New Horizons mission is the first probe to study Pluto, its moons and other worlds within the Kuiper Belt up close. It was launched on January 2006, and successfully made its closest approach to Pluto on July 14, 2015. The last of the data was downloaded to Earth in 2016. New Horizons is now on its way to the Kuiper Belt object 2014 MU69, which it will fly by on Jan. 1, 2019.

The New Horizons probe carries some of the ashes of Pluto's discoverer, Clyde Tombaugh.

The limited knowledge of the Pluto system created unprecedented dangers for the New Horizons probe. Prior to the mission's launch, scientists knew of the existence of only three moons around Pluto. The discovery of Kerberos and Styx during the spacecraft's journey fueled the idea that more satellites could orbit the dwarf planet, unseen from Earth. Collisions with unseen moons, or even small bits of debris, could have seriously damaged the spacecraft. But the New Horizons design team equipped the space probe with tools to protect it during its journey.

Orbit & rotation

Pluto's rotation is retrograde compared to the solar systems' other worlds; it spins backward, from east to west.

Average distance from the sun: 3,670,050,000 miles (5,906,380,000 km) — 39.482 times that of Earth

Perihelion (closest approach to the sun): 2,756,902,000 miles (4,436,820,000 km) — 30.171 times that of Earth

Aphelion (farthest distance from the sun): 4,583,190,000 miles (7,375,930,000 km) — 48.481 times that of Earth…

Orbital characteristics

Pluto's highly elliptical orbit can take it more than 49 times as far out from the sun as Earth. Since the dwarf planet's orbit is so eccentric, or far from circular, Pluto's distance from the sun can vary considerably. The dwarf planet actually gets closer to the sun than Neptune is for 20 years out of Pluto's 248-Earth-years-long orbit, providing astronomers a rare chance to study this small, cold, distant world.

As a result of that orbit, after 20 years as the eighth planet (in order going out from the sun), in 1999, Pluto crossed Neptune's orbit to become the farthest planet from the sun (until it was demoted to the status of dwarf planet).

When Pluto is closer to the sun, its surface ices thaw and temporarily form a thin atmosphere, consisting mostly of nitrogen, with some methane. Pluto's low gravity, which is a little more than one-twentieth that of Earth's, causes this atmosphere to extend much higher in altitude than Earth's. When traveling farther away from the sun, most of Pluto's atmosphere is thought to freeze and all but disappear. Still, in the time that it does have an atmosphere, Pluto can apparently experience strong winds. The atmosphere also has brightness variations that could be explained by gravity waves, or air flowing over mountains.

While Pluto's atmosphere is too thin to allow liquids to flow today, they may have streamed along the surface in the ancient past. New Horizons imaged a frozen lake in Tombaugh Regio that appeared to have ancient channels nearby. At some point in the ancient past, the planet could have had an atmosphere roughly 40 times thicker than on Mars.

In 2016, scientists announced that they might have spotted clouds in Pluto's atmosphere using New Horizons data. Investigators saw seven bright features that are near the terminator (the boundary between daylight and darkness), which is commonly where clouds form. The features are all low in altitude and roughly about the same size, indicating that these are separate features. The composition of these clouds, if they are indeed clouds, would likely be acetylene, ethane and hydrogen cyanide…

Composition & structure

Some of Pluto's parameters, according to NASA:

Atmospheric composition: Methane, nitrogen. Observations by New Horizons show that Pluto's atmosphere extends as far as 1,000 miles (1,600 km) above the surface of the dwarf planet.

Magnetic field: It remains unknown whether Pluto has a magnetic field, but the dwarf planet's small size and slow rotation suggest it has little to no such field.

Chemical composition: Pluto probably consists of a mixture of 70 percent rock and 30 percent water ice.

Internal structure: The dwarf planet probably has a rocky core surrounded by a mantle of water ice, with more exotic ices such as methane, carbon monoxide and nitrogen ice coating the surface.

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Physical characteristics

Since Pluto is so far from Earth, little was known about the dwarf planet's size or surface conditions until 2015, when NASA's New Horizons space probe made a close flyby of Pluto. New Horizons showed that Pluto has a diameter of 1,473 miles (2,370 km), less than one-fifth the diameter of Earth, and only about two-thirds as wide as Earth's moon.

Observations of Pluto's surface by the New Horizons spacecraft revealed a variety of surface features, including mountains that reach as high as 11,000 feet (3,500 meters), comparable to the Rocky Mountains on Earth. While methane and nitrogen ice cover much of the surface of Pluto, these materials are not strong enough to support such enormous peaks, so scientists suspect that the mountains are formed on a bedrock of water ice.

Pluto's surface is also covered in an abundance of methane ice, but New Horizons scientists have observed significant differences in the way the ice reflects light across the dwarf planet's surface. The dwarf planet also possesses ice ridge terrain that appears to look like a snakeskin; astronomers spotted similar features to Earth's penitentes, or erosion-formed features on mountainous terrain. The Pluto features are much larger; they are estimated at 1,650 feet (500 m) tall, while the Earth features are only a few meters in size.

Another distinct feature on Pluto's surface is a large heart-shaped region known unofficially as Tombaugh Regio (after Clyde Tombaugh; regio is Latin for region). The left side of the region (an area that takes on the shape of an ice cream cone) is covered in carbon monoxide ice. Other variations in the composition of surface materials have been identified within the "heart" of Pluto.

In the center left of Tombaugh Regio is a very smooth region unofficially known by the New Horizons team as "Sputnik Planum," after Earth's first artificial satellite, Sputnik. This region of Pluto's surface lacks craters caused by meteorite impacts, suggesting that the area is, on a geologic timescale, very young — no more than 100 million years old. It's possible that this region is still being shaped and changed by geologic processes.

These icy plains also display dark streaks that are a few miles long, and aligned in the same direction. It's possible the lines are created by harsh winds blowing across the dwarf planet's surface.

NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has also revealed evidence that Pluto's crust could contain complex organic molecules.

Pluto's surface is one of the coldest places in the solar system, at roughly minus 375 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 225 degrees Celsius). When compared with past images, pictures of Pluto taken by the Hubble Space Telescope revealed that the dwarf planet had apparently grown redder over time, apparently due to seasonal changes.

Pluto may have (or may have had) a subsurface ocean, although the evidence is still out on that finding. If the subsurface ocean existed, it could have greatly affected Pluto's history. For example, scientists found that the zone of Sputnik Planitia redirected Pluto's orientation due to the amount of ice in the area, which was so heavy it affected Pluto overall; New Horizons estimated the ice is roughly 6 miles (10 km thick). A subsurface ocean is the best explanation for the evidence, the researchers added, although looking at less likely scenarios, a thicker ice layer or movements in the rock may be responsible for the movement. If Pluto did have a liquid ocean, and enough energy, some scientists think Pluto could harbor life.

Pluto's moons

Pluto has five moons: Charon, Styx, Nix, Kerberos and Hydra, with Charon being the closest to Pluto and Hydra the most distant.

In 1978, astronomers discovered that Pluto had a very large moon nearly half the dwarf planet's own size. This moon was dubbed Charon, after the mythological demon who ferried souls to the underworld in Greek mythology.

Because Charon and Pluto are so similar in size, their orbit is unlike that of most planets and their moons. Both Pluto and Charon orbit a point in space that lies between them, similar to the orbits of binary star systems, For this reason, scientists refer to Pluto and Charon as a double dwarf planet, double planet or binary system.

Pluto and Charon are just 12,200 miles (19,640 km) apart, less than the distance by flight between London and Sydney. Charon's orbit around Pluto takes 6.4 Earth-days, and one Pluto rotation — a Pluto-day — also takes 6.4 Earth-days. This is because Charon hovers over the same spot on Pluto's surface, and the same side of Charon always faces Pluto, a phenomenon known as tidal locking.

While Pluto has a reddish tint, Charon appears more grayish. In its early days, the moon may have contained a subsurface ocean, though the satellite probably can't support one today.

Compared with most of the solar system's planets and moons, the Pluto-Charon system is tipped on its side in relation to the sun.

Observations of Charon by New Horizons have revealed the presence of canyons on the moon's surface. The deepest of those canyons plunges downward for 6 miles (9.7 km). A long swatch of cliffs and troughs stretches for 600 miles (970 km) across the middle of the satellite. A section of the moon's surface near one pole is covered in a much darker material than the rest of the planet. Similar to regions of Pluto, much of Charon's surface is free of craters — suggesting the surface is quite young and geologically active. Scientists saw evidence of landslides on its surface, the first time such features have been spotted in the Kuiper Belt. The moon may have also possessed its own version of plate tectonics, which cause geologic change on Earth.

In 2005, scientists photographed Pluto with the Hubble Space Telescope in preparation for the New Horizons mission and discovered two other tiny moons of Pluto, now dubbed Nix and Hydra. These satellites are two and three times farther away from Pluto than is Charon. Based on measurements by New Horizons, Nix is estimated to be 26 miles (42 km) long and 22 miles (36 km) wide, while Hydra is estimated at 34 miles (55 km) long and 25 miles (40 km) wide. It is likely that Hydra's surface is coated primarily in water ice.

Scientists using Hubble discovered a fourth moon, Kerberos, in 2011. This moon is estimated to be 8 to 21 miles (13 to 34 km) in diameter. On July 11, 2012, a fifth moon, Styx, was discovered (with an estimated width of 6 miles or 10 km), further fueling the debate about Pluto's status as a planet.

The four newly spotted moons may have formed from the collision that created Charon. Their orbits have been found to be highly chaotic.


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Astronomers Describe the Chaotic Dance of Pluto’s Moons

By Kenneth Chang

  • June 3, 2015

The five moons of Pluto form a sort of miniature planetary system — one that is unique in the solar system.

The largest, Charon, 750 miles wide, was discovered in 1978, and it is so large, about one-ninth the mass of Pluto, that the center of mass of the two lies outside Pluto. That has led some planetary scientists to regard Pluto and Charon as a double planet.

By contrast, Earth is 81 times the mass of the moon, and the center of mass is within Earth.

Two much smaller moons of Pluto, now named Nix and Hydra, were discovered in 2005 in images taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. In 2011, another moon, Kerberos, was discovered between the orbits of Nix and Hydra, and a year later, astronomers announced the fifth moon, Styx.

In an article published Wednesday in the journal Nature, Mark R. Showalter of the SETI Institute in Mountain View, Calif., and Douglas P. Hamilton of the University of Maryland calculated more precisely the orbits of the four smaller moons and turned up some surprises.
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For one, Nix, jostled by the competing gravitational pulls of Pluto and Charon, appears to be rotating chaotically.

“It’s not just a little bit chaotic,” Dr. Showalter said. “Nix can flip its entire pole. It could actually be possible to spend a day on Nix in which the sun rises in the east and sets in the north. It is almost random-looking in the way it rotates.”

Dr. Showalter said that Styx and Kerberos were probably also rotating chaotically. “It’s just that we haven’t been able to measure them well enough to see it yet,” he said.

Hydra, the farthest from Pluto, is also tumbling.

“It just shows the universe is a really complex and wonderful place,” said Scott J. Kenyon, an astrophysicist at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Mass., who wrote an accompanying commentary in Nature.

The findings in Nature are based on Hubble images taken from 2005 to 2012 and include detections of Kerberos and Styx in older photographs where astronomers had previously missed seeing them.

NASA’s New Horizons spacecraft, speeding toward a close encounter with Pluto on July 14, may help answer many questions.

The orbits of the five moons are close, but not exactly in resonance, in which gravity would keep the moons moving in lockstep. Styx’s orbital period is close to three times that of Charon, Nix’s is close to four times, Kerberos’s is close to five and Hydra’s is close to six.

“That is not exact, which means it is actually not a resonance at all,” Dr. Showalter said. “Resonance is not like a game of horseshoes, where close counts. You’re either in a resonance or you’re not.”

But the orbits are so close that they strongly suggest that the moons were once in resonance. “This is not random chance,” Dr. Showalter said. “There is definitely something about the nature of these near relationships that is a clue about how this system formed and evolved.”

Dr. Showalter and Dr. Hamilton discovered a different resonance, in which Styx’s motion is locked to those of Nix and Hydra. The two resonances cannot occur simultaneously, so somehow the original resonance of the five moons fell apart and then three of the moons synchronized in the second one.

Refined estimates of the properties of the moons also indicate that Kerberos has one-third the mass of Hydra and yet reflects only one-twentieth as much sunlight. That would mean it is made of something much darker, as dark as charcoal, than Nix and Hydra, which have the brightness of dirty snow or desert sand. “We are totally mystified by the color of Kerberos,” Dr. Showalter said.

The astronomers estimated that Hydra is a potato-shaped object about 36 miles wide, and Nix is 35 miles wide and a bit skinnier. Kerberos is about 19 miles wide, they said. In the Hubble images, Styx was too small and dim for astronomers to estimate its size and reflectivity.

Pluto and its moons are believed to have formed out of a collision of icy bodies in the outer solar system. One idea is that the brighter moons coalesced out of the debris, while the darker Kerberos might be a fragment of the object that slammed into Pluto.