Kush BibLe In Simp Lang Yeeng Voyss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Byb EL.

TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs:

Kush

Kush Buhd Byb EL

[Cannabinoid

Kush Jemz

Recreational Drug Owners Constitutional Rights

RecreaTional Drug SafeTy

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Kush Uv Kush Byb EL Uv RihLihdjuhn Uv Baisik Kyndz Syz Ohmz Paidj LisT:

Pronunciation Uv Wrd Kush
IPA(key): /kʊʃ/

NexT TexT Frum https://www.thoughtco.com/what-was-the-kingdom-of-kush-43955

The History and Origins of the Kingdom of Kush…

Kerma: the First Kingdom of Kush

The first Kingdom of Kush, also known as Kerma, is one of if not the oldest African states outside of Egypt. It developed around the settlement of Kerma (just above the third cataract on the Nile, in Upper Nubia). Kerma arose around 2400 B.C. (during the Egyptian Old Kingdom), and had become the capital of the Kush Kingdom by 2000 B.C.

NexT TexTR Frum: https://www.ancient.eu/timeline/kush/
1700 BCE
The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.

c. 1 CE - c. 25 CE
Amanitore, Candace of Meroe, reigns over the most prosperous era of the latter-day Kingdom of Kush.
c. 330 CE
Meroe is conquered by the Kingdom of Axum; Kingdom of Kush in decline.
350 CE
End of the Kingdom of Kush and city of Meroë in Nubia.

NexT TexT Frum https://www.britannica.com/place/Hindu-Kush
The name Hindu Kush derives from the Arabic for “Mountains of India.” Its earliest known usage occurs on a map published about ad 1000.

See: Kannuhbiss=Cannabis

Kush Jem

Table of Contents

NexT TexT Frum https://www.etymonline.com/word/gem

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] gem (n.)

"a precious stone" (especially when cut or polished), c. 1300, probably from Old French gemme (12c.), from Latin gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from Proto-Italic *gebma- "bud, sprout," from PIE *geb-m- "sprout, bud" (source also of Lithuanian žembėti "to germinate, sprout," Old Church Slavonic prozebnoti "to germinate")…

Of persons, "a rare or excellent example (of something)" from late 13c. Alternative forms iemme, gimme persisted into 14c. and might represent a survival of Old English gimm "precious stone, gem, jewel," also "eye," which was borrowed directly from Latin gemma.

gem (v.)

c. 1600, "to adorn with gems;" earlier (mid-12c.)

"to bud," from gem (n.).

Related: Gemmed; gemming.


3 Typs Uhv Kush Jemz:

1: Sollid Kush Jemz

2: A ThoT Kush Jem

  • ReeGahrdz An ImpohrTanT ( biochemical FacT Ohr SaeefTee Info ) UhbouT Ehnee Psychoactive drug, Lyk Thohz In Thuh Kush Byb EL.

3. An Adorn Kush Jem Iz A Kuhnsuum Task.


NexT TexT Wuhz Frum

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] adorn (v.)

late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: adorning, Adorned.


Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

Thohz Sowndz Myt Get Rehpreezehnted In Fohnehtik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz Az:

  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.



Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

See ALso:


Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug

Table of Contents

Drug AddikT SyTs Tend Tu miss-BLaeem pSykohAkTiv Drugz Fohr Suhm [[Heewman]]]'z bad KehrakTr fahLTs.

Kuhmpehr Thuh Nekst Risks blamed on Marijuana With Thuh Following Naturopathic Praise Uhv Marijuana.


++Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhn: https://www.addictions.com/marijuana/#risks

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Mental Effects of Marijuana use include:

An anxiety that does not go away or gets worse as a result of smoking pot
Depression or a depressed state
Social intolerance or a lack of desire to be social
Paranoia or feeling like everyone is out to get you
Acute psychotic reactions

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Heart:

Increased heart rate by 20-100%
Increased risk of heart attack
Increased risk of cardiovascular vulnerabilities

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Lungs:

Carcinogenic toxins create lung cancer
Increased exposure to disease
Increased risk of pneumonia
Increased risk of cold

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on Life:

Lack of motivation
Physical impairment
Mental impairment
Reduced cognitive abilities
Poor social life

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] the Side Effects of Marijuana Addiction?

Extensive research has shown that smoking marijuana can lead to some physical and psychological consequences such as:

Changes in appetite
Mood swings
Red eyes
Sleep disturbances
Increased heart rate
Difficulty concentrating
Memory problems
Dry mouth
A productive cough
Depression

[ Supposed Risk uhv ] Paranoia is also a common symptom of marijuana use,

  • although friends and family members of the individual suffering from marijuana addiction are more likely to notice this effect than the user. Only after they are in recovery do most individuals realize the degree to which marijuana-induced paranoia has been negatively impacting their lives.

Most of these symptoms will wear off as the drug itself wears off, but for some, the psychological effects of marijuana can last many months or even years after the individual stops smoking pot.

Insomnia can persist for many months, often pushing individuals to relapse and to return to marijuana.

Anxiety and depression are also common outcomes of marijuana abuse that can persist for months, often leading to relapse…

No longer using marijuana after a prolonged phase of marijuana use can lead to the following

[ possible ] withdrawal symptoms:

Irritability
Insomnia
Poor appetite
Anxiety
Depression
Agitation
Cravings
Mood swings


Kuhmpehr Those Addict Site warnings Tu Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jem.

Kush Bud BibLe In Simp Lang Yeeng Voyss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Buhd Byb EL

Kannuhbiss

Cannabis (/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plant that includes three species (and [LoTs uv Taxa) or subspecies, sativa, ruderalis, and indica. The plant is indigenous to central Asia and the India subcontinent.


SaTiva In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz SuhTeevuh

marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-BEC2T4.jpg
Frum: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-26081220.html

See:


Marijuana Indica iz thuh SanskriT Simp Lang Bhang

Bhang Pronunciation
(US) IPA: /bæŋ/

Etimolluhjee bhang (n.)

"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
Sum Incica Bud Haz Noh CBDz

Fruhm: https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/the-difference-between-indica-and-sativa-marijuana
3744_Oos4_indica_vs_sativa.png

Included page "ruderalis" does not exist (create it now)


See:


Kannuhbiss Grows Bud KahLd (Marijuana=Mehrihwahnuh), Heer A.K.A. Kush Bud.

Medical Marijuana In FuhnehTik Inglish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Kannuhbinnoeedz



Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".



Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."



Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

WemMD Medical Marijuana FAQ

How does it help?

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

Reduce anxiety
Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
Control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy
Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
Relax tight muscles in people with MS
Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. So far, research hasn't proved it works. But some epilepsy centers are testing a drug called Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.


THC Vrsuhs CBD

Fruhm: CBD vs. THC: Medical benefits

CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However, CBD doesn’t cause the euphoric effects that occur with THC. Some people may prefer to use CBD because of the lack of this side effect.

In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Epidiolex, the first prescription medication to contain CBD. It’s used to treat rare, difficult-to-control forms of epilepsy.

CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:

seizures
inflammation
pain
psychosis or mental disorders
inflammatory bowel disease
nausea
migraines
depression
anxiety
THC is used to help with conditions such as:

pain
muscle spasticity
glaucoma
insomnia
low appetite
nausea
anxiety


Kannuhbinnoeedz

Frum: WemMD Medical Marijuana FAQ

How does it help?

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

Reduce anxiety
Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
Control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy
Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
Relax tight muscles in people with MS
Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. So far, research hasn't proved it works. But some epilepsy centers are testing a drug called Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



RecreaTional Drug SafeTy Uhv RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

{ Lrning And Teecheeng } KumpleeT ImporTanT ( Med FacTs And Mohr Saeef Use OpTs And Their EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion ) ReeGahrdeeng ( Eech RecreaTional Drug Wich ( SeLf Ohr Sum Wun Known ) Iz InTresTed In Eewzeeng ) Ahr Needed Tu Inform ( Now And Possibbul New ) RecreaTional Drug Eewzrz UhbowT Thuh PoTenchuL ( Risks And BenneffiTs ) Uhv Eewzeeng ThaT RecreaTional Drug.

RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

See ALso:



Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Marijuana Az Psychedelic

Bohth Uhv SykehdehLikss And Uhv Marijuana

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Is Marijuana a Psychedelic?

The answer is not as simple as you may think!

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both…

Properties of a Psychedelic

Psychedelics are an informal class within the broader umbrella class of hallucinogens. A psychedelic is defined as a substance that heightens cognition, raises consciousness, heightens awareness, and causes hallucinations. It is an informal subclass of substances in the class of hallucinogens and mainly affects serotonin…

Types of psychedelics

There are several types of psychedelics. Each of the types has slightly different properties. These types are:

Classic psychedelics – mescaline, DMT, and mushrooms,
Empathogen-enactogens – MDMA, MDA, and MDEA,
Dissociatives – Ketamine
Cannabinoids – THC this technically is in two classes, cannabis and psychedelics,
Others – Salvia divinorum

It is important to note that the term psychedelic is an informal classification. All of these fall under the definition of hallucinogens except for cannabiniods, they are not thought of as hallucinogens.

Effects of a psychedelic

The effects of psychedelics differ widely depending on the type of psychedelic. Even though it is a loose classification, there are some commonalities. These are:

altered states of consciousness,
distortion of time,
euphoria of some type,
changes in cognitions, and
changes in mental state.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
changes in emotional state or mood,
altered states of mind and cognition,
difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Comparing marijuana and psychedelics

Under the definitions strict of marijuana and psychedelics, they are two different substances not chemically related. Their actions in the body are different as are their effects on the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Drug Enforcement Administration, they are two different classes of drug. It is possible to argue that because of this difference in classification it is not a psychedelic. If you take the effects of each into consideration the essential ingredient in cannabis, acts like a psychedelic. Psychedelics cause what is termed expansion of consciousness, heightened cognition or thinking, and hallucinations. Cannabinoids do the same thing in different ways. Cannabinoids are unique to marijuana. Essentially the practical answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes, but not in the same way that LSD, MDMA, and others in that class. It contains many of the characteristics, properties, and effects that fall under the definitions of both. This is probably why marijuana is in a class on its own.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor

CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations.

Mechanisms of How THC/CBD Can Interact With Serotonin

You may read that THC is capable of inhibiting both serotonin-metabolizing MAO activity (2010 study) and serotonin reuptake activity (2007 study). However, it does both of these so weakly that it is not likely to be clinically relevant. Here are 3 ways that THC and CBD can interact with the serotonin system that are likely to be important:

CB1 activation enhances serotonergic neuron firing

CB1 receptors are expressed directly in some serotonergic neurons, but also in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that regulate the activation of serotonergic neurons. Both endocannabinoids and THC were shown to increase serotonergic neuron firing in animals.

However, studies of serotonin levels in different brain regions after treatment with cannabinoids have produced conflicting results. This may be due to biphasic effects, where cannabinoids can increase serotonin under some conditions, but decrease them under others. But overall, it appears that CB1 activation tends to increase serotonin release.

CB1 can interact with the 5-HT2A receptor

The CB1 receptor is capable of directly binding to other receptors to form what is called a heterodimer or heteromer. This is one way that the ECS can interact with other neurotransmitter systems.

A 2015 study demonstrated that CB1 receptor can form a heteromer with the 5-HT2A receptor. This heteromer exists in brain areas such as the hippocampus, dorsal striatum and cortex and mediates some of the memory-impairing and anti-anxiety effects of THC.

CBD can directly activate the 5-HT1A receptor

CBD is an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, which underlies some of its anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antiemetic, and antinociceptive properties.

Effects of THC & CBD That Depend Serotonin Receptors

Here are the top 6 cannabinoid effects that are mediated through serotonin receptors. Remember that these studies were performed in animals and that in many cases these effects have not yet been confirmed to be clinically meaningful in humans.

1. Reduce Pain

Although CB1 receptor agonists (such as THC) can reduce pain through several different mechanisms, one may involve serotonin. A 2010 study showed that CB1 agonists reduced acute pain through activation of descending spinal serotonin pathways and subsequent activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the spinal cord.

There are also serotonergic mechanisms for reducing neuropathic pain with CBD. For example, a 2019 study showed that inducing neuropathic pain in mice reduced serotonergic firing of the spinal pathway. CBD reversed these changes and improved neuropathic pain partially through the 5-HT1A receptor.

2. Depression

Both THC and FAAH inhibitors, which raise levels of anandamide, can improve animal models of +++ depression. The antidepressant effects of these molecules went away when animals were depleted of serotonin (2016 study, 2018 study), indicating that they are working at least partially through increasing serotonin release.

In addition, the antidepressant effect of CBD in animal models depended on activation of the 5-HT1A receptor (2016 study). Read more about the effects of cannabinoids in depression.

3. Anxiety

Low dose THC and FAAH inhibitors can have anti-anxiety effects. A 2007 study showed that anti-anxiety effects of THC depended on the 5-HT1A receptor, although a 2015 study demonstrated a dependence on the 5-HT2A receptor.

CBD also has an anti-anxiety effect that is mediated by activating the 5-HT1A receptor in some experimental models. However CBD treatment of chronically stressed mice had an anti-anxiety effect mediated through cannabinoid instead of serotonin receptors (2018 study).

4. Memory Impairment

As mentioned earlier, memory impairments caused by THC depended on formation of a heteromer between the CB1 receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. A 2018 study confirmed that this heteromer exists in humans and its levels, which were increased in cannabis users, inversely correlated with working memory.

CBD is reported to reverse some memory impairments of THC, and it may do this through activation of 5-HT1A receptors (2019 study).

5. Nausea

Anti-nausea effects of CBD in animal models were mediated by agonism of 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2012 study).

6. Body Temperature

Hypothermia, or lowered body temperature, is an effect of THC that many people may not even know about. This effect also involves 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2001 study).


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

How Cannabinoids Connects With Serotonin

Serotonin receptors

50 years back, when researchers suggested that the main cause of clinical depression is “serotonin deficiency”. Although in present research studies, it turns out that the pathogenesis of depression is much more complicated than previously thought.

It is true that serotonin ( 5-HT from the proper chemical name 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a versatile compound that regulates many physiological functions in the body. In addition to being a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system responsible for mood, appetite, sleep, memory or learning. Practically 90% of serotonin is found in the cells of the digestive system, which helps to control the appropriate regulation of bowel motility.

5-HT affects the body by binding to serotonin receptors classified as 7 subgroups (5-HT1, 5-HT2 …).

Maurice rapport

The new scientific discoveries regarding serotonin have now commenced after the biochemist Maurice Rapport in the late 1940s isolated this compound and established its molecular structure. We had to wait several decades to discover that the receptors for serotonin – 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 (named 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) were identified in the rat brain, and more recent studies have confirmed this.

CBD Receptors

Apart from serotonin, they can bind other molecules to serotonin receptors. In 2005, researchers determined that cannabidiol (CBD) receptors (CB1 and CB2) can bind to serotonin receptors. He points to a broader relationship between endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. After all, they are involved in similar physiological functions in the human body i.e. reducing anxiety, pain, relieving nausea and maintaining a proper body temperature.
Dimer

From a pharmacological point of view, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors belong to the so-called G-protein-coupled receptors. As we have seen, this type of receptors can combine to form dimer-like complexes (a dimer is a structure made up of two receptors that merge together into one functional unit.)

A new discovery

A breakthrough discovery was made by Spanish scientists studying cerebral ischemia in newborn piglets. They showed that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A connected to the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the dimeric complex.

There are descriptions in the scientific literature that show that CBD is a weak 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Recall – an agonist is a compound that binds to the receptor and on this basis triggers its action on the body. On the contrary, acts against it as an antagonist that blocks the receptor.

[ CBDA acts as a stronger agonist of 5HT2A receptors than CBD ]

It has been shown that activation of the 5-HT1A receptor by cannabidiol lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart rate and reduces the sensation of pain. However, from an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, it appears that CBD prevents liver damage, reduces anxiety, pain and nausea in laboratory animals based on this mechanism of action. Interestingly, CBDA (cannabidiol acid) – the acid precursor of cannabidiol, present in large amounts in a crude cannabis plant, is a stronger 5-HT 1A agonist than CBD, and therefore very high hopes are associated with the possible use of this compound as an antiemetic.

CBD also has a link with the 5-HT2A receptor, although it is weaker compared to the 5-HT1A receptor and is mediated by antagonism. While CBD stimulates the 5-HT1A receptor, it apparently acts as an antagonist to 5-HT2A. The 5HT2A receptor is referred to as psychedelic because its strong agonists are compounds such as LSD or mescaline.

5-HT2A & CB1 Receptors

It is important to note that oral intake of a large dose of marijuana resin (called hashish) can produce effects likened to LSD. Long-term hemp researcher Dr Ethan Russo advised that THC is a hallucinogenic factor in the hash. While closely related cannabidiol (CBD) has opposite activity.

Is it possible that the compound 5-HT2A receptor effectuates the hallucinogenic properties of THC? Contrast to CBD, THC does not directly bind to 5-HT2A. However, as mentioned earlier, THC can directly activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, and from the article published by PLoS Biology in 2015, we know that CB1 receptors form a complex structure with 5-HT2A receptors, hence the hallucinogenic effect after ingestion of hashish.
5-HT3A receptor

The 5-HT3A receptor is unique among serotonin receptors because, unlike all other serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT3A is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Rather, 5-HT3A acts as an ion channel that regulates the flow of ions across the cell membrane and contributes to creating fast electrical signals in the brain. 5-HT3A receptors are involved in mood modulation as well as in the transmission of pain signals.

THC and CBD as potent modulators

5-HT3A receptor blockers (antagonists) are used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Both THC and CBD are potent, negative allosteric modulators of 5-HT3A receptors. This means that these compounds change the shape of the receptor so that the molecule that originally activates it (eg serotonin) is unable to bind to it. This may explain some of the antiemetic effects of THC and CBD.

Until now, the interactions between cannabinoids and other serotonin receptors (5-HT4,6,7) have not been fully identified. However, ongoing research will let us know in the near future.


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " *Marijuana Az Psychedelic ".


SaTiva In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz SuhTeevuh

marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-BEC2T4.jpg
Frum: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-26081220.html

See:

Marijuana Indica iz thuh SanskriT Simp Lang Bhang

Bhang Pronunciation
(US) IPA: /bæŋ/

Etimolluhjee bhang (n.)

"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
Sum Incica Bud Haz Noh CBDz

Fruhm: https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/the-difference-between-indica-and-sativa-marijuana
3744_Oos4_indica_vs_sativa.png

Included page "ruderalis" does not exist (create it now)

See:

Iz Mehrihwahnuh Smohk ohvrdohss lethal???

NexT TexT Fruhm: Here's how much marijuana it would take to kill you

"With more people lighting up than ever…it's important to remember how many fatally overdose on the drug:

"Zero. That's according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which collects data on a range of other substances, both legal and illicit, and the Drug Enforcement Administration…

"It's pretty impossible to ingest a lethal dose of marijuana...

"Cannabinoid receptors are not found in the brainstem areas that control breathing. Thus, 'lethal overdoses from cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur,' The National Cancer Institute explains…

"[W]hile there are no recorded cases of deaths from marijuana overdose, one bong rip too many can make users feel incredibly uncomfortable. Their heart starts to race, hands tremble, and anxiety strikes. There are things they can do to mitigate a 'What I have done?' high…

"Drink some water to stay hydrated and eat a snack — preferably one that is ready-to-eat and does not require operating a stove — to boost your blood sugar…"

See: Human Essential Nutrition

"…The good news is, as reported in The British Journal of Psychiatry, cannabis is safe in overdose. In other words, it is physically impossible for a human to die as a direct result of a cannabis overdose. Having said that, this guide will be helpful to medical marijuana patients who find themselves smoking or ingesting too much of their favorite plant…What are the signs and symptoms of a cannabis overdose?…"
* Fruhm: https://www.medicaljane.com/2015/11/05/can-you-overdose-on-marijuana-survival-tips-for-greening-out/

"Non-tobacco smoking was associated with chronic cough (OR=1.73), chronic phlegm (OR=1.53) and wheeze.,.There was no significant difference in lung function measurements between marijuana-only smokers and non-smokers…Marijuana use was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms, coughing on most days, phlegm production, wheezing and chest sounds without a cold…"

Deskripshuhnz uhv wrd chronic

If you smoke a cigarette once, you've simply made a bad choice. But if you're a chronic smoker, you've been smoking for a long time and will have a hard time stopping.

The word chronic is used to describe things that occur over a long period of time and, in fact, comes from the Greek word for time, khronos. If you have chronic asthma, it is a recurring health issue for you. No one likes a chronic liar!

"If it gets to an advanced stage, chronic bronchitis can lead to a life-threatening illness. When the bronchial tubes and lungs become weak enough, it becomes more likely that you will experience respiratory failure, develop lung cancer or a heart or lung disease. You also have a heightened risk for pneumonia. About one percent of people with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease like chronic bronchitis die from their condition every year…

"Chronic bronchitis symptoms include mucus, cough, wheezing and inflammation or irritation of the lining of bronchial tubes. You may also have chills and fever with chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a common cause, but not the only cause. Air pollution may also be a cause. When bronchitis symptoms last a long time, the condition is serious.

Antibiotics, inhalers, and cough medicines are all used to help treat chronic bronchitis. Sometimes a course of respiratory therapy is also used."


Smohkeeng Iz AiThr:
1: Brneeng ( Wood Ohr An UhThr FlammabuL Rb PahrT ) Tu Smohk, Or
2: BreeTheeng ( In Then Out ) Smohk Frum A Kush Rb Such Az Tobacco Or [[[Mehrihwahnuh]].


Tu Tohk Iz Tu DeeLibrayTLee BreeTh In a PsychoAcTive Gas, EspeshuLLee Wood-Lyk Mehrihwahnuh Rb BrnT Tu Kush Smohk.



Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz OfT KahLd Smohk.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually

Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,



Smohkeeng Iz AiThr:
1: Brneeng ( Wood Ohr An UhThr FlammabuL Rb PahrT ) Tu Smohk, Or
2: BreeTheeng ( In Then Out ) Smohk Frum A Kush Rb Such Az Tobacco Or [[[Mehrihwahnuh]].


Cooking Kemz Tu Gaz Iz KahLd ( Vaypryzeeng = Making Vaypr ).

Tu BreeTh Kush Vaypr Iz Heer AhLsoh KahLd Tu Tohk


  • Tohkeeng Kush Smohk Haz A High Risk Tu Koz loud rude devil kof suhfreeng. ThaT Loudness Shood GeT KuhnsidraTLee KrTeeuhsLee Kuhvrd WiTh A CLoTh Kof MuhfLr, Lyk A KiTchen CLoTh Ohr PahrT Uhv A ShrT. ThaT Kof CloTh ShouLd Be PuT Neer In A Handy PLayss, Lyk RyT Undr THuh Hand That U Plan Tu HohLd Thuh Tohrch. Then Wen U STahrT Tu Brn Your Mehrihwahnuh Wood Tu Kush Smohk And STahrT Tu ( Tohk = DeeLibrayTLee BreeTh In Gaz WiTh Kemz ThaT Koz A SykuhTropik EefekT ), Thuh Kush Smohk, NohrmuLee In UhbowT 3 Sekuhnds, Thuh Rdj ThaT SignuLz Kof PuLss Iz FelT Thuh Soon Your Kof CloTh MyT Bee Handy Eenuf Tu Grab Then MuffLeen gThuh MohsT RrLee Kof Az PossibuL,KwikLee STahrT Tu (MuhfuL = Mayk KwyeTr ) Then AhL Following Kof Pulsez Az PossibuL WuhT MyT Have Ben Mohr Loud Sowndz.

Kannuh bud Can AhLTrnuhTivLee Bee hand-grynded intu green Spyss wich kan get spreengkLd on or in a fwd or drink (lyk tea) and then mixt ohr shook in and then kunswmd.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Marijuana and Cannabinoids

People have used marijuana, also called cannabis, for a variety of health conditions for at least 3,000 years. More recently, individual components of marijuana or similar synthetic substances have also been used for health purposes. These substances are called cannabinoids.


Kannuhbinnoeed Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Cannabinoid
* Uhv Kush Groop Kemz
* And Uhv Thuh Kush Byb EL.

Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Wrd Kannuhbinnoeed If Brohk UhpahrT Duz SpliT Tu: Kannuhbin + Oeed.


Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Etymology

(cannabis +‎ -n- +‎ -oid)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Uhnanduhmyd Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr

  • Wrd Speld Anandamide
    • Wich Wen Sownded OwT GeTs EenuhnseeaeeTed Az Ay nan day my deh.

Uhnanduhmyd MoLLekeewL Az STrukchr And Fohrmeewluh

Uhnanduhmyd-Kannuhbinnoeed-MoLLekeewL-Az-STrukchr-And-Fohrmeewluh.jpg
Pikchr Sayvd Fruhm Payj AT: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/anandamide-endocannabinoid-chemical-molecular-structure-signaling-556944526

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Anandamide is a ( neurotransmitter = Nrv Kom Groop Kem ) produced in the brain that binds to the Kannabinnoeed ReesepTrz. It’s been called the “bliss molecule,” aptly named after ananda, the Sanskrit word for “joy, bliss, or happiness.” It is considered an endocannabinoid — a substance produced in the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Eventually, anandamide was found to do a lot more than produce a state of heightened happiness. It’s synthesized in areas of the brain that are important in memory, motivation, higher thought processes, and movement control. It plays an important role in pain, appetite, and fertility. It also helps put the brakes on cancer cell proliferation.

By increasing neurogenesis — the formation of new nerve cells — anandamide exhibits both anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body which is why it doesn’t produce a perpetual state of bliss.

Tu Lrn Mohr Uhbout Thuh Kynd Uhv Websyt Thiss Info Iz Fruhm, See https://reset.me/about/


Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.naturalnews.com/022610_cacao_chocolate_raw.html

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


Kaffeen UhmownT In Kohkoh Powdr

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed izm


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed 2 Baeesik Kyndz Pikchr Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Biosynthetic pathway resulting in production of cannabinoid acids.
Kannuhbinnoeed_2_Baeesik_Kyndz.jpg

Thuh Pikchr Uhbuhv Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm Thuh InTrneT Paydj AT:


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


[[include eidos]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-2-baeesik-kyndz-pikchr" does not exist (create it now)


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Included page "fytohkannuhbinnoeedz" does not exist (create it now)

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz )

Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


See Also: Marijuana And The Bible

RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

Kannuhbinnoeed Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Cannabinoid
* Uhv Kush Groop Kemz
* And Uhv Thuh Kush Byb EL.

Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Wrd Kannuhbinnoeed If Brohk UhpahrT Duz SpliT Tu: Kannuhbin + Oeed.


Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Etymology

(cannabis +‎ -n- +‎ -oid)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Uhnanduhmyd Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr

  • Wrd Speld Anandamide
    • Wich Wen Sownded OwT GeTs EenuhnseeaeeTed Az Ay nan day my deh.

Uhnanduhmyd MoLLekeewL Az STrukchr And Fohrmeewluh

Uhnanduhmyd-Kannuhbinnoeed-MoLLekeewL-Az-STrukchr-And-Fohrmeewluh.jpg
Pikchr Sayvd Fruhm Payj AT: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/anandamide-endocannabinoid-chemical-molecular-structure-signaling-556944526

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Anandamide is a ( neurotransmitter = Nrv Kom Groop Kem ) produced in the brain that binds to the Kannabinnoeed ReesepTrz. It’s been called the “bliss molecule,” aptly named after ananda, the Sanskrit word for “joy, bliss, or happiness.” It is considered an endocannabinoid — a substance produced in the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Eventually, anandamide was found to do a lot more than produce a state of heightened happiness. It’s synthesized in areas of the brain that are important in memory, motivation, higher thought processes, and movement control. It plays an important role in pain, appetite, and fertility. It also helps put the brakes on cancer cell proliferation.

By increasing neurogenesis — the formation of new nerve cells — anandamide exhibits both anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body which is why it doesn’t produce a perpetual state of bliss.

Tu Lrn Mohr Uhbout Thuh Kynd Uhv Websyt Thiss Info Iz Fruhm, See https://reset.me/about/


Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.naturalnews.com/022610_cacao_chocolate_raw.html

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


Kaffeen UhmownT In Kohkoh Powdr

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed izm


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed 2 Baeesik Kyndz Pikchr Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Biosynthetic pathway resulting in production of cannabinoid acids.
Kannuhbinnoeed_2_Baeesik_Kyndz.jpg

Thuh Pikchr Uhbuhv Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm Thuh InTrneT Paydj AT:


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-2-baeesik-kyndz-pikchr" does not exist (create it now)


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Included page "fytohkannuhbinnoeedz" does not exist (create it now)

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz )

Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war Uhv Kush Byb EL

See YouTube PlLayLisT: End The Drug War: Legalize ALL PsychoTropic RecreaTional Drugz


Table of Contents

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RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Legalize All Drugs

Table of Contents

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

10 Reasons to Legalize All Drugs

By Anthony Martinelli

rThe war on drugs has been an unequivocal failure. Although many people are hesitant when it comes to the idea of legalizing all drugs – which is understandable given the extreme dangers of certain substances – it’s truly the only solution to ending the pain, death and social regression that comes with the drug war.

Below are what we here at TheJointBlog believe to be ten of the most important reasons for why we should legalize all illegal substances, not just cannabis.

1: The war on drugs, and the black market it creates, has led to a pandemic of violence and death, and only legalization will solve the problem.

The existence of drug cartels, and the thousands of lives they’ve taken, is caused directly by the war on drugs, and the fact that drugs are illegal. Without the illegal drug market, these cartels wouldn’t exist, or at the very least their power and influence would be greatly diminished.

With an end to our war on drugs comes an end to a lot of organized violence, and many unnecessary deaths.

2: The war on drugs has has been an economic disaster, funded by taxpayers.

Well over a trillion dollars of taxpayers’ money has gone into fighting a war that the government can never win. A hardline, oftentimes barbaric approach to drug use has not diminished their presence in our society. Instead, prohibition has enriched the criminals who choose to sell illegal drugs, and has done absolutely nothing to decrease usage rates. In a faltering economy, with a huge deficit to account for, the money spent on this ridiculous war cannot be justified.

3: The war on drugs creates an entire class of nonviolent [ Prisoners who are TOO OFT NOT real criminals violating OTHER People].

Drug prohibition has resulted in a mass population of nonviolent citizens being thrown in prison and labeled as lifelong criminals. When someone receives drug felony – which can occurs when even a minuscule amount of an illegal substance is in someone’s possession – it permanently alters their life. Student loans and grants become hard or even impossible to get, as do jobs and many housing opportunities. In many instances drug felons must resort to a life of crime simply to get by, because there are so few options available to them.

Roughly 50% of all inmates in federal prison were sentenced for nonviolent drug-related offenses. Putting these people behind bars alongside violent criminals is inhumane, and often leads to offenders becoming permanently hardened and de-socialized.

4: Legalizing drugs will take away the fear addicts have of seeking help, resulting in decreased addiction rates.

With the war on drugs, those who are seriously addicted to hard drugs often have no means of receiving the help they need to break the addiction and move on with their lives. Addicts fear that if they seek help, they could be persecuted and/or prosecuted for their illegal drug use.

In Portugal, which has decriminalized the possession of all drugs, drug usage rates have declined significantly, especially among minors. There’s also been a large decrease in addiction rates, due to addicts being more likely to seek help as they no longer fearing arrest.

In Portugal, decriminalizing drug possession has also reduced overdoses and STDs.

5: The war on drugs has perpetuated institutional racism.

It’s an undeniable fact that the war on drugs disproportionately effects minorities . For example, reports show that black-Americans are 2.5 times more likely to be arrested for cannabis, and 8 times more likely to be jailed for a drug offense, compared to someone who’s white. This is despite the fact that statistically minorities and whites use drugs at the same rate.

This discrepancy, of course, doesn’t come as a surprise when federal DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) agents are being told not to enforce drug laws in “white areas”.

If we end the war on drugs, we remove a legal tool for racist law enforcement officers and judges to use against minorities.

6: Legal drugs would be safer than black-market drugs, saving lives and reducing healthcare costs.

If drugs were legal, they would be regulated, meaning that warning labels could be mandated, the product could be quality controlled and instructions for the safest way to ingest the drug could be included. This would result in a large decrease in drug deaths/emergency room visits that are caused by street drugs being cut with other substances, or caused by users ingesting the drug the wrong way.

7: Legalizing drugs would free up police time and resources, and would unclog the court system.

If drugs were legal, it would stop police from wasting massive amounts of time and resources perpetuating the drug war. This would allow them to focus on serious crimes that actually reduce public safety, such as homicides and theft. This would also free up the court system.

8: Legalizing drugs would help prevent prison overcrowding.

The United States possesses just 5% of the world’s population, yet harbors over 25% of the world’s prisoners. The failed war on drugs- which as we mentioned above, accounts for roughly 50% of all federal inmates – is primarily to blame for this. If drugs were legalized, prisons would be freed up, allowing room for those who commit serious crimes. This would also help prevent serious criminals from being released early due to a lack of prison space.

9: The war on drugs develops mistrust in our government and our legal system.

Rather than properly educating the public on the dangers of drug use, and helping rehabilitate those who may be addicted, we label all drugs as being demonic entities and throw users in prison. Not only does this build mistrust in our legal system, it also breeds fear and hatred.

In addition to mistreating our citizens, our war on drugs leads to largely skewed priorities. Since Nixon declared this war in 1971, substances like cannabis have been labeled and treated the same as fatal substances such as meth and PCP. In our education system (yes, we’re looking at you, DARE), kids are taught that cannabis is equal in danger to substances like heroin. When kids find out this isn’t true about cannabis, likely through personal use, what’s to stop them from thinking they’ve also been lied to about other drugs? Education is key, and propaganda is dangerous.

We need to continue our work toward a fair and equal justice system. In such a system, there would be no room for failures like the war on drugs, and people would have the ability to choose what they put in their body without the fear of imprisonment.

10: Personal Freedom.

Jailing people for the use and possession of drugs, often for years or decades, flies contrary to the idea that we’re are and should be a free people. We are fully aware that hard drugs can have a devastating effect on the lives of many, but clearly a line has been crossed when simply possessing an illegal drug can have a harsher criminal sentence than crimes such as manslaughter, and can carry with it a life sentence…

drug decriminalization, drug legalization, drug war, end the drug war, end the war on drugs, legalize all drugs, legalize drugs, reason to legalize drugs, reasons to end the drug war, reasons to end the war on drugs, war on drugs

Anthony Martinelli


End The Drug War

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Let's Be Blunt: It's Time to End the Drug War

Art Carden
Contributor

April 20 is the counter-culture "holiday" on which lots and lots of people come together to advocate marijuana legalization (or just get high). Should drugs—especially marijuana—be legal? The answer is “yes.” Immediately. Without hesitation. Do not pass Go. Do not collect $200 seized in a civil asset forfeiture. The war on drugs has been a dismal failure. It’s high time to end prohibition. Even if you aren’t willing to go whole-hog and legalize all drugs, at the very least we should legalize marijuana.

For the sake of the argument, let’s go ahead and assume that everything you’ve heard about the dangers of drugs is completely true. That probably means that using drugs is a terrible idea. It doesn’t mean, however, that the drug war is a good idea.

Prohibition is a textbook example of a policy with negative unintended consequences. Literally: it’s an example in the textbook I use in my introductory economics classes (Cowen and Tabarrok, Modern Principles of Economics if you’re curious) and in the most popular introductory economics textbook in the world (by N. Gregory Mankiw).The demand curve for drugs is extremely inelastic, meaning that people don’t change their drug consumption very much in response to changes in prices. Therefore, vigorous enforcement means higher prices and higher revenues for drug dealers. In fact, I’ll defer to Cowen and Tabarrok—page 60 of the first edition, if you’re still curious—for a discussion of the basic economic logic:

"The more effective prohibition is at raising costs, the greater are drug industry revenues. So, more effective prohibition means that drug sellers have more money to buy guns, pay bribes, fund the dealers, and even research and develop new technologies in drug delivery (like crack cocaine). It’s hard to beat an enemy that gets stronger the more you strike against him or her."

People associate the drug trade with crime and violence; indeed, the newspapers occasionally feature stories about drug kingpins doing horrifying things to underlings and competitors. These aren’t caused by the drugs themselves but from the fact that they are illegal (which means the market is underground) and addictive (which means demanders aren’t very price sensitive).

Those same newspapers will also occasionally feature articles about how this or that major dealer has been taken down or about how this or that quantity of drugs was taken off the streets. Apparently we’re to take from this the idea that we’re going to “win” the war on drugs. Apparently. It’s alleged that this is only a step toward getting “Mister Big,” but even if the government gets “Mister Big,” it’s not going to matter. Apple didn’t disappear after Steve Jobs died. Getting “Mr. Big” won’t win the drug war. As I pointed out almost a year ago, economist and drug policy expert Jeffrey Miron estimates that we would have a lot less violence without a war on drugs.

At the recent Association of Private Enterprise Education conference, David Henderson from the Naval Postgraduate School pointed out the myriad ways in which government promises to make us safer in fact imperil our safety and security. The drug war is an obvious example: in the name of making us safer and protecting us from drugs, we are actually put in greater danger. Without meaning to, the drug warriors have turned American cities into war zones and eroded the very freedoms we hold dear.

Freedom of contract has been abridged in the name of keeping us “safe” from drugs. Private property is less secure because it can be seized if it is implicated in a drug crime (this also flushes the doctrine of “innocent until proven guilty” out the window). The drug war has been used as a pretext for clamping down on immigration. Not surprisingly, the drug war has turned some of our neighborhoods into war zones. We are warehousing productive young people in prisons at an alarming rate all in the name of a war that cannot be won.

Albert Einstein is reported to have said that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. By this definition, the drug war is insane. We are no safer, and we are certainly less free because of concerted efforts to wage war on drugs. It’s time to stop the insanity and end prohibition.


Legalize MeThampheTamine

Legalize MeThampheTamine

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Legalize Methamphetamine

I’m the last guy who ought to argue for the legalization of [any now illegal drug].1

As a practicing criminal defense attorney, I make a good income from defending people who are charged with drug crimes. If the drug war ended, I would lose a substantial portion of my income. Additionally, some would call me a health nut. I go to the gym six times a week and eat organic foods as often as possible. I wouldn’t change my healthy lifestyle if drugs were legal. I have three little kids. I don’t want them ever to become drug addicts. I want them to grow up in a safe world. Indeed, that’s exactly why I want the drug war to end.

When I was in law school, a wise law professor of mine taught me that if you are asking the wrong question, the answer doesn’t matter. In regards to MeTh, the question is not whether MeTh is dangerous and unhealthy. Over the years, I have represented countless MeTh users. I have seen the consequences of MeTh use up close. I am convinced MeTh use [can] ruin the user’s life. It is an extraordinarily dangerous [possibly sometimes too oft used] drug. Few drugs are more [habit-forming] or [sometimes] dangerous than MeTh.2

Legalize Methamphetamine

Many of those who oppose legalization of MeTh identify the horrors of MeTh use. I entirely agree with their assessment of MeTh’s dangers. Asking whether MeTh is dangerous or unhealthy or addictive is not the right question.

The relevant question is whether our society would be better served if MeTh was manufactured, distributed, bought and sold legally. The answer is yes.

There are two related but separate reasons why ending the drug war is critical.

  • First, a free society requires that the drug war end. I refer to this argument as the freedom argument.
  • * Second, the consequences of ending the drug war would yield economic and other benefits which would greatly benefit our society. I refer to this argument as the consequentialist argument.

Most readers will not be persuaded by the freedom argument. This fact is disturbing to me. In fact, many of the issues which plague our world will persist unless and until people come to respect the principles embodied in terms such as individual responsibility, self-ownership, and freedom. These concepts are what our country was founded upon and the very reason why America prospered. Now, they are given mere lip service if they are considered at all. If you shrug your shoulders and brush off the freedom argument, you should be ashamed of yourself. Whether you realize it or not, you are the problem.

Legalize Methamphetamine

THE FREEDOM ARGUMENT

I’m a good dad. I don’t want my kids using MeTh. Indeed, I will force my opinion about not using MeTh upon my kids. I will prevent them from using MeTh by force if necessary.3

As a dad, I have other policies as well. For example, my kids are not allowed to ride their motorized quads without helmets or to ride in the car without seatbelts. They are not allowed to smoke cigarettes or skydive either. However, at some point, my kids will be responsible to decide for themselves what activities are too dangerous for them. Both assessing the dangerousness of an activity and determining how much danger is acceptable will become the exclusive domain of each of my kids as it pertains to them. Resolving these questions for one’s self is an important task and responsibility of any free person.

The question of who gets to make decisions about the disposition of certain property is central to understanding freedom. Who gets to decide what activities are too dangerous for you? Should I get to decide what activities are too dangerous for you? What about your neighbor? Or the majority? Or the president? Or Congress? Or some judge? In a free society, the owner of the property gets to decide how the property is used.4

Because you own your body, I assert that you should decide how your body is used or abused.5

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

In terms of the freedom argument, the question of legalization of MeTh poses exactly the same question as many other issues currently confounding our fellow citizens. The following non-exhaustive list contains questions which are each different versions of the same question about how a particular body is used:

Should people be allowed to eat Big Macs?

Should people be allowed to consume any unhealthy foods at all?

Should people be allowed to play football despite the risk of serious injury?

Should people be allowed to skydive or rock climb?

Should people be allowed to ride in cars without seatbelts?

Should unprotected sex between consenting adult strangers be allowed?

Should consenting adults be allowed to have sex in exchange for money?

Should adults be permitted to ingest Marijuana for health reasons?

Should adults be permitted to ingest Marijuana for mere personal pleasure?

Should competent adults be allowed to voluntarily end their lives if they choose?

Each question begs the initial question about who gets to decide how a particular human body is used. Those of us who are pro-freedom would in each case conclude that the [Central Nervous SysTem or Nerve Mind] of the particular human body in question should decide how that body is used.6

The initial issue of who decides must be resolved first.

Although I would try my best to persuade others not to use MeTh, I concede it is not my decision. Among adults, persuasion is fine, but coercion is not. I will not force others to live by my assessments of dangers. I respect the property of other people such that I respect their right to use their property in ways I vigorously disagree with.7

I have no claim on how others use their property unless and until their activities trespass upon my property.8

Legalize Methamphetamine

The freedom argument is much bigger than the question of whether MeTh should be legal. It certainly resolves the question, but it raises larger questions about the very nature of government. Any legitimate role of government is confined to protecting rights. Indeed, unless you disagree with the principles upon which this country was founded and believe government is the source of rights which may be distributed to us or taken away, you must agree that government can have no rights other than the ones we individually delegate to it. Because you have no right to be my daddy, you have no such right to delegate to government. Further, because no person individually has any such right, even the majority of people added together collectively have no such right. Therefore, when the government acts as my daddy, it acts wrongfully; even if it acts pursuant to an accurately counted democratic vote.9

Although it is perfectly fine for me to act as a daddy to my kids, the government has no right to act as a daddy for us.

Some people posit that legalized MeTh would send the wrong message to people about using MeTh. However, the government’s role is not to send messages to us about what is right or wrong or good or bad. We don’t need messages from government. Free people determine for themselves how to run their lives. I have a right to be a self-destructive idiot if I choose. I [determine] me.

Additionally, the “messages from government” objection overlooks an important point. The concepts of legal and illegal are far different from the concepts of right and wrong or good and bad. Because an activity is legally permissible does not obligate people to conclude such an activity is right or good.10

Legalize Methamphetamine

Merely because the law allows my kids to insult other kids doesn’t prevent my wife and me from successfully teaching them not to do it. The unwillingness or inability of many people to invest the mental acuity to distinguish between these concepts has contributed to an intellectual feeblemindedness which is akin to a malignant tumor killing our society. The “messages from government” objection nourishes that tumor. We should embrace the concept that we are free to adopt personal standards of conduct which exceed the minimum threshold defined by law.

I regret devoting so few words to the freedom argument. It deserves much more. Many others have far more eloquently detailed the case for freedom. I hope to live to witness the day when the freedom argument is accorded the respect it deserves. I hope this skeletal argument stirs the interest of those who read it and encourages them to explore it more fully. The reason our society has been deteriorating in so many ways is because it has come to accord less and less respect to the freedoms of others. Winning the freedom argument is the only way to destroy the [legal cancers that infect] our world.

Legalize Methamphetamine

THE CONSEQUENTIALIST ARGUMENT

Some people say the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over while expecting different results. They are right. The government has been recklessly ramping up the war on drugs for the past thirty-five years.11

Every year we get tougher laws and tougher sentences. Approximately 1.6 million people are needlessly arrested every year for non-violent drug offenses. Many more non-violent drug users are simply charged without arrest. Some of them are students who lose their student loans and can no longer afford college. Others are people who hold professional licenses and can no longer work in their professions. Lives are being needlessly ruined.

The growth of the prison industry has mushroomed. We now have private companies in the prison business.12

This is no surprise when you consider that the United States claims 4.6% of the world’s population but 22.5% of the world’s prison population. The DEA has grown from 2,775 employees in 1972 to almost 11,000 employees with 86 foreign offices in 62 countries in 2005. We have well over two million people in prison. Since 1980, America’s general population has increased 20%, while America’s prison population has increased at twenty times that rate or an astonishing 400%. America imprisons more people as a percentage of our population than any other country in the world.13

Legalize Methamphetamine

This is a sad state of affairs for any country; especially one which refers to itself as the land of the free.

Despite the explosive expansion of government to fight the war on drugs, drug use is more prevalent today than it was before the war on drugs started. Additionally, drugs are cheaper, more potent and easier to get than they were in the early years of the drug war.14

Throwing more money at the issue has not resulted in fewer people using drugs. Even the federal government admits drug use has increased recently from 6% in 1993 to over 8% in 2003.15

Despite the frantically increasing efforts to curb the flow of drugs, high school students report drugs are still easy to obtain. Almost 90% of twelfth graders report Marijuana is “very easy” or “fairly easy” to get. Over 47% of twelfth graders say cocaine is “very easy” or “fairly easy” to get and more than 32% say heroin is “very easy” or “fairly easy” to get.16

I have had clients tell me they became addicted to drugs when they were in prison. Even in a prison setting, drugs are prevalent.

Legalize Methamphetamine

Not only are [recreational] drugs readily available, some of them have become more dangerous as a result of the drug war. Looking specifically at MeTh, the drug war has resulted in exacerbating the dangers associated with amphetamine use. While attempting to put the hysteria currently surrounding MeTh use in perspective, a columnist named Jack Shafer who writes for Slate aptly stated the following:

In the mid-1960s, just before the government declared war on amphetamines, the average user swallowed his pills, which were of medicinal purity and potency. Snorting and smoking stimulants was almost unheard of, and very few users injected intravenously. Today, 40 years later, snorting, smoking [In reality Vaporizing and Toking], and injecting methamphetamines of unpredictable potency and dubious purity has become the norm—with all the dreadful health consequences. If the current scene illustrates how the government is winning the war on drugs, I’d hate to see what losing looks like. See, www.slate.com/id/2123838 August 3, 2005.

The United States now spends over fifty billion dollars every year to combat the war on drugs.17

The war on drugs has been a colossal and unparalleled failure.18

Despite my countless conversations with judges, prosecutors, police officers, DEA agents and drug dealers, it is extraordinarily rare for me to find anyone who thinks the drug war is working or will ever work under any circumstances. Indeed, despite my countless invitations, I have yet to find anyone willing to debate me publicly on the drug war. Imagine a fifty billion dollar annual program nobody seems willing to defend.

I understand why nobody wants to debate me on this issue. I believe the people who work in the justice system, and truly understand the problems associated with the drug war, know they would be debating the wrong side of the issue. I recently argued the case for MeTh legalization before a group of judges and prosecutors. I was disappointed during question time when, despite my provoking and challenging them, there was only one half-hearted attempt to engage me on the issues. The case for legalization is overwhelming.

I have had occasion to talk privately and confidentially with many drug dealers for well over a decade. I estimate I have represented hundreds of drug dealers. Although some have simply been users who sell to support their habit, others have been major players in big drug organizations. I have found many of them to be bright people who are well aware that an end to the drug war would immediately put an end to their businesses. They realize that they could not compete with large corporations in a legal market. Their ability to make money by manufacturing, distributing and selling drugs exists solely because of the drug war. They very much want the war on drugs to continue and even expand.

Legalize Methamphetamine

Many drug dealers understand that each large drug bust brings increased profits for them. Although a drug seizure is bad news for the particular drug dealer involved, it is wonderful news for all the other drug dealers in the market. When you see government agents celebrating a large drug seizure, imagine all the other drug dealers celebrating along with them.

The economics of drug sales are no different than any other product sold in the market. Every big drug seizure causes a temporary decrease in the supply of that drug in the relevant market. However, the drug seizure doesn’t affect the demand for the drugs. Drug users still want drugs despite some drug dealer being arrested.19

When the demand remains constant and the supply is decreased, prices go up. Imagine being a drug dealer with a big supply of drugs on hand when prices suddenly go up. It would be accurate to say that drug dealers gain the most, through increased profits, when government agents make a seizure. Increased profits also serve to entice people to embark on new careers as drug dealers. Drug dealers love the drug war and do not want it to end. If you support the drug war, you are on the side of, and act as an unpaid lobbyist for the plight of the drug dealer.

Some of the drug dealers I have met are actually very nice, non-violent people. I have represented drug dealers who do not use drugs at all. They were simply unable or unwilling to refuse an illegal opportunity to make a lot of money. However, some of the drug dealers I have met are not nice people. They sell their drugs with the help of violent street gangs. Some of these gang members intentionally market drugs to kids. Because gang members generally can not utilize the court system to settle disputes over drug sales, nor can they insure their merchandise against losses, violence and guns are necessarily involved.

Legalize Methamphetamine

Simply causing MeTh to be manufactured illegally is by itself a huge problem. As a result of illegal MeTh labs, toxic chemicals used to produce methamphetamine are often discarded in rivers, fields, and forests. The environmental damage which occurs results in ever-expanding cleanup costs. The massive growth in costs to clean up such environmental messes is also illustrative of the failure of current policy. The DEA’s annual cost for cleanup of clandestine MeTh laboratories in the United States has increased steadily from 2 million in 1995 to 23.8 million a mere seven years later in 2002.20

A huge collection of well-documented facts about the failure of the current drug policy can be found at www.drugwarfacts.org.

I have heard the saying that those who do not study history are doomed to repeat it. I suspect some criminal defense lawyer in the 1920’s incurred wrath from the establishment for writing an article advocating the legalization of alcohol. I would bet the nice attorney was attacked by small thinkers who repeatedly pointed out the harmful attributes of alcohol.21

In case you are unaware, the government decided in 1919 to amend the United States Constitution to grant power to Congress to prohibit the manufacture, sale and distribution of alcohol.22

Their drug war played out just like ours; a complete and total disaster. However, it was the best thing that ever happened to organized crime. The manufacture, sale and distribution of alcohol were conducted entirely in illegal and violent markets. Criminals prospered and criminal organizations grew. A major crime wave began in the 1920s and continually increased until the end of prohibition in 1933 when it immediately started to reverse.23

Legalize Methamphetamine

Prohibition did nothing to curb the desire of people to use alcohol. Indeed, both the per capita consumption of alcohol as well as the rate of alcoholism increased during prohibition.24 25

Illegal clandestine stills manufactured alcohol of inconsistent and unpredictable quality. Law enforcement was overwhelmed chasing after people involved in alcohol-related crimes. Does any of this seem familiar to you?

In 1933, they figured it out and repealed the eighteenth amendment.26

To be fair, we still have people with substantial alcohol abuse problems. It is a real problem. We have no shortage of alcohol-related crimes. However, violent criminal street gangs do not make money from the sale of alcohol. Although few people “homebrew” alcoholic beverages, people do not brew alcoholic beverages in clandestine labs. Nobody is offered large cash rewards to transport alcohol. The Budweiser guy doesn’t fight the Miller guy if they both happen to arrive at the store at the same time to deliver their drug. Alcohol companies settle disputes peacefully in court. Alcoholics can seek help without the fear of criminal prosecutions. More resources can be devoted to apprehending real thugs because our justice system is not overloaded with cases of people manufacturing, distributing or selling alcohol. Isn’t this obviously a better deal?

Legalize Methamphetamine

We know certain things for sure. If MeTh was no longer illegal:

1. All dangerous clandestine MeTh labs in residential neighborhoods would close;

2. All dangerous street gangs would be out of the MeTh business;

3. Every dime currently spent on MeTh prohibition could be spent on real crime;27

4. Meth addicts would have no legal disincentive to seek help;

5. The manufacture of MeTh would be safe and produce a consistent product [most likely with a higher percent of purity]; and

6. Toxic waste from MeTh production would be safely disposed of.

If you support maintaining the war on drugs, you must necessarily conclude that either I am wrong about the above six assertions or that the benefits of the drug war outweigh the obvious benefits contained in the six assertions. It is difficult for me to imagine one could rationally and honestly dispute any of the six assertions. They are obvious and virtually guaranteed to flow from legalization. Therefore, a drug war supporter is left with the argument that the drug war’s benefits outweigh the benefits contained in the six assertions. If this is your position, I challenge you to honestly reweigh the costs and benefits of each scenario. Unless you put your finger on the scale because you personally benefit from the drug war, you must conclude legalization wins.

Legalize Methamphetamine

I do not intend to claim that the above six assertions are the only benefits of legalization. I list them together because I find them to be indisputable. There are other benefits of legalization. I suspect many people would either not experiment with or stop using MeTh. Recently, a teenage MeTh user confirmed for me that she and her friends started using MeTh at least in part because it was illegal. I cannot recall any friends of mine who didn’t drink alcohol prior to reaching age twenty-one. Indeed, I consumed more alcohol prior to reaching age twenty-one than I do today or since I have been age twenty-one and one month.

In countries where the alcohol drinking age is sixteen, rates of alcohol-related problems appear to be lower than in the United States where the drinking age is twenty-one.28

The National Institute on Alcoholism and Alcohol Abuse reports that in 2003, 5.55% of Americans were either alcohol-abusing or alcohol dependent. The Austrian drinking age is sixteen and 2.2% are regarded as alcohol dependent.29

The German drinking age is sixteen and 3.9% of Germans’ alcohol use is considered harmful.30

Even during prohibition, while rates of death from alcoholism and cirrhosis were rising in the United States, they were decreasing during the same time period in Great Britain, Denmark and Ireland where alcohol use was legal.31

I recently traveled to Amsterdam where Marijuana use is legal for those over eighteen years of age. Marijuana use among minors in Amsterdam is decreasing. Indeed, the rate of Marijuana use by minors is five times less than what it is in the United States.32

Even among adults, the rate of Marijuana use in the United States is twice as high as in the Netherlands where use of Marijuana is legal.33

Legalize Methamphetamine

Many of the locals informed me that Marijuana use is simply not exciting and they virtually don’t ever use it unless people from out of town are visiting. As you may expect, I had a lot of questions for proprietors of Marijuana coffee shops. I personally witnessed a peaceful and safe Marijuana trade in Amsterdam. Although I wouldn’t want to live there for unrelated economic reasons, the Netherlands is a good example of why legalization makes sense.34

Tobacco is a far deadlier drug than is MeTh. For the year 2000, tobacco is blamed for causing 435,000 deaths.35

Deaths resulting from the direct or indirect use of all illegal drugs including MeTh, cocaine, OxyContin, heroin, and ecstasy for the same year total 17,000. id.36 37

Despite the fact that tobacco is legal, tobacco use is declining. In 1956, 42% of adults smoked. In 1980, only 33% of Americans smoked. Additionally, in 1977, 29% of high school seniors smoked. Four years later, the number of high school seniors who smoke had fallen to 20%.38

Education about the dangers of tobacco use can be credited for the decline of tobacco use which occurred while the drug was legally available and without any of the crime and violence associated with the drug war. The recent rise in popularity of non-alcoholic beer and low nicotine cigarettes can be attributed to the same phenomenon. The same beneficial effects could be applicable to MeTh and other illegal drugs.

Legalize Methamphetamine

Fortunately, people are slowly waking up to the fact that this war on drugs is the entirely wrong approach. I am encouraged by a courageous group of law enforcement and former law enforcement members who have joined together to form a group entitled Law Enforcement Against Prohibition or LEAP. A visit to their website at http://leap.cc/ is well worth the time invested. The over two thousand law enforcement members of LEAP state the following, “The membership of LEAP believe to save lives and lower the rates of disease, crime, and addiction, as well as to conserve tax dollars, we must end drug prohibition.” The members of LEAP are willing and eager to debate their views with anyone willing to try to defend the drug war. Also, judges are finally starting to speak out. See, http://www.judgesagainstthedrugwar.org which contains judicial opinions critical of the drug war.

Astute observers of the drug war might point out that the $50-$69 billion dollars currently being spent on the drug war annually could be used to more effectively address the problems associated with drug abuse. That money could go a long way to facilitate drug abuse education, treatment, and prevention.

Additionally, some may argue that legalization of drugs could be administered in much the same way alcohol is currently dealt with. Certainly, people who commit real crimes should be punished whether or not they were using drugs at the time. Legalization of drugs does not mean laws must permit unsafe drug-impaired drivers on the roads. Further, employers and other private citizens would be free to prohibit any and all drug use at their workplaces or on their property as they can now with alcohol. Indeed, what would change with a reasonable scheme of legalization would be a deletion of much of the crime and violence only; everything else would remain much the same or improve. It is a substantially better deal than the ongoing and worsening disaster we currently endure.

Legalize Methamphetamine

The drug war is un-American. One cannot simultaneously value freedom and yet support a governmental scheme which denies the individual his or her sovereignty over his or her own body. Indeed, control over one’s own body is the most fundamental of all rights. Worse, the drug war has effectively birthed countless violent criminal enterprises. This possibly well-intentioned effort has resulted in effectively creating our 51st state; the state of incarceration. The state’s population is growing out of control and it is choking the life out of the other 50 states. Thousands of peaceful Americans are currently living in cages because of the drug war. The drug war is lunacy and it must end [as soon as possible]. As it did for the revolutionaries who founded our country, the time has come for us to be bold and courageous. We must speak out against this horrendous mistake. We have the better case.

Marc J. Victor is a practicing criminal defense attorney located in Chandler, Arizona. He can be reached via his website at www.attorneysforfreedom.com

1 I support legalizing all drugs which are currently illegal.
2 Incidentally, many say tobacco is actually more addictive than MeTh. Isn’t it interesting that approximately 50% of tobacco users have quit using tobacco in the past ten years all during a time while the drug was completely legal.
3 My ex-wife is a good mom. She supports my ban on MeTh use for our kids.
4 I acknowledge this concept is extraordinarily radical and barely comprehensible to some. For a better understanding, find someone who refers to himself or herself as a “libertarian” and talk to that person.

5 If you assert no claim of ownership to your body, I may be interested in laying a claim. However, I would want to see you first.

EddiTr Reesponss Az A Claim Uhv ( Non { owneeng az my proprTee } This ByohLodjikuL Human Bod.

InSTed I Sher Thuh Following ThoTs:

A. I Don'T And|Ohr Woh'T Think That I Own Me Az "my self property"!!! I Don'T and Won'T Think ThaT ( I And|Ohr Mee And|Ohr Self) Could possibly own ( I And|Ohr Mee And|Ohr Self) az property. ( Wuch Wun Would Own The UhThr 2 ) Ohr ( Wich 2 would ownThuh UhThr Wun )??? I Am Mee. I Am Self. Self Iz Mee. LykWyz, WyL Uhwaeek, I Wer And Senss In This Human Bod PahrTs ThaT Non-Theengk Az (I=Mee=Self) { Sensseeng And { SumTymz Mooveeng Ohr SumTymz Feedeeng } } Theez Human Bod PahrTs Az AspecTs Uhv (I=Mee=Self).

B. This Human Bod { Experiences And Beehaeevz } Az An (I=Mee=Self) ThaT { IdenTifyz Az And Gahrdz } This Human Bod Az MeeSelfBod Wich Can { Senss Veeuh A Senss Prsepshuhn InTegraeeTeeng SisTem, { Theengk And Chooz } Veeuh A MohsTLee Nrv FiLd Brain Mynd } And { AkT Veeuh A MohTr SisTem} } ThaT Maeeks Kemz ( ThaT SignaL A PLan Tu Moov Sum PahrTs Uhv MeeSelfBod ) Then (MohTr Nrvz Sendz Thoz Moov PLan Kemz ( Down And OuT ) Tu Thuh Kohrespondeeng MuhsuLz Wich Then, Az KLohss Az PossibbuL, Moov Uhkohrdeeng Tu Thuh Moov Plan. WyL Uhwaeek (I=Mee=Self) Duz { Senss And Theenk And Moov } IdenTifying Az This Human Bod.

C. I Kuhnfess ThaT WyL This Human Bod SLeeps ( NonKonchuhsLee = Non-Experiencing A Dreem ), Ther Iz No Senss Uhv Ehnee ( I Nor Me Nor SeLf ) Thus No PossibbiLLiTTee Uhv { Theengkeeng Nor AkTeeng } Az An Ownr Uhv Even Wuhn Bod, Human Ohr Ehnee UhThr Kynd Uhv Bod. If This Human Bod SLeeps WyL Thuh Human Brain Maeeks Dreemz, Even Thoh A SimmeeooLaeeshuhn Bod MyT Bee Experienced WiTh PrimmiTTiv Senss Uhv Self, YeT Sinss (I=Mee=Self) Non-Can'T Senss This Biological Human Bod, Thus (I=Mee=Self) Can'T { ReeLisTikkLee Theenhk UhbowT Nohr In Ehnee Way AcT Az Owneeng Nohr Koz Tu AcT Nohr AkT Tu Gahrd } This Biological Human Bod; Thuh Brain Fungshuhnz Az A VrchoouL ReaLiTy SimeeooLaeeTr And A VrchoouL SelfBod Experience Maeekr.

6 In case you are confused, the correct answer to each question is yes.

7 Can you honestly say this? If not, you should think about what possibly justifies you in controlling another’s property. You should also not complain when others seek to control your property. It’s a freedom thing.

8 As a finer point, when their activities trespass upon my property, they are now using my property without my permission. Said more precisely, others are free to use their property in any way they please with no restrictions. A trespass is simply the acknowledgement they are wrongfully using another’s property.

9 Democracy and freedom are not the same concepts. Freedom is when the owner of the property decides how the property is used. Democracy is when a majority of non-owners decide how an owner must use his or her property. Democracy and freedom are often incompatible.

10 The opposite is also true for some acts which are currently illegal.

11 In 1969, Nixon spent $65 million on the drug war. In 1982, Reagan spent $1.65 billion on the drug war. Bush’s budget for 2006 requests $12.4 billion dollars which is a 2.2% increase over his 2005 budget.

12 I have nothing against private prisons. Indeed, the private sector should be administering prisons. My point here is simply to note that private entrepreneurs recognize the huge potential to prosper in this growth industry.

13 732 people out of every 100,000 live in government cages as of 2005.

14 These are facts asserted by current and former law enforcement officers. See www.leap.cc

15 Drug Use Trends and National Survey on Drug Use and Health, White House Office of Drug Control Policy (2004).

16 Monitoring the Future, National Results on Adolescent Drug Abuse, Overview of Key Findings 1999, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Page 48.

17 Some former police officers claim the current annual amount spent is sixty nine billion dollars per year. See, http://leap.cc

18 Some may say George W. Bush’s Iraqi policy is a failure of such magnitude that it rivals the drug war for the biggest failure attributable to a governmental effort. I admit it is a tough call.

19 Most drug addicts don’t watch the evening news or read the newspapers. They are not generally aware of drug busts or any other news for that matter

20 National Drug Threat Assessment 2004 (Johnstown, P.A.: National Drug Intelligence Center, April 2004), p. 18.

21 Yes, I am aware that alcohol abuse is harmful. My point here is that they were focusing on the wrong question.

22 It is worth noting that at least they acknowledged congress otherwise had no such power by amending the constitution rather than pretending the Commerce Clause includes such a power. I’m still searching for that amendment which grants power to Congress to run today’s drug war.

23 Pandiani, John A., The Crime Control Corps: An Invisible New Deal Program 348-358 (British Journal of Sociology, 33 September 1982).

24 Cases of alcoholism at New York’s hospitals increased over 100% during prohibition from 1919 to 1924. The National Prohibition Law: Hearing Before the Subcommittee of the Commission on the Judiciary, 69th Congress 148 (1926).

25 During prohibition from 1921 to 1929, per capita consumption of beer increased 463%, wine increased 100% and consumption of spirits increased 520%. Warburton, Clark, The Economic Results of Prohibition 174 (Columbia University Press, 1932).

26 At least their politicians had enough spine to admit their mistakes. With very few exceptions, today’s jellyfish politician is too worried about what the general public thinks to take a real leadership stand on this issue.

27 By “real crime” I mean when people trespass on the rights of others by force or fraud.

28 I realize such comparisons are difficult for a variety of reasons. However, the numbers are different enough that it appears a reasonably certain conclusion can be drawn.

29 Die Haufigkeit von Alkoholismus und Problemtrinken in Osterreich, Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 110 (10), 1998, pp. 356-363.

30 Reprasentativerhebung zum Gebrauch psychoaktiver Substanzen bei Erwachsenen in Deutschland, 2000 Sucht, Sonderheft 1, (2001).

31 Warburton, Clark, The Economic Results of Prohibition 78-90 (Columbia University Press, 1932).

32 Untitled editorial in The Lancet, Volume 346, Number 8985, (November 11, 1995) p. 1241. See also, Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Progress Report September 1997-September 1999, (The Hague: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, November 1999), p. 7.

33 Netherlands Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, Drug Policy in the Netherlands: Progress Report September 1997-September 1999, (The Hague: Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport, November 1999), pp. 7-8.

34 For more stats and documentation about how legal Marijuana has resulted in less Marijuana use as well as other overall societal benefits, see http://www.drugwarfacts.org/thenethe.htm

35 Journal of the American Medical Association, Jan. 19, 2005, Vol. 293, No. 3, p. 298.

36 This number includes deaths attributed to illegal drugs resulting from suicide, homicide, motor-vehicle injury, HIV infection, pneumonia, violence, mental illness, and hepatitis.

37 The number of confirmed deaths attributed solely to a Marijuana overdose in the history of the world is zero. See, Janet E. Joy, Stanley J. Watson, Jr., and John A. Benson, Jr., “Marijuana and Medicine: Assessing the Science Base,” Division of Neuroscience and Behavioral Research, Institute of Medicine (Washington, DC: National Academy Press, 1999), available on the web at http://www.nap.edu/html/marimed/; and US Department of Justice, Drug Enforcement Administration, “In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition” (Docket #86-22), September 6, 1988, p. 57.

38 Trebach, Arnold, Peace Without Surrender in the Perpetual Drug War, 136 Justice Quarterly 1 (1984).

Marc J. Victor is a practicing criminal defense attorney located in Chandler, Arizona. He can be reached via his website at https://www.attorneysforfreedom.com

Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


Kush Jem

Table of Contents

NexT TexT Frum https://www.etymonline.com/word/gem

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] gem (n.)

"a precious stone" (especially when cut or polished), c. 1300, probably from Old French gemme (12c.), from Latin gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from Proto-Italic *gebma- "bud, sprout," from PIE *geb-m- "sprout, bud" (source also of Lithuanian žembėti "to germinate, sprout," Old Church Slavonic prozebnoti "to germinate")…

Of persons, "a rare or excellent example (of something)" from late 13c. Alternative forms iemme, gimme persisted into 14c. and might represent a survival of Old English gimm "precious stone, gem, jewel," also "eye," which was borrowed directly from Latin gemma.

gem (v.)

c. 1600, "to adorn with gems;" earlier (mid-12c.)

"to bud," from gem (n.).

Related: Gemmed; gemming.


3 Typs Uhv Kush Jemz:

1: Sollid Kush Jemz

2: A ThoT Kush Jem

  • ReeGahrdz An ImpohrTanT ( biochemical FacT Ohr SaeefTee Info ) UhbouT Ehnee Psychoactive drug, Lyk Thohz In Thuh Kush Byb EL.

3. An Adorn Kush Jem Iz A Kuhnsuum Task.


NexT TexT Wuhz Frum

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] adorn (v.)

late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: adorning, Adorned.


Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

Thohz Sowndz Myt Get Rehpreezehnted In Fohnehtik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz Az:

  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.



Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

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Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug

Table of Contents

Drug AddikT SyTs Tend Tu miss-BLaeem pSykohAkTiv Drugz Fohr Suhm [[Heewman]]]'z bad KehrakTr fahLTs.

Kuhmpehr Thuh Nekst Risks blamed on Marijuana With Thuh Following Naturopathic Praise Uhv Marijuana.


++Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhn: https://www.addictions.com/marijuana/#risks

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Mental Effects of Marijuana use include:

An anxiety that does not go away or gets worse as a result of smoking pot
Depression or a depressed state
Social intolerance or a lack of desire to be social
Paranoia or feeling like everyone is out to get you
Acute psychotic reactions

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Heart:

Increased heart rate by 20-100%
Increased risk of heart attack
Increased risk of cardiovascular vulnerabilities

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Lungs:

Carcinogenic toxins create lung cancer
Increased exposure to disease
Increased risk of pneumonia
Increased risk of cold

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on Life:

Lack of motivation
Physical impairment
Mental impairment
Reduced cognitive abilities
Poor social life

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] the Side Effects of Marijuana Addiction?

Extensive research has shown that smoking marijuana can lead to some physical and psychological consequences such as:

Changes in appetite
Mood swings
Red eyes
Sleep disturbances
Increased heart rate
Difficulty concentrating
Memory problems
Dry mouth
A productive cough
Depression

[ Supposed Risk uhv ] Paranoia is also a common symptom of marijuana use,

  • although friends and family members of the individual suffering from marijuana addiction are more likely to notice this effect than the user. Only after they are in recovery do most individuals realize the degree to which marijuana-induced paranoia has been negatively impacting their lives.

Most of these symptoms will wear off as the drug itself wears off, but for some, the psychological effects of marijuana can last many months or even years after the individual stops smoking pot.

Insomnia can persist for many months, often pushing individuals to relapse and to return to marijuana.

Anxiety and depression are also common outcomes of marijuana abuse that can persist for months, often leading to relapse…

No longer using marijuana after a prolonged phase of marijuana use can lead to the following

[ possible ] withdrawal symptoms:

Irritability
Insomnia
Poor appetite
Anxiety
Depression
Agitation
Cravings
Mood swings


Kuhmpehr Those Addict Site warnings Tu Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug.


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RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

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Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


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PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

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Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

MeTh BreakDown

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Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

Following TexT Frum: https://www.quora.com/Does-methamphetamine-break-down-into-phetamine-after-two-days-for-drug-test

Methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

Methamphetamine actually breaks down and metabolizes into amphetamine.

Amphetamine is scientifically known as methylated phenylethylamine.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Methylation, the transfer of a methyl group (―CH3) to [ a chemical ] compound. Methyl groups may be transferred through addition reactions or substitution reactions; in either case, the methyl group takes the place of a hydrogen atom on the compound. Methylation can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

DeMethylAtion Iz The ReemoovuL Uhv A MeThyL Group (―CH3) Frum A Kem Compound.


See AhLsoh Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh


See: Kush Groop Kemz


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd Kuhnsuhmpshuhn Uhv ( MuLTy+Drugz = Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

Mixing drugs frequently leads to overdose and potentially death.
-Frum: https://luxury.rehabs.com/cocaine-addiction/mixing-cocaine/#drug

See:


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz OfT KahLd Smohk.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually

Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jemz.