KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz

"QuanTum Physics Kind Types Ordered By Size"

"QuanTum Physics" Phrase Name Term Description

Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Fohr KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn

FrsT Dim Dahrk Ohr LyT Ohr Fohrss PoinT Syz Ohmz

HypoThehsis Uhv LeesT SmahL PoeenTs Uhv Ehnrjee

HypoThehsis Uhv LeesT SmahL EhLehmenTree PahrTikkuLz Kuhnvrzhuhn

KwahnTuhm STreeng Izm

KwahnTuhm STreeng Syz Ohmz

Hypothehsis That KwahnTuhm Streengz Kuhmbyn Tu Fohrm KwahnTuhm Sheets.

Hypothehsis That Kwahntum Sheets Kuhmbyn Tu Fohrm Kwahntuhm Waeevz

KwahnTuhm Wayv Syz Ohmz

KwahnTuhn PahrTikkul Izm

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

4 Fundamental Forces of Physics

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

EeLekTronz Uhbsohrbeeng And ReeLeeseeng FohTohnz

EhLehmehnTuhree And KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz And Fohrss Ohmz

HypoThehsis ThaT STreengz And Sheets And Waeevz And PahrTikkuLz Mix Az KwahnTuhm Fohm

Maeek KwahnTuhm Fohm Izm Fruhm KwahnTuhm Fohm Syzohmz

End Uhv Maeen LisT Uhv KonTenTs Fohr KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.nap.edu/read/6045/chapter/4

What Is ELemenTary-ParTicLe Physics?

INTRODUCTION

In the literal sense, nothing is simpler than an elementary particle: By definition, a particle is considered to be elementary only if there is no evidence that it is made up of smaller constituents.


Included page "kwahntuhm-poeents-uhv-ehnrjee" does not exist (create it now)

KwahnTuhm PoeenTs Uhv Ehnrjee

Eech KwahnTuhm PoeenT Uhv Ehnrjee Kan Bee RehpreezehnTed MaThemmaTTikkuLLee By Wuhn Uhv Thuh NexT Three Kayss Kyndz:

1: Uh PoeenT In Uh STreeng MyT GeT SymbohLyzd By Uh RegeeuuLur Graee Led Pencil PoeenT On Uh Wuhn DymehnshuhnuL Dahrk Graee Chahk Nuhmbr Lyn On Uh SheeT Uhv BLak KuhnsTruhkshuhn Paeepr.

2: Uh PoeenT On Uh 2 DymehnshuhnuL ALjebruh Graph Grid, Ohr

3: Thuh KuhmpyuuTr Screen RehzohLuushuhn WitH Thuh MohsT GrayT Nuhmbrz Uhv PiksELz Pr Inch MyT Shoh Uh LeesT SmahL KuhmpeewTr Skreen PikseL LyT SwichT On.

Uhv LeesT SmahL PahrT Uhv Pree STreeng :
* MayBee MyT GeT Khayndjd Tu Kyndz FrsT Dim Dahrk Ohr LyT Ohr Fohrss PoinT Syz Ohmz

KwahnTuhm STreeng Syz Ohmz


HypoThehsis ThaT KwahnTuhm Streengz Kuhmbyn Tu Fohrm KwahnTuhm Wayvz.


Included page "kwahntuhm-wayv-syz-ohmz" does not exist (create it now)


KwahnTuhm Wayv Syz Ohmz


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KwahnTuhn PahrTikkul Izm Uhv KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.nap.edu/read/6045/chapter/4

What Is ELemenTary-ParTicLe Physics?

INTRODUCTION

In the literal sense, nothing is simpler than an elementary particle: By definition, a particle is considered to be elementary only if there is no evidence that it is made up of smaller constituents.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

Standrd ModdeL Uhv EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuLs Uhv EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is The Standard Model of Particle Physics?

The Standard Model is a set of mathematical formulae and measurements describing elementary particles and their interactions. It's similar to the way the Periodic Table of Elements describes atoms, categorizing them based on their characteristics, but instead the Standard Model categorizes the elementary particles - fermions and bosons.

Developed in stages starting in the early 1970s, the model combined what was known about particles and forces at the time to develop a fully consistent quantum theory on matter.

Not only did it do a good job of describing and mapping what was known, it presented gaps that predicted the existence of yet-to-be discovered particles, such as the Higgs boson.

The Standard Model is currently the most accurate theory covering the foundations of particle physics. But it's far from perfect, struggling to incorporate general relativity's description of gravity, tell us why the Universe is expanding ever faster, or explain why there is more matter than antimatter.

Particle families

The Standard Model categorizes fundamental particles into related groups, as seen in the table below.

Physics-Standard_Model-Elementary_ParticleLogo-MaTr_Fermions-Fohrss_Bosons.jpg

Fermions

Think of these as the Lego blocks of matter, clicking together to make up the Universe. The basic rule of these things is 'don't sit where I'm sitting'. A feature of their quantum properties is that no two fermions can occupy the same place at once, allowing them to build everything from atoms to planets.

Fermions can be classed further into quarks and leptons. Fermion quarks combine into the more familiar protons and neutrons. A proton for example is composed of one down and two up quarks, that are glued together by what's called the strong nuclear force. But this force does not influence the second class of fermions, the leptons.

Leptons include electrons, which hover around the nucleus of atoms; electron-like particles such as taus and muons; and neutrinos - small, hardly-there particles that pass through the planet in ghost-like droves, barely pausing to say hello.

Bosons

These are the whispers that keep fermions in touch, mediating forces that bind and repel matter to explain why we can't walk through walls, why light comes in different colours, why small atoms can squeeze together into bigger ones, and why those bigger ones sometimes fall apart.

They include photons, the particles of light that communicate the electromagnetic force; gluons, which provide the strong nuclear force that bind quarks together to form protons and neutrons; W & Z bosons, which deal with the weak nuclear force; and the famous Higgs particle, which explains why some particles have mass under particular conditions.


Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Bohzonz

THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Boson?

by Andrew Zimmerman Jones

In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. These bosons also have a quantum spin with contains an integer value, such as 0, 1, -1, -2, 2, etc. (By comparison, there are other types of particles, called fermions, that have a half-integer spin, such as 1/2, -1/2, -3/2, and so on.)
What's So Special About a Boson?

Bosons are sometimes called force particles, because it is the bosons that control the interaction of physical forces, such as electromagnetism and possibly even gravity itself.

The name boson comes from the surname of Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, a brilliant physicist from the early twentieth century who worked with Albert Einstein to develop a method of analysis called Bose-Einstein statistics. In an effort to fully understand Planck's law (the thermodynamics equilibrium equation that came out of Max Planck's work on the blackbody radiation problem), Bose first proposed the method in a 1924 paper trying to analyze the behavior of photons. He sent the paper to Einstein, who was able to get it published … and then went on to extend Bose's reasoning beyond mere photons, but also to apply to matter particles.

One of the most dramatic effects of Bose-Einstein statistics is the prediction that bosons can overlap and coexist with other bosons. Fermions, on the other hand, cannot do this, because they follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle (chemists focus primarily on the way the Pauli Exclusion Principle impacts the behavior of electrons in orbit around an atomic nucleus.) Because of this, it is possible for photons to become a laser and some matter is able to form the exotic state of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Fundamental Bosons

According to the Standard Model of quantum physics, there are a number of fundamental bosons, which are not made up of smaller particles. This includes the basic gauge bosons, the particles that mediate the fundamental forces of physics (except for gravity, which we'll get to in a moment). These four gauge bosons have spin 1 and have all been experimentally observed:

Photon - Known as the particle of light, photons carry all electromagnetic energy and act as the gauge boson that mediates the force of electromagnetic interactions.
Gluon - Gluons mediate the interactions of the strong nuclear force, which binds together quarks to form protons and neutrons and also holds the protons and neutrons together within an atom's nucleus.
W Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.
Z Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.

In addition to the above, there are other fundamental bosons predicted, but without clear experimental confirmation (yet):

Higgs Boson - According to the Standard Model, the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives rise to all mass. On July 4, 2012, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider announced that they had good reason to believe they'd found evidence of the Higgs Boson. Further research is ongoing in an attempt to get better information about the particle's exact properties. The particle is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 0, which is why it is classified as a boson.
Graviton - The graviton is a theoretical particle which has not yet been experimentally detected. Since the other fundamental forces - electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force - are all explained in terms of a gauge boson that mediates the force, it was only natural to attempt to use the same mechanism to explain gravity. The resulting theoretical particle is the graviton, which is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 2.
Bosonic Superpartners - Under the theory of supersymmetry, every fermion would have a so-far-undetected bosonic counterpart. Since there are 12 fundamental fermions, this would suggest that - if supersymmetry is true - there are another 12 fundamental bosons that have not yet been detected, presumably because they are highly unstable and have decayed into other forms.

Composite Bosons

Some bosons are formed when two or more particles join together to create an integer-spin particle, such as:

Mesons - Mesons are formed when two quarks bond together. Since quarks are fermions and have half-integer spins, if two of them are bonded together, then the spin of the resulting particle (which is the sum of the individual spins) would be an integer, making it a boson.
Helium-4 atom - A helium-4 atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons … and if you add up all of those spins, you'll end up with an integer every time. Helium-4 is particularly noteworthy because it becomes a superfluid when cooled to ultra-low temperatures, making it a brilliant example of Bose-Einstein statistics in action.

If you're following the math, any composite particle that contains an even number of fermions is going to be a boson, because an even number of half-integers is always going to add up to an integer.


Kwahrkss Fuhnduhmentulz

Kwahrkss-3_jennuraeeshuhnz-6_flaeevrz%20.png

THuh Nekst Tekst And Chahrt Wuhz Fruhm:


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm Uhv KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm]]]


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/composite-particle

composite particle

A subatomic particle that is composed of two or more elementary particles. The protons and neutrons in the nucleus [ uhv uh Simp Kem ] are composite particles, as they are composed of quarks; electrons orbiting the nucleus are not composite particles…


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr ComposiTe ParTicles


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Composite particles.

Composite particles (hadrons) are composed of other particles.

Mesons. (spin 0, 1) Mesons are bosons composed of a quark and antiquark. Some mesons are the pion, kaon, eta, rho, omega, and phi…

Baryons. (spin 1/2, 3/2) Baryons are fermions composed of three quarks. The most important baryons are the two nucleons: the proton (up-up-down quarks) and the neutron (up-down-down quarks). Some other baryons are the sigma, lambda, xi, delta, and omega-minus.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Hypothetical Composite Particles

Exotic baryons. Fermions composed of multiple particles, but not just three quarks. The pentaquark has five quarks.

Exotic mesons. Bosons composed of multiple particles, but not just two quarks. The tetraquark has four quarks. The glueball is composed of gluons.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree And KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz And Fohrss Ohmz

Tree-dyagram-Uhv-EhLehmehnTuhree-And-KuhmpozziT-PahrTikkuLz-And-Fohrss-Ohmz.png

Quantum Particle Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Kwahntuhm Pahrtikl Syzohmz

PahrTikuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Particles

Pronunciation
(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈpɑːtɪk(ə)l/
(General American) IPA(key): /ˈpɑɹtɪkəl/


quantum_particles_1_205596.jpg

NexT TekST Fruhm: http://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

KrenT STandrd ModdeL LisT Uhv AhL PahrTikkuLz

Standard Particles

This is a list of all the particles in the current standard model of particle physics plus the graviton [predicted]…


All (elementary) particles are either fermions or bosons.


Elementary particles


Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Frmeeonz

Pronunciation
IPA(key): /ˈfɜːmɪɒn/

Etymology
From Enrico Fermi (Italian-American physicist), +‎ -on.

Fermions. (half-integer spin 1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.) Matter is made of fermions. Fermions obey the exclusion principle; fermions in the same state cannot be in the same place at the same time.


Elementary Fermions in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Frmeeonz

Quarks. (spin 1/2) The protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom are made of quarks. There are six types or "flavors" or quarks: down, up, strange, charm, bottom, and top. Each comes in three "color" charges: red, green, and blue.

Leptons. (spin 1/2)

Electron and its two heavier sisters, the muon and tau. Atoms have a nucleus surrounded by electrons.

Neutrinos, the electron neutrino, muon neutrino, and tau neutrino. Lightweight and weakly interacting.


Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Bohzonz

THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Boson?

by Andrew Zimmerman Jones

In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. These bosons also have a quantum spin with contains an integer value, such as 0, 1, -1, -2, 2, etc. (By comparison, there are other types of particles, called fermions, that have a half-integer spin, such as 1/2, -1/2, -3/2, and so on.)
What's So Special About a Boson?

Bosons are sometimes called force particles, because it is the bosons that control the interaction of physical forces, such as electromagnetism and possibly even gravity itself.

The name boson comes from the surname of Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, a brilliant physicist from the early twentieth century who worked with Albert Einstein to develop a method of analysis called Bose-Einstein statistics. In an effort to fully understand Planck's law (the thermodynamics equilibrium equation that came out of Max Planck's work on the blackbody radiation problem), Bose first proposed the method in a 1924 paper trying to analyze the behavior of photons. He sent the paper to Einstein, who was able to get it published … and then went on to extend Bose's reasoning beyond mere photons, but also to apply to matter particles.

One of the most dramatic effects of Bose-Einstein statistics is the prediction that bosons can overlap and coexist with other bosons. Fermions, on the other hand, cannot do this, because they follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle (chemists focus primarily on the way the Pauli Exclusion Principle impacts the behavior of electrons in orbit around an atomic nucleus.) Because of this, it is possible for photons to become a laser and some matter is able to form the exotic state of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Fundamental Bosons

According to the Standard Model of quantum physics, there are a number of fundamental bosons, which are not made up of smaller particles. This includes the basic gauge bosons, the particles that mediate the fundamental forces of physics (except for gravity, which we'll get to in a moment). These four gauge bosons have spin 1 and have all been experimentally observed:

Photon - Known as the particle of light, photons carry all electromagnetic energy and act as the gauge boson that mediates the force of electromagnetic interactions.
Gluon - Gluons mediate the interactions of the strong nuclear force, which binds together quarks to form protons and neutrons and also holds the protons and neutrons together within an atom's nucleus.
W Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.
Z Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.

In addition to the above, there are other fundamental bosons predicted, but without clear experimental confirmation (yet):

Higgs Boson - According to the Standard Model, the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives rise to all mass. On July 4, 2012, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider announced that they had good reason to believe they'd found evidence of the Higgs Boson. Further research is ongoing in an attempt to get better information about the particle's exact properties. The particle is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 0, which is why it is classified as a boson.
Graviton - The graviton is a theoretical particle which has not yet been experimentally detected. Since the other fundamental forces - electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force - are all explained in terms of a gauge boson that mediates the force, it was only natural to attempt to use the same mechanism to explain gravity. The resulting theoretical particle is the graviton, which is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 2.
Bosonic Superpartners - Under the theory of supersymmetry, every fermion would have a so-far-undetected bosonic counterpart. Since there are 12 fundamental fermions, this would suggest that - if supersymmetry is true - there are another 12 fundamental bosons that have not yet been detected, presumably because they are highly unstable and have decayed into other forms.

Composite Bosons

Some bosons are formed when two or more particles join together to create an integer-spin particle, such as:

Mesons - Mesons are formed when two quarks bond together. Since quarks are fermions and have half-integer spins, if two of them are bonded together, then the spin of the resulting particle (which is the sum of the individual spins) would be an integer, making it a boson.
Helium-4 atom - A helium-4 atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons … and if you add up all of those spins, you'll end up with an integer every time. Helium-4 is particularly noteworthy because it becomes a superfluid when cooled to ultra-low temperatures, making it a brilliant example of Bose-Einstein statistics in action.

If you're following the math, any composite particle that contains an even number of fermions is going to be a boson, because an even number of half-integers is always going to add up to an integer.


Elementary Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Elementuhree Bohzonz

Graviton. (spin 2) Gravitons [predicted] carry the gravity force.

Gluon. (spin 1) Gluons carry the strong force, also called the nuclear force or color force. The strong force holds quarks together.

W± and Z bosons. (spin 1) W± and Z bosons carry the weak force. The weak force is responsible for radioactivity.

Photon. (spin 1) Photons carry the eletromagnetic force. Photons are particles of light. Light is an electromagnetic wave.

Higgs boson. (spin 0) The Higgs boson is an excitation the Higgs field. The Higgs field gives other particles their inertial mass.

Electroweak W and B bosons. (spin 1) W1, W2, W3, and B bosons carry the electroweak force. When the electroweak force split into the electromagnetic and weak forces, the W1, W2, W3, B, and Higgs remixed to make W±, Z, photon, and Higgs.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr ComposiTe ParTicles


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Composite particles.

Composite particles (hadrons) are composed of other particles.

Mesons. (spin 0, 1) Mesons are bosons composed of a quark and antiquark. Some mesons are the pion, kaon, eta, rho, omega, and phi…

Baryons. (spin 1/2, 3/2) Baryons are fermions composed of three quarks. The most important baryons are the two nucleons: the proton (up-up-down quarks) and the neutron (up-down-down quarks). Some other baryons are the sigma, lambda, xi, delta, and omega-minus.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Hypothetical Composite Particles

Exotic baryons. Fermions composed of multiple particles, but not just three quarks. The pentaquark has five quarks.

Exotic mesons. Bosons composed of multiple particles, but not just two quarks. The tetraquark has four quarks. The glueball is composed of gluons.


ParticlesSM-page-0.jpg

See also: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_particles



KwahnTuhn PahrTikkul Izm


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.nap.edu/read/6045/chapter/4

What Is ELemenTary-ParTicLe Physics?

INTRODUCTION

In the literal sense, nothing is simpler than an elementary particle: By definition, a particle is considered to be elementary only if there is no evidence that it is made up of smaller constituents.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

Standrd ModdeL Uhv EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuLs Uhv EhLehmehnTuhree PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is The Standard Model of Particle Physics?

The Standard Model is a set of mathematical formulae and measurements describing elementary particles and their interactions. It's similar to the way the Periodic Table of Elements describes atoms, categorizing them based on their characteristics, but instead the Standard Model categorizes the elementary particles - fermions and bosons.

Developed in stages starting in the early 1970s, the model combined what was known about particles and forces at the time to develop a fully consistent quantum theory on matter.

Not only did it do a good job of describing and mapping what was known, it presented gaps that predicted the existence of yet-to-be discovered particles, such as the Higgs boson.

The Standard Model is currently the most accurate theory covering the foundations of particle physics. But it's far from perfect, struggling to incorporate general relativity's description of gravity, tell us why the Universe is expanding ever faster, or explain why there is more matter than antimatter.

Particle families

The Standard Model categorizes fundamental particles into related groups, as seen in the table below.

Physics-Standard_Model-Elementary_ParticleLogo-MaTr_Fermions-Fohrss_Bosons.jpg

Fermions

Think of these as the Lego blocks of matter, clicking together to make up the Universe. The basic rule of these things is 'don't sit where I'm sitting'. A feature of their quantum properties is that no two fermions can occupy the same place at once, allowing them to build everything from atoms to planets.

Fermions can be classed further into quarks and leptons. Fermion quarks combine into the more familiar protons and neutrons. A proton for example is composed of one down and two up quarks, that are glued together by what's called the strong nuclear force. But this force does not influence the second class of fermions, the leptons.

Leptons include electrons, which hover around the nucleus of atoms; electron-like particles such as taus and muons; and neutrinos - small, hardly-there particles that pass through the planet in ghost-like droves, barely pausing to say hello.

Bosons

These are the whispers that keep fermions in touch, mediating forces that bind and repel matter to explain why we can't walk through walls, why light comes in different colours, why small atoms can squeeze together into bigger ones, and why those bigger ones sometimes fall apart.

They include photons, the particles of light that communicate the electromagnetic force; gluons, which provide the strong nuclear force that bind quarks together to form protons and neutrons; W & Z bosons, which deal with the weak nuclear force; and the famous Higgs particle, which explains why some particles have mass under particular conditions.


Bosons in Funetik Inglish iz Bohzonz

THuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Boson?

by Andrew Zimmerman Jones

In particle physics, a boson is a type of particle that obeys the rules of Bose-Einstein statistics. These bosons also have a quantum spin with contains an integer value, such as 0, 1, -1, -2, 2, etc. (By comparison, there are other types of particles, called fermions, that have a half-integer spin, such as 1/2, -1/2, -3/2, and so on.)
What's So Special About a Boson?

Bosons are sometimes called force particles, because it is the bosons that control the interaction of physical forces, such as electromagnetism and possibly even gravity itself.

The name boson comes from the surname of Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose, a brilliant physicist from the early twentieth century who worked with Albert Einstein to develop a method of analysis called Bose-Einstein statistics. In an effort to fully understand Planck's law (the thermodynamics equilibrium equation that came out of Max Planck's work on the blackbody radiation problem), Bose first proposed the method in a 1924 paper trying to analyze the behavior of photons. He sent the paper to Einstein, who was able to get it published … and then went on to extend Bose's reasoning beyond mere photons, but also to apply to matter particles.

One of the most dramatic effects of Bose-Einstein statistics is the prediction that bosons can overlap and coexist with other bosons. Fermions, on the other hand, cannot do this, because they follow the Pauli Exclusion Principle (chemists focus primarily on the way the Pauli Exclusion Principle impacts the behavior of electrons in orbit around an atomic nucleus.) Because of this, it is possible for photons to become a laser and some matter is able to form the exotic state of a Bose-Einstein condensate.

Fundamental Bosons

According to the Standard Model of quantum physics, there are a number of fundamental bosons, which are not made up of smaller particles. This includes the basic gauge bosons, the particles that mediate the fundamental forces of physics (except for gravity, which we'll get to in a moment). These four gauge bosons have spin 1 and have all been experimentally observed:

Photon - Known as the particle of light, photons carry all electromagnetic energy and act as the gauge boson that mediates the force of electromagnetic interactions.
Gluon - Gluons mediate the interactions of the strong nuclear force, which binds together quarks to form protons and neutrons and also holds the protons and neutrons together within an atom's nucleus.
W Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.
Z Boson - One of the two gauge bosons involved in mediating the weak nuclear force.

In addition to the above, there are other fundamental bosons predicted, but without clear experimental confirmation (yet):

Higgs Boson - According to the Standard Model, the Higgs Boson is the particle that gives rise to all mass. On July 4, 2012, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider announced that they had good reason to believe they'd found evidence of the Higgs Boson. Further research is ongoing in an attempt to get better information about the particle's exact properties. The particle is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 0, which is why it is classified as a boson.
Graviton - The graviton is a theoretical particle which has not yet been experimentally detected. Since the other fundamental forces - electromagnetism, strong nuclear force, and weak nuclear force - are all explained in terms of a gauge boson that mediates the force, it was only natural to attempt to use the same mechanism to explain gravity. The resulting theoretical particle is the graviton, which is predicted to have a quantum spin value of 2.
Bosonic Superpartners - Under the theory of supersymmetry, every fermion would have a so-far-undetected bosonic counterpart. Since there are 12 fundamental fermions, this would suggest that - if supersymmetry is true - there are another 12 fundamental bosons that have not yet been detected, presumably because they are highly unstable and have decayed into other forms.

Composite Bosons

Some bosons are formed when two or more particles join together to create an integer-spin particle, such as:

Mesons - Mesons are formed when two quarks bond together. Since quarks are fermions and have half-integer spins, if two of them are bonded together, then the spin of the resulting particle (which is the sum of the individual spins) would be an integer, making it a boson.
Helium-4 atom - A helium-4 atom contains 2 protons, 2 neutrons, and 2 electrons … and if you add up all of those spins, you'll end up with an integer every time. Helium-4 is particularly noteworthy because it becomes a superfluid when cooled to ultra-low temperatures, making it a brilliant example of Bose-Einstein statistics in action.

If you're following the math, any composite particle that contains an even number of fermions is going to be a boson, because an even number of half-integers is always going to add up to an integer.


Kwahrkss Fuhnduhmentulz

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THuh Nekst Tekst And Chahrt Wuhz Fruhm:


4 Fundamental Forces Of Physics

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

+The 4 Fundamental Forces of Physics

by Andrew Zimmerman Jones

The fundamental forces (or fundamental interactions) of physics are the ways that individual particles interact with each other. It turns out that for every single interaction observed taking place in the universe can be broken down to be described by only four (well, generally four—more on that later) types of interactions:

Gravity
Electromagnetism
Weak Interaction (or Weak Nuclear Force)
Strong Interaction (or Strong Nuclear Force)

Gravity

Of the fundamental forces, gravity has the farthest reach, but it's the weakest in actual magnitude.

It is a purely attractive force which reaches through even the "empty" void of space to draw two masses toward each other. It keeps the planets in orbit around the sun and the moon in orbit around the Earth.

Gravitation is described under the theory of general relativity, which defines it as the curvature of spacetime around an object of mass. This curvature, in turn, creates a situation where the path of least energy is toward the other object of mass.

Electromagnetism

Electromagnetism is the interaction of particles with an electrical charge. Charged particles at rest interact through electrostatic forces, while in motion they interact through both electrical and magnetic forces.

For a long time, the electric and magnetic forces were considered to be different forces, but they were finally unified by James Clerk Maxwell in 1864, under Maxwell's equations. In the 1940s, quantum electrodynamics consolidated electromagnetism with quantum physics.

Electromagnetism is perhaps the most prevalent force in our world, as it can affect things at a reasonable distance and with a fair amount of force.
Weak Interaction

The weak interaction is a very powerful force that acts on the scale of the atomic nucleus. It causes phenomena such as beta decay. It has been consolidated with electromagnetism as a single interaction called the "electroweak interaction." The weak interaction is mediated by the W boson (there are two types, the W+ and W- bosons) and also the Z boson.

Strong Interaction

The strongest of the forces is the aptly-named strong interaction, which is the force that, among other things, keeps nucleons (protons and neutrons) bound together. In the helium atom, for example, it is strong enough to bind two protons together even though their positive electrical charges cause them to repulse each other.

In essence, the strong interaction allows particles called gluons to bind together quarks to create the nucleons in the first place. Gluons can also interact with other gluons, which gives the strong interaction a theoretically infinite distance, although it's major manifestations are all at the subatomic level.

Unifying the Fundamental Forces

Many physicists believe that all four of the fundamental forces are, in fact, the manifestations of a single underlying (or unified) force which has yet to be discovered. Just as electricity, magnetism, and the weak force were unified into the electroweak interaction, they work to unify all of the fundamental forces.

The current quantum mechanical interpretation of these forces is that the particles do not interact directly, but rather manifest virtual particles that mediate the actual interactions. All of the forces except for gravity have been consolidated into this "Standard Model" of interaction.

The effort to unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces is called quantum gravity. It postulates the existence of a virtual particle called the graviton, which would be the mediating element in gravity interactions. To date, gravitons have not been detected, and no theories of quantum gravity have been successful or universally adopted.


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See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikuL Fizziks Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuL Fizziks Izm

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/composite-particle

composite particle

A subatomic particle that is composed of two or more elementary particles. The protons and neutrons in the nucleus [ uhv uh Simp Kem ] are composite particles, as they are composed of quarks; electrons orbiting the nucleus are not composite particles…


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr ComposiTe ParTicles


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Composite particles.

Composite particles (hadrons) are composed of other particles.

Mesons. (spin 0, 1) Mesons are bosons composed of a quark and antiquark. Some mesons are the pion, kaon, eta, rho, omega, and phi…

Baryons. (spin 1/2, 3/2) Baryons are fermions composed of three quarks. The most important baryons are the two nucleons: the proton (up-up-down quarks) and the neutron (up-down-down quarks). Some other baryons are the sigma, lambda, xi, delta, and omega-minus.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

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NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://elements.wlonk.com/Particles.htm

Hypothetical Composite Particles

Exotic baryons. Fermions composed of multiple particles, but not just three quarks. The pentaquark has five quarks.

Exotic mesons. Bosons composed of multiple particles, but not just two quarks. The tetraquark has four quarks. The glueball is composed of gluons.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EeLekTronz Uhbsohrbeeng And ReeLeeseeng FohTohnz

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Electrons can absorb energy from external [LyT] sources…and be promoted to higher energy levels. [P]hoton energy is absorbed by an electron to elevate it into a higher energy level and how the energy can subsequently be released, in the form of a lower energy photon, when the electron falls back to the original ground state.

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

The lines in an emission spectrum occur when the electron loses energy, "falls back", from a higher energy state to a lower one emitting photons at different frequencies for different energy transitions.

This IndikkayTs ThaT Ther Iz MohsT Lyk Lee Mohr Than Wuhn Syz Uhv ( LyT Sfeer Nohrm Naymd a "PhoTon" ) ThaT Ahr FohTonnikLee RaydeeaeeTed Fruhm EeLekTronz Chayngjeeng OhrbiTs.

BaysT On ThaT KwahnTuhm Fizziks Deskripshuhn,

Duz "Uhbzohrb InTuu EeLehkTronz And ReeLeess Fruhm EeLehkTronz " A Trans FynyT Nuhmbr Uhv
1: PhohTonnik PoeenTs, ProbbubLee Eech Uhv Thuh MohsT Dim Shayd Uhv Dahrk Dim BehrLee VizzibuL LyT, And
2: PhohTonnik Sfeerz Uhv Groheeng Syz, ProbbuhbLee If Mohr Big Then Mohr BryT.


See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

EhLehmehnTuhree And KuhmpozziT PahrTikkuLz And Fohrss Ohmz

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Quantum Foam Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Kwahntuhm Fohm Syzohmz

KwahnTuhm Fohm Iz FuhnehTik EengLish iz Quantum Foam

KwahnTuhm Fohm Iz KwahnTuhm Plus Fohm.

"There is no such thing as empty space;
there is only ‘quantum foam,’ everywhere."
-https://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2015/31dec_quantumfoam

"Quantum foam (or space time foam) is a concept in quantum mechanics. It was created by John Wheeler in 1955. The foam is supposed to be thought of as the foundation of the things that make up the universe."
-https://simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quantum_foam

See also:

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