MeThampheTamine MeTaboLism BiochemisTry In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

NexT TexT Fruhm: [
Pharmacologic Mechanisms Of…Meth]

Pharmacologic actions of methamphetamine…

In the brain, a primary action of methamphetamine is to elevate the levels of extracellular monoamine neurotransmitters (dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine) by promoting their release from the nerve endings. We do not completely understand how methamphetamine causes neurotransmitter release, but it appears to involve redistribution of neurotransmitters from synaptic vesicles (via the vesicular monoamine transporter VMAT2) to the neuronal cytoplasm and the reverse transport of neurotransmitters through the plasma membrane transporter into the extracellular space.

NexT TexT Frum: [

Interaction and Transport of Methamphetamine and its Primary Metabolites]


Following oral, inhalation, or intranasal administration, methamphetamine is well-absorbed into the bloodstream (Harris et al., 2003; Schep et al., 2010) and is distributed into many organs with the highest uptake occurring in lungs, liver, brain, and kidneys (Volkow et al., 2010).

Methamphetamine is eliminated by both hepatic [Liver] metabolism and renal [kidney] excretion.

In the liver, it is metabolized by the polymorphic enzyme cytochrome P450 2D6 to:

DeMethylAtion Iz The ReemoovuL Uhv A MeThyL Group (―CH3) Frum A Kem Compound.

MeTh BreakDown

Following TexT Frum:

Methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

Methamphetamine actually breaks down and metabolizes into amphetamine.

Amphetamine is scientifically known as methylated phenylethylamine.

Methylation, the transfer of a methyl group (―CH3) to [ a chemical ] compound. Methyl groups may be transferred through addition reactions or substitution reactions; in either case, the methyl group takes the place of a hydrogen atom on the compound. Methylation can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological.


4-HydroxyMethAmphetamine Uhv MeTh MehTabbuhLizm ByohKehmIsTry Uhv Kush Byb EL

NexT TexT Fruhm

Pholedrine (Paredrinol, Pulsotyl, Veritol), also known as 4-hydroxy-N-methylamphetamine (4-HMA), 4-hydroxymethamphetamine, and para-hydroxymethamphetamine,[1] is a drug that stimulates the sympathetic nervous system.


NexT TexT Frum: [

Interaction and Transport of Methamphetamine and its Primary Metabolites]


In summary, our study determined the molecular mechanisms involved in transport and disposition of methamphetamine and its metabolites. Moreover, our studies showed that methamphetamine has the potential to inhibit hOCT (human organic cation transporter) and hMATE (human multidrug and toxin extrusion) transporters at clinically relevant concentrations. Finally, we identified complex kinetic interactions between amphetamines and hOCT2 (human organic cation transporter). Our findings provide useful information that may be considered when prescribing medications to methamphetamine users to mitigate the risk of DDIs (drug-drug interaction)s that may potentially compromise therapeutic efficacy and drug safety.