Kush Groop Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Daynjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Ded.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Uhv Lyf Groop Kemz

Table of Contents

Immaj Nrv Kom Kyndz STrukTs And Kemz

Nrv_Kom_Kyndz_STrukTs_And_Kemz.jpeg

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Synthesis and Storage of Neurotransmitters

The first steps in synaptic transmission is the synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters.

There are two broad categories of neurotransmitters.

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length,


Smahl Mollehkeeuul Nurrohtranzmitrz

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal. Some of the precursors necessary for the synthesis of these molecules are taken up by selective transporters on the membrane of the terminal. Others are byproducts of cellular processes that take place within the neuron itself and are thus readily available. The enzymes necessary to catalyze an interaction among these precursors are usually produced in the cell body and transported to the terminal by slow axonal transport.


SmahL_MollehkeeuuL_NurrohTranzmiTrz_Shruhnk.jpg

Neuropeptides

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

These messengers differ from small-molecule neurotransmitters in both size and in the way that they are synthesized. Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length, and are thus larger than small-molecule neurotransmitters. Also, neuropeptides must made in the cell body because their synthesis requires peptide bond formation. This process is a great deal more involved than the simple enzymatic reactions involved in making smaller neurotransmitters.

The synthesis of a neuropeptide is very much like the synthesis of any secretory protein made by the cell. First, within the cell nucleus, gene transcription takes place, during which a specific peptide-coding sequence of DNA is used as a template to construct a corresponding strand of messenger RNA. The mRNA then travels to a ribosome, where the process of translation begins. During translation, the sequence of nucleotides that make up the mRNA act as a code to string together a corresponding sequence of amino acids that will eventually become the neuropeptide needed at the terminal. Before this molecule can be transported to the terminal for release into the synaptic cleft, it must be processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), packaged in the golgi apparatus, and transported in storage vesicles down the axon to the terminal.

Once they are synthesized, neurotransmitters, both small molecules and neuropeptides, are stored in vesicles within the axon terminal until an action potential arrives and they are released. Most small-molecule neurotransmitters are stored in small vesicles that range from 40 to 60 nm in diameter and, in electron micrographs, appear to have clear centers. The vesicles that store neuropeptides are larger, ranging from 90 to 250 nm in diameter. These vesicles appear dark and electron-dense in electron micrographs.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides and their Classification

Mammalian Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Families

Due to the history of the discovery of neuropeptides and endocrine peptides, their location of synthesis and targets, the classification of these types of peptides is somewhat tricky. This has led to a few classification approaches. Some of them are listed below. The new fields of brain research and neuroscience will surly add more peptides to this list in the coming years.

Classification of bioactive peptides

Table of Contents

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A: Hypothalamic Hormones

The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that contains several types of neurons responsible for secreting different hormones. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus but just above the brainstem. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus and in humans it is roughly the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for some metabolic processes and similar activities of the autonomic nervous system and synthesizes and secretes neurohormones or neuropeptides. These types of peptides are often called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones which in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, and important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and the circadian clock. All of the secreted peptides are released into the blood in the capillaries and travel immediately in portal veins to a second capillary bed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, where they exert their effects. Neuropeptides are released in periodic spurts which is why replacement hormone therapy with these hormones does not work unless the replacements are also given in spurts.

Table 1: Peptide hormones and their physiological effects.


Table 2: Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

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B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Table of Contents

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C: Tachykinins

Tachykinin peptides belong to a large neuropeptide family found in a wide range of species ranging from amphibians to mammals. The name of this peptide family originates from their ability to rapidly induce contraction of gut tissue. The tachykinin family is characterized by a common C-terminal sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or an aliphatic amino acid. All tachykinin peptides cause hypotension, contraction of gut and bladder smooth muscle, and secretion of saliva in mammals. The genes that encode precursor proteins called preprotachykinins are differentially spliced to produce different sets of peptides and the precursor proteins are posttranslational processed with the help of proteases to produce smaller peptides. Neurokinins are part of the tachykinin peptide family also includes Neurokinin B, Substance P, Physalaemin, and Eledoisin. Neurokinin A and B were originally isolated from porcine spinal cord. Neurokinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B) and the neurokinin receptors - NK1 and NK3 - are largely expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), where they are involved in the central regulation of visceral function. Neurokinin A is involved in hematopoietic regulation while Neurokinin B is known for its role as the mediator of pain transmission. Neurokinin A is also very similar in structure to Substance P and produces some of the same biological actions as Substance P. Neurokinin A is a potent bronchoconstrictor. In the gut, Neurokinin A is produced by the intrinsic enteric nervous system.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

[ Tachykinins ] Definition

Tachykinins are multifunctional brain/gut peptides. In mammals and insects, various isoforms play an important neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. They are involved in the processing of sensory information and in the control of motor activities. In addition, the peptides elicit stimulatory responses on a variety of visceral muscles.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Related Peptides

Among the numerous families of neuropeptides, which are evolutionarily the oldest neuro- transmitters, even older than acetylcholine and catecholamines, four tachykinin-like peptides seem to occupy a very important position: invertebrate tachykinin-like pnneptides, prevertebrate tachykinin-like peptides, submammalian vertebrate tachykinins, mammalian tachykinins…

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Structural Characteristics

Amphibian Skin Tachykinins:

  • The great majority of amphibian skin peptides have the classical C-terminal pentapeptide sequence: Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. However, important exceptions are represented by: 1) some tachykinins from the skin of the Australian frog Agalychnis callidryas, namely AC-AR1, AC-AR2, and AC-AR3 with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Met-NH2 and AC-AR4 with sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Val-Met-NH2; and 2) hylambatin from the skin of the South-African frog Hylambates maculatus with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Gly-Met-Met-NH2. It is evident that in the C-terminal pentapeptide only the Phe residue at position 5 from the C terminus and Met-NH2 are immutable

Brain and Gut Tachykinins:

  • All of these tachykinins, with the exception of ranatachynin D, show the classical C-terminal pentapeptide Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. Of considerable interest is the fact that in goldfish, cod, and trout NKA-like peptides, the usual acidic Asp residue at position 7 from the C terminus, crucial for receptor NK2/NK3 selectivity, is replaced by the neutral Asn residue. NKA is present in as many as six submammalian species also by its elongated form, the ?-neuropeptides.

Mammalian Tachykinins:

  • They are derived from two preprotachykinin genes: the PPT-A gene, which encodes the sequences of SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K and neuropeptide-?, and the PPT-B gene, which encodes the sequence of NKB. The precursor RNA from PPT-A is alternatively processed to yield three different mRNAs. The three precursor proteins from which the mRNA codes are designated a-, ß-, and ?-PPT; a-PPT, which generates SP; ß-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K; and ?-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide-?. The biological significance of the alternative splicing of PPT-A is unknown. The relative proportion of a-, ß-, and ?-PPT mRNAs is markedly species dependent. Tachykinins are liberated from their precursors by the action of specific processing proteases. Typical cleavage points are Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg, and Arg-Lys doublets and the cleavage is carried out by six groups of proteolytic enzymes called convertases. COOH-terminal amidation after cleavage is generated from the precursor sequence, Gly-Leu-Met-Gly-Lys-Arg, in which Gly acts as the amide donor
  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

*** [ Tachykinins ] Mode of Action
Structurally tachykinin-related peptides have been isolated from various invertebrate species and shown to exhibit their biological activities through a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for a tachykinin-related peptide. A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor, the urechistachykinin receptor (UTKR) from the echiuroid worm, Urechis unitinctus. The deduced UTKR precursor includes seven transmembrane domains and typical sites for mammalian tachykinin receptors and invertebrate tachykinin-related peptide receptors. A functional analysis of the UTKR expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that UTKR, like tachykinin receptors and tachykinin-related peptide receptors, activates calcium-dependent signal transduction upon binding to its endogenous ligands, urechistachykinins (Uru-TKs) I2013V and VII, which were isolated as Urechis tachykinin-related peptides from the nervous tissue of the Urechis unitinctus in our previous study. UTKR responded to all Uru-TKs equivalently, showing that UTKR possesses no selective affinity with Uru-TKs. In contrast, UTKR was not activated by substance P or an Uru-TK analog containing a C-terminal Met-NH2 instead of Arg-NH2.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Kawada T, Furukawa Y, Shimizu Y, Minakata H, Nomoto K, Satake H (2002). A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor. European Journal of Biochemistry, 269(17):4238-4246.

[ Tachykinins ] Functions

It is beyond doubt that neuronal tachykinins play an important role in neurotransmission/neuro- modulation both in the CNS and in periphery. This is demonstrated by the overall occurrence of tachykinins in the brain and other nervous structures from the lowest invertebrates to mammals. Although important, the tachykinin peptide family represents only one of the numerous peptide and nonpeptide families involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. Members of these families are expressed in a variety of tissues, and very frequently a tachykinin is costored and cosecreted by the nerve endings with other peptides or biogenic amines. Moreover, the tachykinins, like all other neuropeptides, may enter in competition, positive or negative, with a number of active extraneuronal compounds originating in blood (bradykinin and angiotensin) or in compact or diffuse endocrine organs. Tachykinins, with their variable primary structure seem to be adapted to display, in the better way, their function in the different invertebrate and vertebrate phyla. In all examined species, and especially in mammals (the phylum more thoroughly studied), tachykinins elicit a spectrum of biological activity (both in the CNS and in the periphery), which may vary conspicuously in the different species and even in the various strains of single species, again strongly supporting the concept of a general, important functional significance of these peptides.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 5: Tachykinin Releted Peptides


Thuh NexT Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 6: Neuropeptide Tyrosine NPY And Related Peptides


Thuh Nekst Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 7: VIP-Glucagon Family


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 8: Other Peptides


Novel Neuropeptides

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 9: ‘Novel’ Neuropeptides

Recent improvements in technologies used in genomics and proteomics allowing the discovery and study of neuropeptides has led to a multitude of newly discovered functional peptides present in the neurosystem of different species, including humans. In particularly, the use of nanoscale chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has allowed structural determination of neuropeptides in various species at lower levels than what was possible before. Since peptides synthesized in the nervous system serve as messengers and modulators of numerous biological processes it is important to understand how these peptides are produced and how they act. Since inaccurate neuropeptide synthesis or signal transduction can result in the dysfunction or death of an organism the knowledge of the structure of naturally occurring neuropeptides is required to decipher how neuropeptide precursors are processed and how they function. Below is a list of novel neuropeptides].


Table of Contents

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Table 10: Gene Families Of Classical Neuropeptides


Gene Fam NeuroPeptide Top Row


Opioid Gene Family


Vasopressin And Oxytocin Gene Family


CCK Gastrin Gene Family


Somastostatin Gene Family

Included page "f-amide-and-y-amide-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "calcitonin-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "natriuretic-factor-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "bombesin-like-peptide-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "endothelin" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "glucagon-and-secretin-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "corticotropin-releasing-hormone-and-related-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "kinin" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "motilin-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "galanin-gene-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "gnrh-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "neuropeptide-b-and-w-family" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "no-family-neuropeptides" does not exist (create it now)


Included page "putative-neuropeptides" does not exist (create it now)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Paeej Naeemd Neuropeptides.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

synaptic vesicle noun

Medical Definition of synaptic vesicle


https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/a/neurotransmitters-their-receptors


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-neurotransmitters/


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Evree Wrd Uh Leengk And Wuhz Fruhm:

Major neurotransmitters:

Amino acids: glutamate,[6] aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine
Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Monoamines: dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (noradrenaline; NE, NA), epinephrine (adrenaline), histamine, serotonin (SER, 5-HT)
Trace amines: phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine, octopamine, tryptamine, etc.
Peptides: oxytocin, somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[11]
Purines: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine
Others: acetylcholine (ACh), anandamide, etc.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter#List_of_neurotransmitters,_peptides,_and_gaseous_signaling_molecules


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-receptors/


Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs


Table of Contents

Sykuhtrohpik Izm


SykuhTrohpik Drug Izm


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.verywellmind.com/psychotropic-drugs-425321

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs

Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Psychotropic drugs are medications that affect your central nervous system, changing how your brain processes information, such as altering your mood, thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors. Most psychotropic drugs are prescribed by your therapist or health care provider to treat a diagnosed mental illness, such as bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder. Other psychotropics, such as marijuana or cocaine, are taken illegally for recreational purposes.

The different types of psychotropic drugs include antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-obsessive agents, antianxiety agents, mood stabilizers, stimulants, and anti-panic agents. They work in different ways to address symptoms and causes of various disorders.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum: https://www.verywellhealth.com/kristalyn-salters-pedneault-phd-425092

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD.

  • Associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University
  • Former research associate of the National Center for PTSD Behavioral Science Division

Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.naturalnews.com/022610_cacao_chocolate_raw.html

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


Kaffeen UhmownT In Kohkoh Powdr

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.


"Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz" Trm Nohrm Speld "Recreational Drugs"

Table of Contents

Recreational Drugs Fraeez Deskripshuhns

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Recreational Drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons.

Authored by Dr Roger Henderson,

  • Reviewed by Dr Laurence Knott
  • Last edited 15 Feb 2017
  • Certified by The Information Standard

Recreational drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons. Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine can be classed as recreational drugs but are not covered in this leaflet. Recreational drugs are usually started to provide pleasure, or improve life in some way…

What are recreational drugs and why are they used?

Recreational drugs are chemical substances which are used for pleasure. There are many reasons people try recreational drugs. These include:

Their friends are doing it, and they don't want to feel left out, or not cool.
They get pressurised into trying it.
They are interested in experimenting with the effects, and seeing what happens when they take drugs.
They may feel drugs give them new experiences or perspectives.
They make them feel more relaxed, or more confident when relating to others.
They may feel drugs help them forget their worries or problems.
They may feel drugs make them feel happier.
They want to be rebellious.
They enjoy the effects.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Top 10 Most Popular Recreational Drugs

Listverse Staff: August 12, 2009

Recreational drug use is incredibly common around the world and it very often leads to disaster and crime. To resolve this, some people advocate a liberal approach to legalization, while others support a strong government police drive “war” on the sale and use of drugs. This list looks at ten of the most popular recreational drugs in use today.

1: Cannabis

The most popular of all recreational drugs, Cannabis, or Marijuana, Grass, Hemp, Weed, Pot, Hash, Dope or a variety of regional names has been cultivated for thousands of years. Derived in various forms from the Cannabis plants Cannabis Indica or Cannabis Sativa, it is native to central Asia but its cultivation and use is global. It is a Psychoactive and a Psychedelic. It can be smoked as leaves or flower buds, it can be ground down to isolate the crystallized sap and then pressed into a solid, or the resin extracted by collection via contact with the sticky plant parts.

The effects are fairly immediate, a slightly drunken but euphoric sensation, it can be mild or strong according to the method of delivery and the strength and quantity of the dose. It is not generally debilitating unless as with anything else it is taken to excess, and it can cause some mental confusion that is mostly temporary.

2: Heroin

Perhaps the most insidious of all drugs, Heroin, or Diamorphine is a derivative of Morphine, an opiate, first used as an alternative to Morphine as it was thought to be less addictive. The name Heroin, is a Trade name for Diamorphine and was used by the Bayer pharmaceutical company in the mid 1800’s. It is an extremely powerful painkiller and users experience exhilaration, euphoria and a sense of well being. It can be smoked, sniffed or injected.

The withdrawal effects of Heroin are pretty dreadful, and it is virtually impossible to impart to a non-user how bad it really is. The symptoms of withdrawal are physical pain, nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea, shaking twitching and a very strong craving for the soothing effects of the drug. Very few people can cope with withdrawal and this drives people to commit crimes to fund their next drug purchase.

3: Cocaine

Cocaine, derived from the Coca plant, has been used in one form or another for over a thousand years. Originating from South America, it has been chewed as a leaf by the Peruvian Indians for centuries. It is a powerful stimulant, appetite suppressant and anesthetic. In the Victorian era, many freely available medicines contained Cocaine for use with babies and children particularly when they were teething.

For the first twenty years of its production Coca Cola contained Cocaine but the laws controlling it in the early 1900’s prohibited its inclusion. It has generally through its social usage been a rich mans drug, although the use of Crack Cocaine, a modified version of the original powdered form is prepared as a “Rock” or “Stone” and smoked in pipes, has brought its usage down to street level.

4: Ecstasy

Closely linked to the use of Amphetamines (from which it is derived), Ecstasy, or MDMA, was originally used as a Psycho therapeutic drug. It is a Psychedelic drug that produces euphoria and a feeling of well being, decreased levels of fear and anxiety and a physical stimulant and sensational effect in users. It is illegal in most countries and is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world.

It is taken orally or sniffed as a powder. Users can have bad reactions to the drug and in the early years of its use as a recreational drug there were many instances of first time users dying without having administered an overdose. When users are exerting themselves heavily, there is a real risk of dehydration and death or illness resulting from it. Many of the “back street” MDMA factories use unclean processes and poor pharmacological techniques, and are a great danger to the people that make the drug as well as to the users.

5: Amphetamines [ Lyk Amphetamine And Meth ]

Amphetamines are a group of stimulant drugs that work by affecting the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. They generally create a feeling of euphoria, mental focus and resilience against physical fatigue. They have been used medically as an appetite suppressant, to treat ADHD in adults and children, and by the military in the Second World War. The most common street name for Amphetamines is “speed” because of the increased energy that users display. This made it extremely popular amongst young people in the 1970s at discos and then again in the 90s in the subsequent rave music culture.

It was originally widely available in America as Benzedrine, an inhalant medicine available without prescription, until its use was controlled by the FDA in 1965. Previous to this, the German military during WW2 used it recreationally and strategically, Adolph Hitler was daily injected with a compound of Amphetamines and vitamins.

6: Barbiturates / Benzodiazepines

This is the first item on our list that is a prescription medicine. There is a vast range of medicines that fall in to the category of “downers” This being the street name which has passed into general usage. Barbiturates have been around since the 19th century, derived from Barbituric acid, there have been hundreds of derivatives over the years. In psychiatry and psychiatric hospitals it was frequently used to sedate violent or disturbed patients. They are a Hypnotic, and Anxiolytic, which is often used to make a patient unconscious before the true anesthesia is administered. They engender, in the abuser, feelings of calm and relaxation, physically and mentally, which creates a high level of dependency.

Barbiturates have largely been replaced by Benzodiazepines. A newer range of sedatives that was first introduced in the 1950’s as Librium. Valium soon followed with Mogadon Ativan, Frisium, and Temazepam. Safer than Barbiturates, Benzo’s soon gained popularity and the sedative culture as it was known was born. The withdrawal from Benzo dependency is extremely disturbing for the patient and recognizably bad for the doctor to witness. It has been said that it is worse than withdrawal from Opiates.

7: LSD

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) is possibly the most powerful hallucinogenic drug known. It was discovered in 1938 by Albert Hoffman a Swiss chemist, whose actual purpose was to find a cure for the common cold. It has had a checkered history to say the least. Iconic public figures have, in the past, advocated its use: Hunter S Thompson, The Beatles, and Timothy Leary being notable advocates.

After 1-2 hours of ingesting the drug, visual awareness is heightened, sounds become enhanced, emotions and physical sensations are altered. The user’s sense of self and its interaction with people or objects, their concept of reality is generally brought to question. Strange visual stimuli, that may or may not be comforting or frightening overwhelm the user, there is a real risk of irrational fear taking over, paranoia, confusion or panic. Equally, some people have apparently wonderful experiences with none of these symptoms.

8: Opium

Opium

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Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

9: Psychedelic Mushrooms

For millennia, Psychedelic or hallucinogenic mushrooms have figured in society, culture and religion. There are more than 180 species of mushrooms which contain the psychedelics Psilocybin or Psilocin. They have a long history of use in Mexico and tribal societies and are currently one of the most popular and commonly available natural psychedelics. Psilocybin and Psilocin are the psychoactive ingredients responsible for the hallucinatory state or “trip” the user experiences some twenty minutes after consuming the mushrooms. The effect of which is similar to that of LSD but shorter lived and will be outlined in the LSD section.

Some of these “Magic Mushrooms”, are actually more poisonous than they are hallucinogenic, great care must be taken to pick the correct types. In fact it is a rule of thumb with users that you should never pick them without being accompanied by someone who has picked them before. In the United Kingdom, taking or possessing ‘shrooms, is legal, but preparing them including drying them or selling them is an offense under the misuse of drugs act. The Netherlands, in recent years, has made the possession of Magic Mushrooms totally illegal, which may surprise people who are aware of its relaxed laws on Cannabis. Magic Mushrooms can be dried, eaten fresh, cooked or boiled into a “tea”.


SykehdehLik Izm


Table of Contents

Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

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  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Sykehdehlikss Nōrm Speld Psychedelics

Table of Contents

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http://PSYCHEDELICS.COM = Home ›

Psychedelics [ Wrd Deskripshŭn Fruhm psychedelics.com ]

What exactly are psychedelics? Find out how to [ Desdryb ] them here.

Psychedelic drugs are those which cause an altered cognitive state or perception… Definitions vary for this type of drug but generally the psychedelics definition is as follows:

a substance that which the primary action that occurs when used is altered cognition and perception.

How Psychedelics Originated

The term psychedelics is originally from the Greek word for soul-manifesting. It was actually a breakdown of two distinct Greek terms, the term for “soul” and the term for “to manifest.” As psychedelics continued to be used, the spelling of the word was coined and changed by an American psychologist some number of years later. In 1957, the term psychedelics was re-coined by a scientist by the name of Aldous Huxley who suggested that the previous term was incorrect and that the new terminology should be phanerothymic which was Green for visible and spiritual.

Psychedelics [ Deskripshunz from encyclopedias and dictionaries]

The following [ Deskripshunz ] have been derived from various encyclopedias and dictionaries. Each of these psychedelic definitions is commonly used in science, medical fields and other areas that discuss psychedelics.

“of, characterized by, or generating…distortions of perception, altered states of awareness, and occasionally states resembling psychosis.”

“one of many psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline or PCP which produces such effects.”

“profound sense of intensified sensory perception”

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are typically those which are unrelated to other substances such as deliriant or dissociatives. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, …psychedelics typically completely alter the mind in a way that manipulates ordinary consciousness.

People who abuse psychedelics are typically aiming for a completely altered, trance like state of mind that features a complete unfamiliarity from conscious thought or behavior. These drugs are often used for “mind exploration” or to promote “dreaming.”

Types of Psychedelics

There are a number of different types of psychedelic drugs. The most common of them tend to fall into one of three distinct compound families:

Trytamines
Phenethylamines
Lysergamides

Each type of psychedelic drug causes a distinctly different state of mind or alteration for the user. Some produce mild to moderate effects while others can have a serious impact and lasting impression on the user. Most of the time, psychedelics are not heavily addictive but this does not mean that they aren’t…dangerous. The unpredictable nature of these drugs makes them highly volatile and [ possibly ] dangerous to the user.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelics Ahr Psychedelic Chemicals

Psychedelic chemicals are a class of psychoactive chemicals which have a pronounced ability to change the way subjects think and perceive themselves and their surroundings. Most act to agonise or stimulate the serotonin receptors in human (and animal) neurons, but there are a few other mechanisms as well..r.

Psychedelics are not, however, stimulants products or opioids. Those produce ‘normal’ states of consciousness (alertness, sleep, euphoria, etc.) at unusual times. Psychedelicsproduce very different types of consciousness altogether, which is what makes them so interesting to researchers and hobbyists alike. These altered states of consciousness are often compared to those attainable by practices like yoga or meditation, waking dreams, near death experiences or certain types of religious ecstasy, but occur not due to circumstance to discipline, rather due to the presence in the system of a drug or other chemical that originated outside the body.

The vast majority of psychedelic chemicals fall into three categories:

  • the lysergamides,
  • the phenethylamines and
  • the tryptamines.

Phenethylamine Psychedelics

The phenethylamines are one of the more interesting groups of psychedelic chemicals. There are several different types, some of which also belong to the stimulant, empathogen, hypnotic and/or enactogen categories, as well as a few non-psychoactive varieties used as decongestants and bronchodilators.

Within the psychedelic phenethylamines are sub-groups like the substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines, the substituted amphetamines and the substituted phenethylamines.

Most phenethylamine psychedelics share a similar structure to phenethylamine and/or amphetamine and seem to target the same biomolecular sites. Most cause the release of both dopamine and norepinephrine. The phenethylamines also often cause the release of acetylcholine by triggering a glutamate-mediated mechanism.


Lysergamide Psychedelics

Lysergic acid (LSD) is the precursor of a great many ergoline alkaloids. They were originally discovered in the ergot fungus (hence the name) and within a few plant species including morning glories and Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. The lysergamides are the amides of lysergic acid, and make up a great many useful pharmaceuticals and potent recreational drugs.

Lysergic acid itself is known as a ‘chiral compound’, as it consists of a pair of stereocenters. Isolygersic acid is one isomer, which features an inversion at the carbon 8 point near the carboxy group. Other isomers include the carbon 5 inversion (near the nitrogen) which is called L-lysergic acid.

The various amides of lysergic acid are almost too numerous to count, and new ones are being discovered and isolated all the time.


Tryptamine Psychedelics

Tryptamine itself is a monoamine alkaloid common to human and animal neural systems. Structurally, it features an indole ring and is very similar to an amino acid called tryptophan (that many of us know from turkey dinners), but has much more interesting effects. It is understood to act as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator in most animals.

Tryptamine is the basic building block of a large group of chemicals called substituted tryptamines, which includes many naturally occurring neurotransmitters, research chemicals and psychedelic compounds.


Marijuana Az Psychedelic

Bohth Uhv SykehdehLikss And Uhv Marijuana

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Is Marijuana a Psychedelic?

The answer is not as simple as you may think!

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both…

Properties of a Psychedelic

Psychedelics are an informal class within the broader umbrella class of hallucinogens. A psychedelic is defined as a substance that heightens cognition, raises consciousness, heightens awareness, and causes hallucinations. It is an informal subclass of substances in the class of hallucinogens and mainly affects serotonin…

Types of psychedelics

There are several types of psychedelics. Each of the types has slightly different properties. These types are:

Classic psychedelics – mescaline, DMT, and mushrooms,
Empathogen-enactogens – MDMA, MDA, and MDEA,
Dissociatives – Ketamine
Cannabinoids – THC this technically is in two classes, cannabis and psychedelics,
Others – Salvia divinorum

It is important to note that the term psychedelic is an informal classification. All of these fall under the definition of hallucinogens except for cannabiniods, they are not thought of as hallucinogens.

Effects of a psychedelic

The effects of psychedelics differ widely depending on the type of psychedelic. Even though it is a loose classification, there are some commonalities. These are:

altered states of consciousness,
distortion of time,
euphoria of some type,
changes in cognitions, and
changes in mental state.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
changes in emotional state or mood,
altered states of mind and cognition,
difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Comparing marijuana and psychedelics

Under the definitions strict of marijuana and psychedelics, they are two different substances not chemically related. Their actions in the body are different as are their effects on the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Drug Enforcement Administration, they are two different classes of drug. It is possible to argue that because of this difference in classification it is not a psychedelic. If you take the effects of each into consideration the essential ingredient in cannabis, acts like a psychedelic. Psychedelics cause what is termed expansion of consciousness, heightened cognition or thinking, and hallucinations. Cannabinoids do the same thing in different ways. Cannabinoids are unique to marijuana. Essentially the practical answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes, but not in the same way that LSD, MDMA, and others in that class. It contains many of the characteristics, properties, and effects that fall under the definitions of both. This is probably why marijuana is in a class on its own.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor

CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations.

Mechanisms of How THC/CBD Can Interact With Serotonin

You may read that THC is capable of inhibiting both serotonin-metabolizing MAO activity (2010 study) and serotonin reuptake activity (2007 study). However, it does both of these so weakly that it is not likely to be clinically relevant. Here are 3 ways that THC and CBD can interact with the serotonin system that are likely to be important:

CB1 activation enhances serotonergic neuron firing

CB1 receptors are expressed directly in some serotonergic neurons, but also in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that regulate the activation of serotonergic neurons. Both endocannabinoids and THC were shown to increase serotonergic neuron firing in animals.

However, studies of serotonin levels in different brain regions after treatment with cannabinoids have produced conflicting results. This may be due to biphasic effects, where cannabinoids can increase serotonin under some conditions, but decrease them under others. But overall, it appears that CB1 activation tends to increase serotonin release.

CB1 can interact with the 5-HT2A receptor

The CB1 receptor is capable of directly binding to other receptors to form what is called a heterodimer or heteromer. This is one way that the ECS can interact with other neurotransmitter systems.

A 2015 study demonstrated that CB1 receptor can form a heteromer with the 5-HT2A receptor. This heteromer exists in brain areas such as the hippocampus, dorsal striatum and cortex and mediates some of the memory-impairing and anti-anxiety effects of THC.

CBD can directly activate the 5-HT1A receptor

CBD is an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, which underlies some of its anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antiemetic, and antinociceptive properties.

Effects of THC & CBD That Depend Serotonin Receptors

Here are the top 6 cannabinoid effects that are mediated through serotonin receptors. Remember that these studies were performed in animals and that in many cases these effects have not yet been confirmed to be clinically meaningful in humans.

1. Reduce Pain

Although CB1 receptor agonists (such as THC) can reduce pain through several different mechanisms, one may involve serotonin. A 2010 study showed that CB1 agonists reduced acute pain through activation of descending spinal serotonin pathways and subsequent activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the spinal cord.

There are also serotonergic mechanisms for reducing neuropathic pain with CBD. For example, a 2019 study showed that inducing neuropathic pain in mice reduced serotonergic firing of the spinal pathway. CBD reversed these changes and improved neuropathic pain partially through the 5-HT1A receptor.

2. Depression

Both THC and FAAH inhibitors, which raise levels of anandamide, can improve animal models of +++ depression. The antidepressant effects of these molecules went away when animals were depleted of serotonin (2016 study, 2018 study), indicating that they are working at least partially through increasing serotonin release.

In addition, the antidepressant effect of CBD in animal models depended on activation of the 5-HT1A receptor (2016 study). Read more about the effects of cannabinoids in depression.

3. Anxiety

Low dose THC and FAAH inhibitors can have anti-anxiety effects. A 2007 study showed that anti-anxiety effects of THC depended on the 5-HT1A receptor, although a 2015 study demonstrated a dependence on the 5-HT2A receptor.

CBD also has an anti-anxiety effect that is mediated by activating the 5-HT1A receptor in some experimental models. However CBD treatment of chronically stressed mice had an anti-anxiety effect mediated through cannabinoid instead of serotonin receptors (2018 study).

4. Memory Impairment

As mentioned earlier, memory impairments caused by THC depended on formation of a heteromer between the CB1 receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. A 2018 study confirmed that this heteromer exists in humans and its levels, which were increased in cannabis users, inversely correlated with working memory.

CBD is reported to reverse some memory impairments of THC, and it may do this through activation of 5-HT1A receptors (2019 study).

5. Nausea

Anti-nausea effects of CBD in animal models were mediated by agonism of 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2012 study).

6. Body Temperature

Hypothermia, or lowered body temperature, is an effect of THC that many people may not even know about. This effect also involves 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2001 study).


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

How Cannabinoids Connects With Serotonin

Serotonin receptors

50 years back, when researchers suggested that the main cause of clinical depression is “serotonin deficiency”. Although in present research studies, it turns out that the pathogenesis of depression is much more complicated than previously thought.

It is true that serotonin ( 5-HT from the proper chemical name 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a versatile compound that regulates many physiological functions in the body. In addition to being a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system responsible for mood, appetite, sleep, memory or learning. Practically 90% of serotonin is found in the cells of the digestive system, which helps to control the appropriate regulation of bowel motility.

5-HT affects the body by binding to serotonin receptors classified as 7 subgroups (5-HT1, 5-HT2 …).

Maurice rapport

The new scientific discoveries regarding serotonin have now commenced after the biochemist Maurice Rapport in the late 1940s isolated this compound and established its molecular structure. We had to wait several decades to discover that the receptors for serotonin – 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 (named 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) were identified in the rat brain, and more recent studies have confirmed this.

CBD Receptors

Apart from serotonin, they can bind other molecules to serotonin receptors. In 2005, researchers determined that cannabidiol (CBD) receptors (CB1 and CB2) can bind to serotonin receptors. He points to a broader relationship between endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. After all, they are involved in similar physiological functions in the human body i.e. reducing anxiety, pain, relieving nausea and maintaining a proper body temperature.
Dimer

From a pharmacological point of view, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors belong to the so-called G-protein-coupled receptors. As we have seen, this type of receptors can combine to form dimer-like complexes (a dimer is a structure made up of two receptors that merge together into one functional unit.)

A new discovery

A breakthrough discovery was made by Spanish scientists studying cerebral ischemia in newborn piglets. They showed that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A connected to the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the dimeric complex.

There are descriptions in the scientific literature that show that CBD is a weak 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Recall – an agonist is a compound that binds to the receptor and on this basis triggers its action on the body. On the contrary, acts against it as an antagonist that blocks the receptor.

[ CBDA acts as a stronger agonist of 5HT2A receptors than CBD ]

It has been shown that activation of the 5-HT1A receptor by cannabidiol lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart rate and reduces the sensation of pain. However, from an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, it appears that CBD prevents liver damage, reduces anxiety, pain and nausea in laboratory animals based on this mechanism of action. Interestingly, CBDA (cannabidiol acid) – the acid precursor of cannabidiol, present in large amounts in a crude cannabis plant, is a stronger 5-HT 1A agonist than CBD, and therefore very high hopes are associated with the possible use of this compound as an antiemetic.

CBD also has a link with the 5-HT2A receptor, although it is weaker compared to the 5-HT1A receptor and is mediated by antagonism. While CBD stimulates the 5-HT1A receptor, it apparently acts as an antagonist to 5-HT2A. The 5HT2A receptor is referred to as psychedelic because its strong agonists are compounds such as LSD or mescaline.

5-HT2A & CB1 Receptors

It is important to note that oral intake of a large dose of marijuana resin (called hashish) can produce effects likened to LSD. Long-term hemp researcher Dr Ethan Russo advised that THC is a hallucinogenic factor in the hash. While closely related cannabidiol (CBD) has opposite activity.

Is it possible that the compound 5-HT2A receptor effectuates the hallucinogenic properties of THC? Contrast to CBD, THC does not directly bind to 5-HT2A. However, as mentioned earlier, THC can directly activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, and from the article published by PLoS Biology in 2015, we know that CB1 receptors form a complex structure with 5-HT2A receptors, hence the hallucinogenic effect after ingestion of hashish.
5-HT3A receptor

The 5-HT3A receptor is unique among serotonin receptors because, unlike all other serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT3A is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Rather, 5-HT3A acts as an ion channel that regulates the flow of ions across the cell membrane and contributes to creating fast electrical signals in the brain. 5-HT3A receptors are involved in mood modulation as well as in the transmission of pain signals.

THC and CBD as potent modulators

5-HT3A receptor blockers (antagonists) are used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Both THC and CBD are potent, negative allosteric modulators of 5-HT3A receptors. This means that these compounds change the shape of the receptor so that the molecule that originally activates it (eg serotonin) is unable to bind to it. This may explain some of the antiemetic effects of THC and CBD.

Until now, the interactions between cannabinoids and other serotonin receptors (5-HT4,6,7) have not been fully identified. However, ongoing research will let us know in the near future.


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " *Marijuana Az Psychedelic ".


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

The 10 Most Common Psychedelic Drugs

Psychedelics are often used to experience the world in a different way, however many people don't realize the dangerous side of using these drugs.

A psychedelic drug is a drug that affects the way that you think and see things. It changes your perceptions sometimes permanently. Most people, who do them, use them to change the way that they see the world even if it is only for a brief period. Unfortunately, many of these drugs are psychologically addictive and dangerous.

1. LSD

LSD is one of the most popular psychedelic drugs. It has been in use since the 1960s and many people believe in its mind-expanding properties.

2. Peyote

Peyote is a type of cactus that the Native Americans still use for religious purposes, under extremely controlled conditions. Most who use it recreationally find it disturbing and more than a bit psychologically addictive.

3. PCP

PCP is one of the most dangerous of the psychedelic drugs. Also called angel dust, it both blocks pain signals and other important stimuli. People who take PCP make very poor decisions on the drug including jumping off high places and thinking that they can do anything including fly.

4. Psilocybin Mushrooms

Also used by Native American cultures, psilocybin mushrooms are a psychedelic that grows across the United States. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish between the psilocybin variety and the extremely poisonous variety.

5. MDMA

Also known as ecstasy and molly depending on its form, MDMA is one of the popular club drugs. People use them at Raves and dance clubs to enhance their energy and love of the world around them.

6. Cannabis

Cannabis is sometimes thought of a psychedelic and other times it is in a class all its own. Marijuana is sometimes a relaxing drug and other times causes paranoia, delusions, and fear. Cannabis is one of the most popular drugs available particularly in the United States where many places are legalizing it for both medical and recreational use.

7. Ketamine

Ketamine is an anesthetic used in veterinary and sometimes human medicine. It causes a disconnection between the mind and the rest of the world. Ketamine is the most popular dissociative drug today.

8. Salvia Divinorum

Salvia Divinorum is one of the few legal psychedelics. It is legal in most states but is rapidly becoming more regulated. It produces a short intense psychedelic experience when someone smokes or chews it.

9. DXM

DXM is a key agent in cough syrup and the high people get off it is due to drinking large amounts of it. This drug is particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults because it is extremely easy to obtain in large quantities and until recently was not regulated.

10. Ayahuasca

This drug is also known as DMT. It is a combination of psychedelic plants, many of which are available individually. Although it is illegal in many places some of the individual herbs are not.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic Drug List

Substances found on the psychedelic drug list are known for their hallucinogenic and out-of-body effects in which they alter users' sensory perception while they are active.

Psychedelics, a class of hallucinogen drugs, bring on certain unusual effects not found through other types of drugs. With most all other drug types, users maintain their grasp on reality while experiencing a drug’s effects. With psychedelics, users seek out a very definite break with reality, which is what distinguishes psychedelics from other types of drugs, according to the Tennessee Department of Health.

The psychedelic drug list consists of a wide range of different concoctions, some naturally occurring, and some synthetic or manufactured. Each drug produces its own unique effects, though users will experience a dissociative state in one form or another when using any drug found on the psychedelic drug list.

Naturally Occurring Drugs on the Psychedelic Drug List

Morning Glory

Morning glory, the perennial vine plant found in so many backyards, produces a seed that brings on psychedelic effects when ingested. The more seeds a person eats, the strong the effects. Much like the effects associated with LSD, users experience a heightened sense of perception along with a diminished sense of reality. Users may also experience extreme mood swings in the process.

Magic Mushrooms

The name “magic mushrooms” well describes this nature-made fungus on the psychedelic drug list. Magic mushrooms are known to produce hallucinations and distorted perceptions of reality. While edible, magic mushrooms taste particularly bad and often bring on bouts of stomach pains, nausea and diarrhea.

DMT

As one of the most “intense” drugs on the psychedelic drug list, the DMT molecule exists in a number of different plants and is also produced by the human body. Though difficult to obtain and use, users gain access to a portal into the unconscious mind when using DMT. DMT also enables people to dream when asleep as the brain releases this powerful chemical.

Synthetic Drugs on the Psychedelic Drug List

Also known as “designer drugs,” synthetic varieties of drugs on the psychedelic drug list include:

LSD
2C-1
Methoxetamine

LSD

LSD, the granddaddy of all psychedelic drugs appears as a white powder that can be swallowed, injected or dissolved under the tongue. LSD effects produces visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations sending users into a world of their own.

With LSD, environmental factors, such as a person’s mood and surrounding noise and/or activity can influence the type of “high” a person experiences. Someone who uses while in a bad mood will most likely experience a “bad trip” made up of frightening or upsetting hallucinations. Someone who’s in a good mood may experience transcendent-like experiences filled with awe, joy and peace.

2C-1

Also known as “smiles,” 2C-1 exists in powder form, but users typically mix it with chocolate or candy. Drug effects can last anywhere from four to 12 hours depending on dosage amount. Unlike most other drugs on the psychedelic drug list, 2C-1 produces mostly mental distortions of reality as opposed to the heightened sensory perceptions users experience with other psychedelics.

Methoxetamine

Methoxetamine, a white-powdery substance, can be swallowed, injected or dissolved under the tongue. It can take anywhere from 10 to 90 minutes before a user feels the effects of the drug. Methoxetamine causes visual and auditory hallucinations as well as feelings of restlessness and increased energy. Drug effects may also produce feelings of “floating away” from reality.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

What are the Dangers of Psychedelics? Things to Consider Before a Psychedelic Experience

Posted by Wesley Thoricatha | Jan 25, 2016

Psychedelics have an incredible amount to offer humanity and have been in use for millennia by cultures around the globe for exactly that reason. Like every powerful medicine, however, these mind-expanding plants and chemicals should never be taken lightly, used recklessly, or approached without research and great care. Both the immense healing power and potential dangers of psychedelics should never be underestimated, but as we will see (and contrary to many people’s misconceptions) the dangers often have nothing to do with the psychedelics themselves.

Imposter Drugs

Probably the biggest danger for someone taking psychedelics in a non-medical setting is being told something is a certain substance such as “Molly,” “Ecstasy” or “Acid” when in fact it’s something entirely different. Unfortunately, this is an increasingly prevalent issue, as unscrupulous street dealers have been known to try to follow trends by marketing their product under a popular name while mixing in cheaper chemicals that offer a better “bang for their buck” compared to psychedelics in their pure form. Non-psychedelic substances that are cut into or sold as psychedelics include heroin, methamphetamines, and even bath salts. This disturbing trend illustrates the deadly consequences that the paradigm of prohibition poses and highlights the vital importance of harm reduction practices.

Considerations for Undiagnosed Mental Disorders

One of the most prevalent old wives’ tales about psychedelics is that taking them may make you go crazy—not just for a few hours but for good. As part of the fear and smear campaign levied against psychedelics in the 70s and 80s, this meme was easy for most people to believe because of the antagonistic socio-political climate the War on Drugs created, but the reality is that this is a fallacy. Numerous scientific studies have been done on psychedelics ranging from psilocybin to DMT to peyote, which have found that they do not harm the brain under normal use. The only morsel of validity to this claim is that in a tiny percentage of cases, some people who have undiagnosed mental disorders or a strong genetic predisposition to mental disorders could have their disorder triggered early by psychedelics. And of course, it bears mentioning that extreme dosages of any substance, legal or illegal, can present real dangers that reasonable use does not.

Harmful Interactions

While most psychedelics are relatively safe in and of themselves, some of them are more taxing on the body than others, and some interact in harmful ways with other drugs. This is why psychedelic treatment centers around the world almost universally require a medical pre-screening. Individuals should always do research themselves, but some examples of things to be careful of include heart issues with ibogaine treatment, antidepressants with ayahuasca, and dextromethorphan (DXM) with MDMA. People on any kind of prescription medication should do extensive research before considering any kind of psychedelic experience.

How to Ensure Psychedelics Do More Good Than Harm

“Bad trips” on psychedelics can often leave people feeling jostled to the core, but they can be greatly reduced or even harnessed into self-transformational breakthroughs with proper set and setting. This means that a person’s intentions for choosing to undergo a psychedelic experience, combined with their social and physical setting and available support network, go a very long way to help people step through the threshold of their psychedelic journey in a constructive and enriching way.

That being said, if these vital supporting conditions are unfavorable, or if a person is not prepared to come face to face with their innermost feelings, traumas, or behavioral patterns, they can feel overwhelmed and resist the experience, creating an uncomfortable and sometimes scary ride that denies the revelatory insights that psychedelics offer. The importance of set, setting, and support is why groups such as the Zendo Project exist to provide those kinds of services to people at festivals who are in the grips of a challenging experience. Whether at a festival or during a psychedelic therapy session, supportive allies are an essential component to ensure the physical and emotional safety of the individual.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Science News: Psychedelic drugs may reduce criminal behavior

Illicit substances may be effective interventions to crime

Date:
October 23, 2017
Source:
University of British Columbia Okanagan campus

Summary: Newly published research suggests that common psychedelic drugs — such as 'magic mushrooms', LSD and mescaline (a substance derived from the peyote cactus) — may reduce criminal offenses. The new study found that psychedelic drugs are associated with a decreased likelihood of antisocial criminal behavior.

FULL STORY:

Newly published research suggests that common psychedelic drugs — such as magic mushrooms, LSD and mescaline (a substance derived from the peyote cactus) — may reduce criminal offences.

The new study, co-authored by UBC Okanagan's Associate Professor of Psychology Zach Walsh, found that psychedelic drugs are associated with a decreased likelihood of antisocial criminal behaviour.

"These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that use of classic psychedelics may have positive effects for reducing antisocial behaviour," said Walsh, a p. "They certainly highlight the need for further research into the potentially beneficial effects of these stigmatized substances for both individual and public health."

Lead author, University of Alabama Assoc. Prof. Peter Hendricks, used data obtained by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which is administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to explore the connection between the use of classic psychedelic substances and criminal behaviour among more than 480,000 American adult respondents from the past 13 years.

Key findings of the study are that respondents who have used psychedelic drugs had 27 per cent decreased odds of larceny or theft, and 22 per cent decreased odds of arrest for a violent crime in the past year. At the same time, lifetime use of other illicit substances was generally associated with increased odds of criminal behaviour.

Hendricks says that psilocybin and related compounds could revolutionize the mental health field.

"The development of innovative and effective interventions to prevent criminal behaviour is an obvious priority," Hendricks adds. "Our findings suggest the protective effects of classic psychedelic use are attributable to genuine reductions in antisocial behaviour rather than reflecting improved evasion of arrest. Simply put, the positive effects associated with classic psychedelic use appear to be reliable. Given the costs of criminal behaviour, the potential represented by this treatment paradigm is significant."

Walsh points out that research on the benefits of psychedelic drugs started decades ago, primarily to treat mental illness. However, it was stopped due to the reclassification of the drugs to controlled substances in the mid-1970s. Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in psychedelic medicine.

"More research is needed to figure out what factors underlie these effects," Walsh says. "But the experiences of unity, positivity and transcendence that characterize the psychedelic experience may have lasting benefits that translate into real-world consequences."

The research was recently published by the Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of British Columbia Okanagan campus. Original written by Nathan Skolski. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Science News: Psychedelic drug use associated with reduced partner violence in men

Psychedelics may help improve emotion regulation and keep violent tendencies at bay

Date:
June 6, 2018
Source:
University of British Columbia Okanagan campus

Summary: Researchers have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.

FULL STORY

In a new study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, researchers from UBC's Okanagan campus have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.

"Although use of certain drugs like alcohol, methamphetamine or cocaine is associated with increased aggression and partner violence, use of psychedelics appears to have the opposite effect," says clinical psychology graduate student and study lead author Michelle Thiessen. "We found that among men who have used psychedelics one or more times, the odds of engaging in partner violence was reduced by roughly half. That's significant."

Psychedelic drugs act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Classic psychedelics include Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The effects vary but can produce mystical experiences and changes in perception, emotion, cognition and the sense of self. Classic psychedelics are not considered to be addictive.

"Previous research from our lab that looked at men in the criminal justice system found that hallucinogen users were substantially less likely to perpetrate violence against their intimate partners," notes UBC professor and supervising author Zach Walsh. "Our new study is important because it suggests that these effects might also apply to the general population"

Thiessen, Walsh and colleagues Adele LaFrance and Brian Bird from Laurentian University based their results on an anonymous online survey of 1,266 people recruited from universities and through social media. Respondents were asked to disclose their lifetime use of LSD and psilocybin mushrooms and then complete a questionnaire that assessed multiple aspects of their emotion regulation.

"Past research found a clear association between psychedelic drug use and reduced partner violence, but the reasons for this effect remained unclear," says Thiessen. "We found that better ability to manage negative emotions may help explain why the hallucinogen users were less violent."

Thiessen says that her results could one day lead to novel treatments to reduce violence.

"These findings add to the literature on the positive use of psychedelics and suggest that future research should explore the potential for psychedelic therapies to help address the international public health priority of reducing domestic violence."

The study was published with funding in part from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of British Columbia Okanagan campus. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Science News: 'Ego-dissolving' psychedelic drugs could assist with mental health

Summary: The altered state of consciousness and temporary lack of ego that results from using psychedelic drugs could help some mental health patients recover from their symptoms, according to academics.

Date:
August 8, 2017
Source:
University of Adelaide

FULL STORY

The altered state of consciousness and temporary lack of ego that results from using psychedelic drugs could help some mental health patients recover from their symptoms, according to academics at the University of Adelaide.

Researchers in the University's Department of Philosophy have been studying the body of evidence around the use of psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms, and the impact they have on people's sense of "self."

In a new article published online in Aeon (https://aeon.co/essays/psychedelics-work-by-violating-our-models-of-self-and-the-world), authors Professor Philip Gerrans and recent PhD graduate Dr Chris Letheby say there is growing evidence to suggest that psychedelic experiences can be truly "transformative" — including helping some people with anxiety, depression, or addiction.

"We know quite a lot about the neurochemistry of psychedelic drugs and how they work on the brain. What's poorly understood is the more complex relationship between the brain, our sense of self, and how we perceive the world," says Professor Gerrans, who has been researching self-representation in psychiatric disorders.

In a recent paper published in the journal Neuroscience of Consciousness, Professor Gerrans and Dr Letheby explain how users of psychedelic drugs often report that their sense of being a self or 'I' — distinct from the rest of the world — has diminished or completely "dissolved."

"This 'ego dissolution' results in a moment of expanded awareness, a feeling in which the mind is put more directly and intensely in touch with the world," Professor Gerrans says.

"Through this experience it may be possible to re-engineer the mechanisms of self, which in turn could change people's outlook or world view. The profound sense of connection produced by this experience has the potential to be beneficial for people suffering from anxiety, depression, and some forms of addiction," he says.

Dr Letheby says one of the reasons why psychiatric disorders are so hard to shake is that it's almost impossible for sufferers to view things differently.

"People who go through psychedelic experiences no longer take it for granted that the way they've been viewing things is the only way," Dr Letheby says.

"Psychedelics can assist in enlightening people about the processes behind their subjectivity. Ego dissolution offers vivid experiential proof not only that can things be different, but that there is an opportunity to seek change."

The researchers do not advocate unsupervised recreational use of psychedelic drugs.

"These drugs were originally researched and used as treatments for various psychiatric conditions in the mid-20th century, with psychiatrists in the 1950s claiming success in treating alcoholism and other mental health conditions.

"It may be time for these drugs to make a psychiatric comeback, under controlled circumstances. More research would be needed to establish just how important they could be as part of an overall treatment program," Professor Gerrans says.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Adelaide. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlikss.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd SykehdehLik Izm.


Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


Kush Jem

Table of Contents

NexT TexT Frum https://www.etymonline.com/word/gem

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] gem (n.)

"a precious stone" (especially when cut or polished), c. 1300, probably from Old French gemme (12c.), from Latin gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from Proto-Italic *gebma- "bud, sprout," from PIE *geb-m- "sprout, bud" (source also of Lithuanian žembėti "to germinate, sprout," Old Church Slavonic prozebnoti "to germinate")…

Of persons, "a rare or excellent example (of something)" from late 13c. Alternative forms iemme, gimme persisted into 14c. and might represent a survival of Old English gimm "precious stone, gem, jewel," also "eye," which was borrowed directly from Latin gemma.

gem (v.)

c. 1600, "to adorn with gems;" earlier (mid-12c.)

"to bud," from gem (n.).

Related: Gemmed; gemming.


3 Typs Uhv Kush Jemz:

1: Sollid Kush Jemz

2: A ThoT Kush Jem

  • ReeGahrdz An ImpohrTanT ( biochemical FacT Ohr SaeefTee Info ) UhbouT Ehnee Psychoactive drug, Lyk Thohz In Thuh Kush Byb EL.

3. An Adorn Kush Jem Iz A Kuhnsuum Task.


NexT TexT Wuhz Frum

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] adorn (v.)

late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: adorning, Adorned.


Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

Thohz Sowndz Myt Get Rehpreezehnted In Fohnehtik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz Az:

  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.



Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

See ALso:


Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug

Table of Contents

Drug AddikT SyTs Tend Tu miss-BLaeem pSykohAkTiv Drugz Fohr Suhm [[Heewman]]]'z bad KehrakTr fahLTs.

Kuhmpehr Thuh Nekst Risks blamed on Marijuana With Thuh Following Naturopathic Praise Uhv Marijuana.


++Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhn: https://www.addictions.com/marijuana/#risks

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Mental Effects of Marijuana use include:

An anxiety that does not go away or gets worse as a result of smoking pot
Depression or a depressed state
Social intolerance or a lack of desire to be social
Paranoia or feeling like everyone is out to get you
Acute psychotic reactions

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Heart:

Increased heart rate by 20-100%
Increased risk of heart attack
Increased risk of cardiovascular vulnerabilities

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Lungs:

Carcinogenic toxins create lung cancer
Increased exposure to disease
Increased risk of pneumonia
Increased risk of cold

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on Life:

Lack of motivation
Physical impairment
Mental impairment
Reduced cognitive abilities
Poor social life

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] the Side Effects of Marijuana Addiction?

Extensive research has shown that smoking marijuana can lead to some physical and psychological consequences such as:

Changes in appetite
Mood swings
Red eyes
Sleep disturbances
Increased heart rate
Difficulty concentrating
Memory problems
Dry mouth
A productive cough
Depression

[ Supposed Risk uhv ] Paranoia is also a common symptom of marijuana use,

  • although friends and family members of the individual suffering from marijuana addiction are more likely to notice this effect than the user. Only after they are in recovery do most individuals realize the degree to which marijuana-induced paranoia has been negatively impacting their lives.

Most of these symptoms will wear off as the drug itself wears off, but for some, the psychological effects of marijuana can last many months or even years after the individual stops smoking pot.

Insomnia can persist for many months, often pushing individuals to relapse and to return to marijuana.

Anxiety and depression are also common outcomes of marijuana abuse that can persist for months, often leading to relapse…

No longer using marijuana after a prolonged phase of marijuana use can lead to the following

[ possible ] withdrawal symptoms:

Irritability
Insomnia
Poor appetite
Anxiety
Depression
Agitation
Cravings
Mood swings


Kuhmpehr Those Addict Site warnings Tu Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jem.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

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4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

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6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


ReGahrdeeng A Few SoLLid Kush Jemz

PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

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Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

MeTh BreakDown

PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

PhenyLeThyLamine-AmpheTamine-MeThAmpheTamine.png
Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

Following TexT Frum: https://www.quora.com/Does-methamphetamine-break-down-into-phetamine-after-two-days-for-drug-test

Methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

Methamphetamine actually breaks down and metabolizes into amphetamine.

Amphetamine is scientifically known as methylated phenylethylamine.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Methylation, the transfer of a methyl group (―CH3) to [ a chemical ] compound. Methyl groups may be transferred through addition reactions or substitution reactions; in either case, the methyl group takes the place of a hydrogen atom on the compound. Methylation can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

DeMethylAtion Iz The ReemoovuL Uhv A MeThyL Group (―CH3) Frum A Kem Compound.


See AhLsoh Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh


See: Kush Groop Kemz


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd Kuhnsuhmpshuhn Uhv ( MuLTy+Drugz = Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

Mixing drugs frequently leads to overdose and potentially death.
-Frum: https://luxury.rehabs.com/cocaine-addiction/mixing-cocaine/#drug

See:


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz OfT KahLd Smohk.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually

Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jemz.


Included page "cacao-cocoa-powdr-fohr-prohteen-and-3-sychuhtrohpik-drugz" does not exist (create it now)


See Ahlsoh:

Kannuhbinnoeed

Phenylethylamine

Amphetamine

MeTh EesehnchuLz

Opioid Izm

Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh

Benzodiazenpine Izm

If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd Kuhnsuhmpshuhn Uhv ( MuLTy+Drugz = Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

Mixing drugs frequently leads to overdose and potentially death.
-Frum: https://luxury.rehabs.com/cocaine-addiction/mixing-cocaine/#drug

See:


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Groop Kemz.