MeThampheTamine MeTaboLism BiochemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

NexT TexT Fruhm: [
Pharmacologic Mechanisms Of…Meth]

Pharmacologic actions of methamphetamine…

In the brain, a primary action of methamphetamine is to elevate the levels of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) by promoting their release from the nerve endings. We do not completely understand how methamphetamine causes neurotransmitter release, but it appears to involve redistribution of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (via the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2) to the neuronal cytoplasm and the reverse transport of neurotransmitters through the plasma membrane transporter into the extracellular space.

NexT TexT Frum: [

Interaction and Transport of Methamphetamine and its Primary Metabolites]


Following oral, inhalation, or intranasal administration, methamphetamine is well-absorbed into the bloodstream (Harris et al., 2003; Schep et al., 2010) and is distributed into many organs with the highest uptake occurring in lungs, liver, brain, and kidneys (Volkow et al., 2010).

Methamphetamine is eliminated by both hepatic [Liver] metabolism and renal [kidney] excretion.

In the liver, it is metabolized by the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 to:


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NexT TexT Fruhm

Pholedrine (Paredrinol, Pulsotyl, Veritol), also known as 4-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine (4-HMA), 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, and para-hydroxymethamphetamine,[1] is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.


NexT TexT Frum: [

Interaction and Transport of Methamphetamine and its Primary Metabolites]


In summary, our study determined the molecular mechanisms involved in transport and disposition of methamphetamine and its metabolites. Moreover, our studies showed that methamphetamine has the potential to inhibit hOCT (human organic cation transporter) and hMATE (human multidrug and toxin extrusion) transporters at clinically relevant concentrations. Finally, we identified complex kinetic interactions between amphetamines and hOCT2 (human organic cation transporter). Our findings provide useful information that may be considered when prescribing medications to methamphetamine users to mitigate the risk of DDIs (drug-drug interaction)s that may potentially compromise therapeutic efficacy and drug safety.


NexT Iz Advyss ReeGahrdeeng Thuh ReepohrT That "methamphetamine has the potential to inhibithMATE (human multidrug and toxin extrusion) transporters".

MeTh BreakDown

PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

Following TexT Frum:

Methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

Methamphetamine actually breaks down and metabolizes into amphetamine.

Amphetamine is scientifically known as methylated phenylethylamine.

NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Methylation, the transfer of a methyl group (―CH3) to [ a chemical ] compound. Methyl groups may be transferred through addition reactions or substitution reactions; in either case, the methyl group takes the place of a hydrogen atom on the compound. Methylation can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological.

NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

DeMethylAtion Iz The ReemoovuL Uhv A MeThyL Group (―CH3) Frum A Kem Compound.

AmfehTuhmeen MehTabbohLizm ( AmpheTamine MeTabolism )

Uhv AmpheTemine Uhv Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

NexT TexT Fruhm:

Paeedj Name: Amphetamine

NexT TexT Fruhm

6.4 Metabolism

The major metabolic pathway for amphetamine involves deamination by cytochrome P450 to para-hydroxyamphetamine and phenylacetone;

[T]his latter compound is subsequently oxidised to benzoic acid and excreted as glucuronide or glycine (hippuric acid) conjugate.

Smaller amounts of amphetamine are converted…by oxidation…to norephedrine. Hydroxylation produces an active metabolite, O-hyroxynorephedrine, which acts as a false neurotransmitter and may account for some drug effect, especially in chronic users (Dollery, 1991).

major metabolic pathway for amphetamine

NexT TexT Frum:


verb (used with object), de·am·i·nat·ed, de·am·i·nat·ing. Chemistry.

to remove the amino group from (a compound).

Amino Group Pikchr


Heere ReeKwohTed:

NexT TexT Frum:

Paeedj Naeem: Hydroxyamphetamine

3. Names and Identifiers
3.4 Synonyms
Hydrobromide, Hydroxyamphetamine
Hydroxyamphetamine Hydrobromide
p Hydroxyamphetamine
para Hydroxyamphetamine

NexT TexT Frum: : Srch "Decomposition"
"When heated to decomposition [Amphetamine] emits…nitroxides."

NexT TexT Frum:
Nitroxide is the parent name used by Chemical Abstracts Service for H2N–O.

See: Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs

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