Kush Bud Baib EL

Kush Buhd Byb EL


Kush Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

The History and Origins of the Kingdom of Kush…

Kerma: the First Kingdom of Kush

The first Kingdom of Kush, also known as Kerma, is one of if not the oldest African states outside of Egypt. It developed around the settlement of Kerma (just above the third cataract on the Nile, in Upper Nubia). Kerma arose around 2400 B.C. (during the Egyptian Old Kingdom), and had become the capital of the Kush Kingdom by 2000 B.C.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

1700 BCE
The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.

c. 1 CE - c. 25 CE
Amanitore, Candace of Meroe, reigns over the most prosperous era of the latter-day Kingdom of Kush.
c. 330 CE
Meroe is conquered by the Kingdom of Axum; Kingdom of Kush in decline.
350 CE
End of the Kingdom of Kush and city of Meroë in Nubia.


Hindu Kush

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

The name Hindu Kush derives from the Arabic for “Mountains of India.” Its earliest known usage occurs on a map published about ad 1000.


Thuh NeksT Leengk PoeenTss Tu Infoh Reegahrdeeng Kush Arabia


Thiss Sekshuhn Leengkss Tu ( Kush Kannuhbiss And Kush Mehrihwahnuh ) ( Rrbz And STohrz )


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kush Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Kannuhbiss Grows Bud KahLd (Marijuana=Mehrihwahnuh), Heer A.K.A. Kush Bud.

Marijuana Az Psychedelic

Bohth Uhv SykehdehLikss And Uhv Marijuana

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Is Marijuana a Psychedelic?

The answer is not as simple as you may think!

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both…

Properties of a Psychedelic

Psychedelics are an informal class within the broader umbrella class of hallucinogens. A psychedelic is defined as a substance that heightens cognition, raises consciousness, heightens awareness, and causes hallucinations. It is an informal subclass of substances in the class of hallucinogens and mainly affects serotonin…

Types of psychedelics

There are several types of psychedelics. Each of the types has slightly different properties. These types are:

Classic psychedelics – mescaline, DMT, and mushrooms,
Empathogen-enactogens – MDMA, MDA, and MDEA,
Dissociatives – Ketamine
Cannabinoids – THC this technically is in two classes, cannabis and psychedelics,
Others – Salvia divinorum

It is important to note that the term psychedelic is an informal classification. All of these fall under the definition of hallucinogens except for cannabiniods, they are not thought of as hallucinogens.

Effects of a psychedelic

The effects of psychedelics differ widely depending on the type of psychedelic. Even though it is a loose classification, there are some commonalities. These are:

altered states of consciousness,
distortion of time,
euphoria of some type,
changes in cognitions, and
changes in mental state.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
changes in emotional state or mood,
altered states of mind and cognition,
difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Comparing marijuana and psychedelics

Under the definitions strict of marijuana and psychedelics, they are two different substances not chemically related. Their actions in the body are different as are their effects on the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Drug Enforcement Administration, they are two different classes of drug. It is possible to argue that because of this difference in classification it is not a psychedelic. If you take the effects of each into consideration the essential ingredient in cannabis, acts like a psychedelic. Psychedelics cause what is termed expansion of consciousness, heightened cognition or thinking, and hallucinations. Cannabinoids do the same thing in different ways. Cannabinoids are unique to marijuana. Essentially the practical answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes, but not in the same way that LSD, MDMA, and others in that class. It contains many of the characteristics, properties, and effects that fall under the definitions of both. This is probably why marijuana is in a class on its own.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor

CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations.

Mechanisms of How THC/CBD Can Interact With Serotonin

You may read that THC is capable of inhibiting both serotonin-metabolizing MAO activity (2010 study) and serotonin reuptake activity (2007 study). However, it does both of these so weakly that it is not likely to be clinically relevant. Here are 3 ways that THC and CBD can interact with the serotonin system that are likely to be important:

CB1 activation enhances serotonergic neuron firing

CB1 receptors are expressed directly in some serotonergic neurons, but also in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that regulate the activation of serotonergic neurons. Both endocannabinoids and THC were shown to increase serotonergic neuron firing in animals.

However, studies of serotonin levels in different brain regions after treatment with cannabinoids have produced conflicting results. This may be due to biphasic effects, where cannabinoids can increase serotonin under some conditions, but decrease them under others. But overall, it appears that CB1 activation tends to increase serotonin release.

CB1 can interact with the 5-HT2A receptor

The CB1 receptor is capable of directly binding to other receptors to form what is called a heterodimer or heteromer. This is one way that the ECS can interact with other neurotransmitter systems.

A 2015 study demonstrated that CB1 receptor can form a heteromer with the 5-HT2A receptor. This heteromer exists in brain areas such as the hippocampus, dorsal striatum and cortex and mediates some of the memory-impairing and anti-anxiety effects of THC.

CBD can directly activate the 5-HT1A receptor

CBD is an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, which underlies some of its anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antiemetic, and antinociceptive properties.

Effects of THC & CBD That Depend Serotonin Receptors

Here are the top 6 cannabinoid effects that are mediated through serotonin receptors. Remember that these studies were performed in animals and that in many cases these effects have not yet been confirmed to be clinically meaningful in humans.

1. Reduce Pain

Although CB1 receptor agonists (such as THC) can reduce pain through several different mechanisms, one may involve serotonin. A 2010 study showed that CB1 agonists reduced acute pain through activation of descending spinal serotonin pathways and subsequent activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the spinal cord.

There are also serotonergic mechanisms for reducing neuropathic pain with CBD. For example, a 2019 study showed that inducing neuropathic pain in mice reduced serotonergic firing of the spinal pathway. CBD reversed these changes and improved neuropathic pain partially through the 5-HT1A receptor.

2. Depression

Both THC and FAAH inhibitors, which raise levels of anandamide, can improve animal models of +++ depression. The antidepressant effects of these molecules went away when animals were depleted of serotonin (2016 study, 2018 study), indicating that they are working at least partially through increasing serotonin release.

In addition, the antidepressant effect of CBD in animal models depended on activation of the 5-HT1A receptor (2016 study). Read more about the effects of cannabinoids in depression.

3. Anxiety

Low dose THC and FAAH inhibitors can have anti-anxiety effects. A 2007 study showed that anti-anxiety effects of THC depended on the 5-HT1A receptor, although a 2015 study demonstrated a dependence on the 5-HT2A receptor.

CBD also has an anti-anxiety effect that is mediated by activating the 5-HT1A receptor in some experimental models. However CBD treatment of chronically stressed mice had an anti-anxiety effect mediated through cannabinoid instead of serotonin receptors (2018 study).

4. Memory Impairment

As mentioned earlier, memory impairments caused by THC depended on formation of a heteromer between the CB1 receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. A 2018 study confirmed that this heteromer exists in humans and its levels, which were increased in cannabis users, inversely correlated with working memory.

CBD is reported to reverse some memory impairments of THC, and it may do this through activation of 5-HT1A receptors (2019 study).

5. Nausea

Anti-nausea effects of CBD in animal models were mediated by agonism of 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2012 study).

6. Body Temperature

Hypothermia, or lowered body temperature, is an effect of THC that many people may not even know about. This effect also involves 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2001 study).


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

How Cannabinoids Connects With Serotonin

Serotonin receptors

50 years back, when researchers suggested that the main cause of clinical depression is “serotonin deficiency”. Although in present research studies, it turns out that the pathogenesis of depression is much more complicated than previously thought.

It is true that serotonin ( 5-HT from the proper chemical name 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a versatile compound that regulates many physiological functions in the body. In addition to being a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system responsible for mood, appetite, sleep, memory or learning. Practically 90% of serotonin is found in the cells of the digestive system, which helps to control the appropriate regulation of bowel motility.

5-HT affects the body by binding to serotonin receptors classified as 7 subgroups (5-HT1, 5-HT2 …).

Maurice rapport

The new scientific discoveries regarding serotonin have now commenced after the biochemist Maurice Rapport in the late 1940s isolated this compound and established its molecular structure. We had to wait several decades to discover that the receptors for serotonin – 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 (named 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) were identified in the rat brain, and more recent studies have confirmed this.

CBD Receptors

Apart from serotonin, they can bind other molecules to serotonin receptors. In 2005, researchers determined that cannabidiol (CBD) receptors (CB1 and CB2) can bind to serotonin receptors. He points to a broader relationship between endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. After all, they are involved in similar physiological functions in the human body i.e. reducing anxiety, pain, relieving nausea and maintaining a proper body temperature.
Dimer

From a pharmacological point of view, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors belong to the so-called G-protein-coupled receptors. As we have seen, this type of receptors can combine to form dimer-like complexes (a dimer is a structure made up of two receptors that merge together into one functional unit.)

A new discovery

A breakthrough discovery was made by Spanish scientists studying cerebral ischemia in newborn piglets. They showed that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A connected to the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the dimeric complex.

There are descriptions in the scientific literature that show that CBD is a weak 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Recall – an agonist is a compound that binds to the receptor and on this basis triggers its action on the body. On the contrary, acts against it as an antagonist that blocks the receptor.

[ CBDA acts as a stronger agonist of 5HT2A receptors than CBD ]

It has been shown that activation of the 5-HT1A receptor by cannabidiol lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart rate and reduces the sensation of pain. However, from an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, it appears that CBD prevents liver damage, reduces anxiety, pain and nausea in laboratory animals based on this mechanism of action. Interestingly, CBDA (cannabidiol acid) – the acid precursor of cannabidiol, present in large amounts in a crude cannabis plant, is a stronger 5-HT 1A agonist than CBD, and therefore very high hopes are associated with the possible use of this compound as an antiemetic.

CBD also has a link with the 5-HT2A receptor, although it is weaker compared to the 5-HT1A receptor and is mediated by antagonism. While CBD stimulates the 5-HT1A receptor, it apparently acts as an antagonist to 5-HT2A. The 5HT2A receptor is referred to as psychedelic because its strong agonists are compounds such as LSD or mescaline.

5-HT2A & CB1 Receptors

It is important to note that oral intake of a large dose of marijuana resin (called hashish) can produce effects likened to LSD. Long-term hemp researcher Dr Ethan Russo advised that THC is a hallucinogenic factor in the hash. While closely related cannabidiol (CBD) has opposite activity.

Is it possible that the compound 5-HT2A receptor effectuates the hallucinogenic properties of THC? Contrast to CBD, THC does not directly bind to 5-HT2A. However, as mentioned earlier, THC can directly activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, and from the article published by PLoS Biology in 2015, we know that CB1 receptors form a complex structure with 5-HT2A receptors, hence the hallucinogenic effect after ingestion of hashish.
5-HT3A receptor

The 5-HT3A receptor is unique among serotonin receptors because, unlike all other serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT3A is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Rather, 5-HT3A acts as an ion channel that regulates the flow of ions across the cell membrane and contributes to creating fast electrical signals in the brain. 5-HT3A receptors are involved in mood modulation as well as in the transmission of pain signals.

THC and CBD as potent modulators

5-HT3A receptor blockers (antagonists) are used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Both THC and CBD are potent, negative allosteric modulators of 5-HT3A receptors. This means that these compounds change the shape of the receptor so that the molecule that originally activates it (eg serotonin) is unable to bind to it. This may explain some of the antiemetic effects of THC and CBD.

Until now, the interactions between cannabinoids and other serotonin receptors (5-HT4,6,7) have not been fully identified. However, ongoing research will let us know in the near future.


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " *Marijuana Az Psychedelic ".


Medical Marijuana In FuhnehTik Inglish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

WemMD Medical Marijuana FAQ

How does it help?

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

Reduce anxiety
Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
Control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy
Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
Relax tight muscles in people with MS
Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. So far, research hasn't proved it works. But some epilepsy centers are testing a drug called Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Kannuhbinnoeedz



Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".



Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."



THC Vrsuhs CBD

Fruhm: CBD vs. THC: Medical benefits

CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However, CBD doesn’t cause the euphoric effects that occur with THC. Some people may prefer to use CBD because of the lack of this side effect.

In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Epidiolex, the first prescription medication to contain CBD. It’s used to treat rare, difficult-to-control forms of epilepsy.

CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:

seizures
inflammation
pain
psychosis or mental disorders
inflammatory bowel disease
nausea
migraines
depression
anxiety
THC is used to help with conditions such as:

pain
muscle spasticity
glaucoma
insomnia
low appetite
nausea
anxiety



RecreaTional Drug SafeTy

{ Lrning And Teecheeng } KumpleeT ImporTanT ( Med FacTs And Mohr Saeef Use OpTs And Their EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion ) ReeGahrdeeng ( Eech RecreaTional Drug Wich ( SeLf Ohr Sum Wun Known ) Iz InTresTed In Eewzeeng ) Ahr Needed Tu Inform ( Now And Possibbul New ) RecreaTional Drug Eewzrz UhbowT Thuh PoTenchuL ( Risks And BenneffiTs ) Uhv Eewzeeng ThaT RecreaTional Drug.


RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss

BaysT On: RTh SihTihZen RyTs Uhv Thuh RTh KonsTiTTuushuhn

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

KuhnkLoozhuhn:

Eech ( Nashuhnul And MeeewnissipuL And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss ".


Thuh Payj Naymd " LeeThul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz "


LeeThul Druhg Kombinnaeeshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd ( MuLTy+Drugz Kuhnsuhmpshuhn = Kuhnsuumeeng Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

See:



Ohpeeoeed mikschrz that sumtymz koz deth

Table of Contents


methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth.

Methadone by itself is an opiate which causes depression of central nervous system. Methadone is a pharmacological that reduces the opiate craving as well as lessens withdrawal symptoms and if it coupled with counseling, enables to reach tolerance threshold although prevents from drowsiness and euphoria. Appropriate and safe daily dosage ranges from 20 to 30 mg in initial stages and average 60 to 100 mg at latter stages. Because of its long half-life of 24 to 36 hours, between 4 to 10 days is required to achieve a stable maintenance dosage (52–53). Several studies on methadone maintenance therapy have demonstrated conditions in which mortalities happened. Based on a cross sectional study most of the 238 patients who died in between 1990-1995 were drug users and suffered from medical illnesses. Almost 21% of the mortalities occurred in the first week of methadone treatment and 88% of these patients were polysubstance abusers... Related to the first week of MMT…Only around 10% of deaths…tested positive for methadone alone. In another study was reported 62 (71%) patients were involved illicit drug consumption from all 87 MMT patients ‘death. According to these studies, overdose during methadone maintenance therapy is related to polydrug use (54–56).
- Frum: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411899/


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth ".



Opiates and Amphetamines Mixing Dangers

Thuh Nekst Teskt Wuhz Fruhm:

Is There an Increased Risk for Overdose if You Mix Opioids with Amphetamines?

Written by: Editorial Staff…

Issues with Mixing Amphetamines and Opiates

In many circles, the combination of an opiate drug and a central nervous system stimulant is referred to as a setup or even a speedball, though this term most often applies to combinations of cocaine and heroin or cocaine and morphine. According to sources, such as the textbook Concepts of Chemical Dependencyand the three-book series Neuropathology of Addictions and Substance Misuse, combining stimulants and depressants can lead to serious risks.

If either of the drugs is being used for medical reasons, combining central nervous system stimulants and central nervous system depressants reduces the effectiveness of the medicinal purposes of one or both drugs.

This combination leads to an increased risk for overdose. The effects of the stimulant medication counteract the effects of the opiate medication. Individuals may believe they have a much higher tolerance for the opiate drug than they actually have, and they may take excessive amounts of the opiate. Stimulant drugs are typically metabolized quickly in comparison to central nervous system depressant drugs like opiates, and a person using both of these drugs may wind up with dangerous levels of the opiate drug in their system. This can lead to toxic effects or an overdose, which can be fatal.

The opposite situation is also possible, where the individual ingests more stimulant medication that they can tolerate due to the countering of the stimulant effects by the opiate drug. This can lead to the potential for overdose or toxic effects associated with the stimulant drug. Amphetamine overdose can also be fatal; however, the more common complication is overdosing on the opiate drug.

Combining drugs that have opposite mechanisms of action and opposite effects can lead to an increased potential for side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions.

Combining opiates and amphetamines can lead to an increased risk for heart attack or stroke.

Mixing these substances leads to an increased burden on the liver. Over time, this can lead to serious liver damage.

Individuals who combine these drugs orally run the risk of developing issues with the gastrointestinal system, such as ulcers or abscesses.

The effects of these drugs lead to significant alterations in cognitive capacities. This contributes to an increased potential for accidents due to poor judgment or engaging in risky behaviors that an individual would not normally attempt.

There is an increased risk for an individual to experience seizures when amphetamines are combined with opiates. Seizures can be potentially fatal.

There is increased risk for an individual to experience psychosis, which consists of having hallucinations and/or delusions. Psychotic individuals are a danger to themselves and others.

Other psychiatric effects can occur as a result of this combination, including mania, depression, anxiety, extreme mood swings, and even potential suicidality.

Chronic use of opiates and amphetamines in combination can lead to the development of significant tolerance to one or both of these drugs. This can result in the person needing more of one or both drugs to get the same effects that they previously experienced at lower amounts. Developing tolerance to drugs increases overdose risk.



If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death

…The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is

* because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants

__**Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs,

  • which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide.

In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.**__..


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid and Benzodiazepine Use and Risk of Opioid-Related Overdose

* in Medicare Part D Beneficiaries

Inmaculada Hernandez, PharmD, PhD1; Meiqi He, MS1; Maria M. Brooks, PhD2; et al

JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(2):e180919. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0919

Key Points

Question: How does the risk of overdose change with the number of days with concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use?

Findings: In this cohort study of US Medicare data, the overdose risk associated with concurrent benzodiazepine use changed over time. Concurrent benzodiazepine use was associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose during the initial 90 days and an increase of 1.87 times on days 91 to 180.

Meaning: Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.

Results: Of 71 248 total participants, 25 600 (35.9%) were male and 59 532 (83.6%) were white. Mean (SD) age was 66.5 (14.8) years. On the day before overdose or censoring event, 20 665 of 71 248 patients with an opioid prescription (29.0%) were concurrently using benzodiazepines and 14 132 of 20 665 concurrent users (68.4%) had more than 180 days of overlapping supplies of both medications. The risk of overdose was highest on the first days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and decreased over time; compared with opioid use alone, the hazard ratio for overdose was 5.05 (95% CI, 3.68-6.93) during the first 90 days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.80) for days 91 to 180 among those who did not have an event before 90 days.

Conclusions and Relevance: During the first 90 days, concurrent benzodiazepine use is associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose. The implementation of policies deterring concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use is warranted. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research, reviews, and editorials covering all aspects of biomedicine. The journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death Fivefold

A number of studies have already highlighted the deadly risk you take when combining opioids with Benzodiazepines. Most recently, research published in JAMA ( See: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2685628 Key PoinTs KwohTed Uhbuhv ) looked at how the risk of overdose changes when you combine the two drugs for a number of days in a row.

As it turns out, during the first 90 days of concurrent use [ uhv Opioid-Benzodiazepine combo ], your risk of a deathly overdose rises fivefold, compared to taking an opioid alone. Between days 91 and 180, the risk remains nearly doubled, after which the risk tapers off, becoming roughly equal to taking an opioid alone. According to the authors:

"Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use."

The study also found that the greater number of clinicians were involved in a patient's care, the greater the risk of overdose — a finding that highlights the lack of communication between doctors prescribing medication to the same patient, and the clear danger thereof. As noted by senior study author Yuting Zhang, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, "These findings demonstrate that fragmented care plays a role in the inappropriate use of opioids."

Other Studies Confirm Extreme Risk of Opioid-benzodiazepine Mix

Other studies have come to similar conclusions. A 2013 study found the combination of opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common drug combination in cases where an overdose death involved two or more drugs.16 According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, more than 30 percent of opioid overdoses involve concurrent use of benzodiazepines.17

Remarkably, another 2013 study18 discovered "substantial co-use" of opioids and benzodiazepines among pregnant women that led to death, which is doubly tragic. As reported in a third study that year, which stressed the importance of urine drug testing whenever patients are prescribed an opioid, to ensure their safety:19

"[C]oadministration of [ opioids and benzodiazepines ] produces a defined increase in rates of adverse events, overdose and death, warranting close monitoring and consideration when treating patients with pain. To improve patient outcomes, ongoing screening for aberrant behavior, monitoring of treatment compliance, documentation of medical necessity, and the adjustment of treatment to clinical changes are essential."

A study published in 2017 found the ratio of patients, aged 18 to 64, who used opioids and benzodiazepines concurrently rose from 9 percent in 2001 to 17 percent in 2013, a relative increase of 80 percent. Not surprisingly, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines for at least one day doubled the odds of an opioid overdose compared to taking just opioids.

Why Opioid-benzodiazepine Combination Is so Deadly

In 2014, Ohio ended up using an opioid/benzodiazepine mix in a death row execution when the conventionally used drugs were unobtainable.21 That just goes to show this drug combination has an assured lethality at the "right" dosage. The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants.

Your CNS, which includes your brain and spinal cord, coordinates and regulates the activity of automatic functions such as breathing. Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs, which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide. In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.

Like opioids, benzodiazepines are not intended for long-term use, yet many chronic pain patients end up staying on them for years, and may even take them with opioids for long periods of time. As noted by Dr. Len Paulozzi, medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, benzodiazepines "are prominent fellow travelers with opioids. The problem is, people get on them and they stay on them …"


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh

National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine

DeThs-Fruhm-Opioid_And_%20Cocaine-1999-Tu-2017.jpg
Thuh Uhbuhv Immaj And Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:
* https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

Figure 7. National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine, by Opioid Involvement–Number Among All Ages, 1999-2017. The figure above is a bar and line graph showing the total number of U.S. overdose deaths involving cocaine from 1999 to 2017. Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine rose from 3,822 in 1999 to 13,942 in 2017. The bars are overlaid by lines showing the number of deaths involving cocaine and any opioid, cocaine without any opioid, and cocaine and other synthetic narcotics. The number of deaths in combination with any opioid has been increasing steadily since 2014 and is mainly driven by deaths involving cocaine in combination with other synthetic narcotics (Source: CDC WONDER).

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh ".



See AhLsoh: Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz



Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Cocaine with Alcohol

Cocaine on its own can negatively impact your cardiovascular health, leading to dangerously elevated heart rate, vasospasm, and a spike in blood pressure. When you drink alcohol while using cocaine, the cardiovascular impact is compounded, and may hasten the onset of long-term cardiac disease such as cardiomyopathy, pathological arrhythmias, and even myocardial infarction (heart attack).

The National Institute on Drug Abuse explains that combining cocaine and alcohol causes your body to create a chemical called cocaethylene, which can build up over years of time or cause sudden death, and is more dangerous than either cocaine or alcohol on their own.

A 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network report discovered that the numbers of those who mix alcohol and cocaine is high, reporting that more than 150,000 emergency department visits were associated with concurrent alcohol and cocaine use.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Heroin and Cocaine

When heroin and cocaine are abused concurrently, this comorbid use is called “speed balling.”4 And while cocaine can decrease the uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction (one reason people mix these drugs),5 the combination greatly increases the odds of a fatal overdose [ deth ]. ( Sohrss: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine RehlehvanT Infoh KwohTed Beeloh )…

Heroin and cocaine cause many opposing effects in your body. Because of this, you might not realize you are overdosing on one of the drugs until it is too late.

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Can a person overdose on cocaine?

Yes, a person can overdose on cocaine. An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of a drug to produce serious adverse effects, life-threatening symptoms, or death. An overdose can be intentional or unintentional…

Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences of overdose are irregular heart rhythm, heart attacks, seizures, and strokes. Other symptoms of cocaine overdose include difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, high body temperature, hallucinations, and extreme agitation or anxiety…

Death from overdose can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Many people who use cocaine also drink alcohol at the same time, which is particularly risky and can lead to overdose. Others mix cocaine with heroin, another dangerous—and deadly—combination.

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh ".



Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz ".


NachruL Drug DeTox


NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.


Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn


EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn ".


NachruL DeTox

Table of Contents

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Best Supplements and Nutrients for Detoxification

June 13th, 2017

By Dr. Justin Marchegiani

Types of Toxins

There are two main types of toxins that we are regularly exposed to, called endotoxins and exotoxins.

Exotoxins are toxic materials that come from the outside world and make their way inside us, for example, by eating or breathing them in. They include foods, cleaning agents, car exhaust, makeup, as well as much of what we ingest both topically and internally. They also include less-visible sources, such as radiation and electromagnetic stressors from cell phones and towers.

Endotoxins are toxins produced within our bodies, such as those produced by our gut bacteria or those formed when our organs incorrectly or incompletely perform a task.

Light to moderate exposure to the stressors listed above is normal, and improves the body’s ability to react to stress. However, too much exposure can throw our processing of these stressors into overdrive, which allows the toxins to hurt the body.

Modes of Detoxification

The human body has many modes of getting rid of toxins naturally; here are some of the main players in the human detoxification system:

1: Skin: Sweating expels toxins through the skin. Detoxification the body leads to beautiful, glowing skin!
2: Liver: The liver plays a major role in detoxification by preparing toxins to be expelled as urine or as bile.
3: The Gut: A healthy gut is crucial for properly getting rid of toxins, otherwise, toxins may be reabsorbed through the intestines.
4: Kidneys: Our kidneys filter our blood, diverting waste to the bladder to be expelled as urine.
5: Lungs: The lungs bring in oxygen into the bloodstream while dispelling carbon dioxide out of the body.

Detox Through Lifestyle and Supplementation

There are many ways to enhance your body’s natural detoxification systems, both by being conscious of your lifestyle and by adding in supplements.

Lifestyle awareness includes:

1. A Healthy Diet:Avoiding toxins in your diet, as well as keeping inflammation low, does wonders for keeping things running smoothly. Grains, sugars, bad fats, and processed foods are all toxic to your body. Grass-fed meats, healthy fats, non-starchy vegetables, and fermented foods are your friends!

2. Juicing: Juicing cruciferous vegetables can help the gut function at the top of its game, you can even add a little pineapple, green apple, or carrots! Just go light on the fruit, as it can be high in sugar and too much of that creates a fungus-friendly environment!

3. Consuming fat: “The solution to pollution is dilution;” well, in terms of toxins within our body fat, anyways! Most toxins are fast soluble so the body has a propensity to shuttle toxins into these fat cells. The body will then be more resistant to burning up this toxin-filled fat until it has the capacity to do so. By ensuring we consume enough high-quality fats, we can bind to the toxic fats so that our bodies are able to burn off and get rid of the toxins.

4. Infrared:Infrared lights and infrared saunas are great ways to detoxify.

5. Exercise:Exercise kickstarts your respiration and perspiration, and mobilizes body fat where many toxins reside.

6. Hydration:Drink at least half your body weight in water each day. Add lemon or apple cider vinegar to enhance the detoxifying effects.

Supplementation can also assist in getting rid of toxins:

1. Glutathione:Liposomal glutathione is the optimal source of this master antioxidant. Grass-fed whey is another great addition to your diet, as it is a precursor to producing your own glutathione within your cells!

2. Alpha Lipoic Acid:ALA has the power to regenerate antioxidants, and protects the mitochondria from toxicity. It is both fat and water soluble, meaning it can get to those pesky toxins hiding in fat cells that most other nutrients can’t reach.

3. Superoxide Dismutase (SOD):Breaks down superoxide free radicals, and is available either as a supplement or in foods such as broccoli, brussels sprouts, and wheatgrass.

4. N-Acetyl Cysteine (N.AC): Helps reduce the effects of chemicals and toxins in the liver, the recommendation is about two grams.

5. Chlorella and Spirulina: The chlorophyll in these two binds to toxins and improves the body’s ability to bring oxygen to the cells, which means the cells produce more antioxidants to fight toxicity.

6. Activated Charcoal:Charcoal binds to toxins on a molecular level, meaning they are unable to escape and are expelled through the stool. It’s so powerful that it’s used in emergency rooms for drug overdoses!

7. Selenium:There is a strong link between being deficient in selenium and developing autoimmune disorders. Selenium binds to heavy metals, such as mercury, and can help flush them out of the body.

8. Milk Thistle:Boosts our 2 major antioxidants, glutathione and superoxide dismutase. It also protects the liver, thyroid, and immune system from radiation stress.

Plus, check out my Detox Store for antioxidants and detoxification support.


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GENERAL TIPS FOR BODY DETOXIFICATION

Drink plenty of water (at least 8 glasses/day)

Add half a lemon to a warm glass of water with a pinch of cayenne pepper and ½ tsp of olive oil and enjoy it first thing in the morning

Eat your salads and greens – they provide you with lots and lots of live enzymes and minerals and also help detoxify heavy metals from the body

If you haven't eaten fruit and vegetables on a regular basis, start to eat lots of fruit; your body will detoxify itself first. Even if you do not change your use of stimulants (coffee, sugar and nicotine)

Steam bath to remove heavy metals - Using 1/2 cup of baking soda or 1/2 cup of sea salt. Soak for 15 - 20 minutes and then scrub the skin gently with soap on a loofah / face towel. Within a few minutes the water will turn murky and "dirty" due to heavy metals coming out of the skin, including aluminum and mercury. Do this once a week during detox and once a month for maintenance

Exercise regularly, for at least 20 minutes - Partner up with a friend or family member if motivation is a problem. Go for a brisk walk or jog, or try something different like a spinning class or Yoga!


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Detox Diet Plan: How to Detoxify the Body & Reset Your Health

By Rachael Link, MS, RD

May 15, 2018

Updated: June 16, 2018

Curious how to cleanse your body and optimize your health without having to drain your savings account or empty out your fridge? Here’s why you may want to consider a natural detox diet, plus how you can get started.

What Is a Detox? Why Is It Needed?

Depending on who you ask, the detox diet meaning can vary pretty widely. For some, it may be considered an intense cleansing diet that consists of drinking strange concoctions for weeks on end to clear out toxins and achieve weight loss. For others, the term “detox cleanse” is little more than a marketing ploy used to shill expensive and overpriced products to health-conscious consumers.

In reality, a detox diet can be a healthy way to get back on track and help your body do exactly what it’s designed to do: clear out toxins and keep you in tip-top shape.

See, your body has a complex detox system built right in, and all of your organs work together to keep you feeling healthy. Your skin pushes out bacteria through the sweat, your kidneys filter through liters of blood and produce urine, your lungs expel carbon dioxide, your intestines extract nutrients from food to excrete waste products, and your liver clears out toxins from the body.

Factors like chronic stress, unhealthy habits, physical inactivity and a diet high in ultra-processed foods can totally tank your body’s natural detox system, making it even harder to remove toxins from the bloodstream efficiently.

A body cleanse or detox diet that involves cutting out junk foods and increasing your intake of nutritious whole foods along with a few powerful detox foods can be an easy way to help your body detox and hit the reset button. Best of all, unlike on other detox diets, this kind of natural cleanse won’t drain your energy levels or leave you feeling worn down. Instead, it can boost energy, restore motivation and help you feel your best.
Detox Diet Plan: How to Detox

There are lots of different definitions of what defines the best detox diet or the best cleanse for weight loss. However, a good detox diet should supply all of the important nutrients that your body needs while also cutting out the chemicals, junk and added ingredients that it doesn’t.

Following a few easy guidelines and incorporating some detox foods into your diet is the best way to optimize your built-in detox system and supply your liver with the tools it needs to clear out toxins efficiently.

Wondering how to detox your body without spending a fortune on expensive programs and products? Luckily, following a detox diet for weight loss and better health can be as simple as making a few simple swaps in your diet. Here are some of the basic rules to follow on a healthy detox diet:

Switch out sugar-sweetened beverages like sodas and sports drinks for water, unsweetened tea or detox drinks, and be sure to stay well-hydrated.
Nix added sugars from your diet from foods like candies, cakes, cookies and sweets, and aim for a sugar-free diet instead.
Cut out all heavily processed and refined foods, such as convenience meals, pre-packaged snacks, and store-bought cakes and cookies.
Up your intake of whole ingredients and raw foods, including fruits, veggies, healthy protein foods and whole grains.
Swap processed meats like bacon, hot dogs and sausages for better options, such as grass-fed beef, wild-caught salmon and organic chicken. If you’re following a vegetarian or vegan diet, there are also plenty of plant-based protein foods available, including nuts, seeds and legumes.
Include more natural detox foods in your diet, such as grapefruit, bone broth, Brussels sprouts, berries, beets, chia seeds and nuts.
Trade in your salt shaker for some healing herbs and spices instead. Seasonings like cumin, basil, parsley and paprika can bump up the flavor of your foods while also providing a host of powerful health benefits.
Adjust your sleep schedule to ensure you’re squeezing in at least eight hours per night, which allows your body to heal and restore.
Get in some daily exercise, and stay active with your favorite workouts, such as walking, jogging or biking.
Minimize your stress levels and incorporate some natural stress relievers into your routine, such as yoga, meditation, journaling and essential oils…

Best Detox Foods

1: Grapefruit
2: Brussels Sprouts
3: Berries
4: Beets
5: Chia Seeds
6: Nuts
7: Bone Broth

1. Grapefruit

This tasty citrus fruit is well-known for its multitude of health-promoting properties, especially when it comes to detoxification. According to a 2005 animal model out of Israel, grapefruit juice was found to be incredibly effective in bumping up the levels of liver enzymes involved in detoxification. (1) Including a serving or two of grapefruit or grapefruit juice in your diet each day can be a simple way to keep your liver healthy and support its natural detox abilities.

2. Brussels Sprouts

Hearty, flavorful and full of fiber, Brussels sprouts make an awesome addition to a healthy detox diet. Not only can they promote regularity to get things moving, but Brussels sprouts have also been shown to boost liver health and enhance detoxification. In fact, one study published in Carcinogenesis showed that eating just 300 grams of Brussels sprouts daily was able to amp up the levels of detox enzymes by a whopping 30 percent. (2)

3. Berries

Besides being delicious and incredibly versatile, berries are a great source of both fiber and antioxidants, two important components of a well-balanced detox diet. Fiber moves slowly through the gastrointestinal tract and helps bulk up the stool to support regularity and excrete waste more efficiently. (3) Antioxidants, on the other hand, have been shown in animal models to protect the liver against oxidative stress while simultaneously preserving immune cell function. (4) Berries like blueberries and strawberries also have a high water content and can promote hydration as well as proper elimination.

4. Beets

There are plenty of reasons to consider adding beets to your diet. Not only are they vibrant and full of color, but they’re also high in an array of vitamins, minerals and micronutrients that can boost detoxification. One animal study found that drinking beetroot juice regularly helped increase the levels of several key enzymes involved in detoxification. (5) Similarly, another animal study published in the Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry showed that beetroot juice decreased lipid peroxidation, a marker used to measure cell damage, in the liver by 38 percent. (6)

5. Chia Seeds

Frequently touted as a superfood, chia seed benefits range from enhanced digestion to better blood sugar control. Not surprisingly, chia seeds may also aid in detoxification as well. They pack in tons of fiber, which can help keep things moving through the digestive system, allowing waste products to be excreted efficiently. Plus, they’re high in antioxidants to fight off free radicals and protect your liver against damage and disease. (7)

6. Nuts

It’s no secret that nuts are great for your health. They’re high in fiber, antioxidants, protein, heart-healthy fats as well as an assortment of the key vitamins and minerals that your body needs to stay healthy. In addition to keeping you regular due to their high fiber content, including healthy nuts in your diet can also help optimize liver function as well. Studies show that eating more nuts is linked to a lower risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease as well as enhanced liver enzyme levels to maximize your body’s detoxifying potential. (8, 9)

7. Bone Broth

Bone broth, a liquid made from the water left over after simmering bones for up to a day at a time, has been associated with a number of incredible benefits. Perhaps most impressive, however, is its potent effects on detoxification. Studies suggest that bone broth may help improve immune health by reducing inflammation, allowing your body to work more effectively at removing harmful toxins, bacteria and pathogens from the body. (10) Because it’s rich in collagen and an assortment of amino acids, it’s also believed to help seal the gut and protect against leaky gut syndrome, a condition that allows toxins and particles to seep from the gut into the bloodstream…

Final Thoughts

  • Following a detox diet can help provide your body with the nutrients that it needs to be able to clear out toxins effectively.
  • Although there are plenty of regimens and detox programs out there, the best detox cleanse is one that gives your body what it needs rather than depriving it of valuable vitamins and minerals.
  • Several foods have also been shown to help detox your body and enhance the function of your built-in detox system to keep you healthy.
  • Cutting out junk, upping your intake of whole foods and following a healthy lifestyle can help your body detoxify more efficiently.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Ultimate Guide to Detox Drinks for Body Cleansing

Written by Dr. Edward Group

Published Jun 5, 2018

Whether you are trying to support a major body cleanse or you just want to boost your energy, detox drinks can enrich a healthy lifestyle and support your mind and body! Are you looking for answers, like how often to drink these cleansing drinks or whether to consume them before or during meals? Or are you searching for a handful of delicious and effective body detox drink recipes rather than an overwhelming list of 50? You’re in luck: I’ve put together a comprehensive guide to the best, tastiest, and most effective drinks around.

What Is a Detox Drink?

There’s nothing supernatural about a detox drink – it is just a drink with ingredients that have detoxification properties. It can be juice, tea, a smoothie, or even water made with herbs, fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals that help remove toxins from the body. For best results, they should be made with all organic ingredients and should have no added sugar. The good news is that most are quick and simple to make and they can improve your overall health and wellness.

Different ingredients work better for detoxing your liver, kidneys, digestive system, and whole body, and I will reveal which homemade drinks work best for different organ systems. I will also recommend some homemade do-it-yourself (DIY) drinks for cleansing toxic metals from your body and for weight loss.

Do Detox Drinks Work?

Drinks made for detoxifying your body can have a positive impact on your health, depending on how you use them. But, keep in mind they are not a magic bullet. Whether you drink a tangy green juice every morning or try a diet for a specific period to cleanse your body of toxins, detox drinks are just one tool to support your health journey. You can drink them along with other foods, or you can do a juice or water only fast.

Depending on your goals, and how often you consume them, detox drinks can do the following:

Reduce fatigue
Improve digestion
Reduce occasional constipation
Boost your immune system
Flush out toxins
Promote weight loss
Improve overall health
Nourish your body

Popular Detox Drinks

Whether smoothies, green juices, teas or the ever-popular master cleanse lemonade drink, there are a variety of popular ones that you may have heard of. Learn more below.
Teas

Many different teas can help you detoxify, including turmeric, lemongrass, marshmallow root, and milk thistle. Avoid herbal laxative teas like senna and cascara, which are harsh and may not be safe for the digestive system.

Two ingredients I recommend for detoxification are dandelion root and green tea leaves. You can make your own tea by buying bulk supplies from a natural health food store, or buy one that is already sold in teabags.

Dandelion Root Tea

Dandelion root has been used for centuries in Traditional Chinese medicine and ancient Indian medicine (Ayurveda) to support liver and gallbladder health.[1] Modern science has shown dandelion roots help relieve liver stress in laboratory animals.[2, 3] It also promotes the production of bile and stomach acid, so it should be avoided by people with gallstones or ulcers.[1] You can buy dandelion tea online or at a nearby natural health store. You can buy several varieties of premade detox tea that contains dandelion root, but some natural health food stores sell dandelion root and dandelion leaf in bulk so you can make tea. Combine it with marshmallow root plus chamomile flower for a sweet flavor.

Green Tea

Green tea is known for its antioxidant properties.[4] Antioxidants work to counter any damage to cells caused by toxins and pathogens, so drinking a tea or juice with high antioxidant properties helps your body detoxify. Studies have found that green tea lowers bad (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure as well.[5, 6] Matcha green tea powder has 100 times more antioxidants than plain green tea[7]: While green tea is an infusion from the tea leaves, matcha powder is a drink made from ground up young green tea leaves, resulting in more detoxifying antioxidants in your drink. Matcha has been found to have positive effects on the kidney and liver.[8]

Master Cleanse Lemonade

Lemons have many powerful properties that assist the body in detoxing. Lemons help with cleansing the liver, kidneys, and colon,[9, 10,11]. One of the most popular detox diets, the Master Cleanse, is lemonade made with cayenne pepper, organic lemons, and pure maple syrup. You can make the lemonade in single glasses, or in a large pitcher– but add the cayenne in each glass, or it will make the drink bitter.

Use two tablespoons of organic lemon juice, two tablespoons organic grade B maple syrup (not the fake stuff), ⅛ teaspoon cayenne pepper, and 10 ounces of distilled water. This is a juice-only cleanse; drink only this lemonade for ten days. Afterward, you transition off by drinking fresh-squeezed organic orange juice for one day, followed by two days on a homemade vegan soup. For the full effect, most Master Cleanse participants flush the body with sea salt water, which must be consumed on an empty stomach, first thing in the morning. Add two teaspoons of sea salt (not iodized table salt) to 1 quart of warm water. After about 30-45 minutes, be near a bathroom.

Green Juices

Green juice is all the rage among health enthusiasts. This healthy drink can start your day off with a shot of antioxidants and nutrients – power for a positive day! I drink a delicious green juice almost every morning. I change it up based on what I have in the refrigerator, but a favorite involves apples, lemon, parsley, celery, kale, cucumbers, fresh ginger, and romaine lettuce. Drink it down in a couple of minutes for a super-boost of energy. I’ll give the recipe below.

Juicing concentrates the fresh, raw nutrients in the fruits and vegetables, giving you a quick shot of nutrition – far more than you could consume in the same period. Apples provide an all-natural sweetener, especially if you are not yet accustomed to the piquant taste of a pure all-vegetable green juice. Lemon juice also balances out flavors and provides excellent benefits for digestion, weight loss, and detoxifying the kidneys.

Making homemade juice is most convenient with a store-bought juicer. Although juicers can be a bit expensive, they are an excellent investment for your health.
Smoothies

Some people wonder why they should waste all the pulp that comes from the fruits and vegetables when you juice. If you do not want to throw away all the veggie and fruit pulp, you may opt for smoothies instead. Smoothies have the added advantage of retaining the fiber packed into most veggies and fruits. However, you can do both! I like to save the pulp left from juicing, pack it into ice cube trays, and add these frozen vegetable pulp ice cubes to my smoothie recipes. If you are making smoothies for detoxing, do not add sugar. Instead use fruits to sweeten your smoothie, like bananas or berries.

What’s the Best Detox Drink?

If you want to cut to the chase and find out the best drink, read on. In a nutshell, water is the best way to detox, but there are a few ways to add flavor and cleansing properties to your water.

Pure Distilled Water

Truly, the best drink for detoxing is always water! Because tap water can be contaminated, using a proper water purification system is essential for your health. I recommend distilled water because the process by which it is made removes all contaminants; it is pure H20. Distillation involves bringing water to a boil – which converts it to steam – and then sending the steam through cooling tubes where it condenses back into pure water. This process also removes all of the naturally occurring minerals, so you might need to supplement to get them back.

To keep all your body’s organ systems working at top notch, I recommend that you drink at least eight glasses per day – especially if you are trying to detox. If you want to take it to the next level, try water fasting. I recently completed a 18-day water fast and created a series of videos, one per day, documenting my experience with it. I also drank hydrogen-infused water to ensure the greatest benefit during my fast; you can read more at my hydrogen water article. Studies show that water fasting slows aging and improves cell recycling and promotes the body’s natural healing properties.[12, 13,14] It can also give you a flat belly, and help you kickstart a lifestyle of healthier eating.
Distilled Water With Apple Cider Vinegar

My favorite drink – I drink this all the time – is distilled water with just a touch of raw, organic and unpasteurized apple cider vinegar (ACV), and a dash of Himalayan pink salt. The vinegar adds a slightly tart and tangy taste to the water. Apple cider vinegar has incredible detoxification properties. ACV is full of probiotics, it has a powerful ability to resist all kinds of harmful organisms,[15] and it helps normalize blood sugar levels.[16] Distilled water with ACV – with or without added lemon juice – creates the perfect alkaline drink.

Detox Water

Detox water is just water infused with one or more fruits or vegetables, like watermelon, cucumber or lemon. If you infuse your water with the right ingredients, you can detox while you hydrate. Always use distilled water or if you have to use tap water, purify it with a filter that removes toxins.
Watermelon Citrus Water

My favorite is watermelon citrus water. Watermelon has nutrients that make it ideal for detoxing your liver.

Pour 1 gallon of purified water in a glass pitcher (for best results)
Cube about 1 cup of fresh watermelon
Squeeze the juice of ½ lemon and ½ orange
Add 1 lemon wedge
Add 1 orange wedge
Add 5 to 8 cucumber slices to mellow the harsh citrus flavor

These drinks can be consumed before a meal, or in place of a meal if you are intermittent fasting. There are many other delicious recipes.

Detox Drinks for Weight Loss

Can certain drinks help you lose weight? They absolutely can! Many people are on the lookout for slimming or weight loss detox drinks. However, it’s important to use detox drinks, and especially intermittent fasting or juice fasting as healthy habits rather than exclusively for weight loss, which could lead to an eating disorder.

Fasting and drastically reducing calories – which can be done by substituting a drink for one or more meals– have scientifically valid benefits.[12, 13,14] However, these new health habits should be practiced with care, and in some cases under the guidance of a natural health practitioner or doctor.

Aloe Vera Juice

Aloe vera juice has slimming properties. Aloe promotes the digestive system’s production of mucus, which has a gentle, mild laxative effect and also can improve gut health. You can buy aloe vera juice (note, this is different from aloe gel) at local stores and drink a four-ounce glass of it, or, if the taste is too strong, you can dilute it with water in a larger glass. Make sure your aloe juice does not contain more than five ppm (parts per million) aloin from the outer leaf, as this can irritate the gut. You can also buy aloe in capsule form, and some people like to release the contents into a glass of water rather than drinking aloe juice.
Detox Drinks for Whole Body Detox

There are several ways to do a whole body cleanse. If you want an overall body detox drink, I recommend green juice. You will need a juicer. It’s best to wash all items before juicing. Although organic farmers use less chemical pesticides, laws allow for some to be used, and so even organic fruits and vegetables may retain remnants of some chemicals.[17]

Dr. Group’s Morning Green Detox Juice

Add the following items to your juicer, and then store in a glass jar.

2 stalks of organic celery
2 organic green apples
1 organic lemon, peeled
1 bunch of organic kale
2 organic cucumbers, peeled
1 head of romaine lettuce

Detox Drinks for Kidney Cleansing

Kidneys perform critical detoxifying functions for the body, including excreting waste from protein metabolism into the urinary system. To keep kidneys functioning well, you can consume kidney cleansing drinks. You may know of the benefits of cranberry juice for helping improve kidney function during a urinary tract infection (UTI). Pomegranate juice,[18] beet juice,[19] and lemon water can also help clean the kidneys. Lemon has been shown to fight against kidney stones and to protect against toxins in liver and kidney tissue in laboratory experiments.[1, 2]
Kidney Cleanse Detox

I recommend drinking a four-day kidney cleanse that uses two drinks, a homemade kidney cleanse beverage and a lemon-ACV drink.

You will need:

2 gallons of distilled water (1 gallon for the Renaltrex Kidney Cleanse Drink, and 1 gallon for the Water / Lemon / ACV Drink)
2 ounces (1 full bottle) of Renaltrex®
1 bottle (8 ounces) of organic raw apple cider vinegar (Braggs or Spectrum brands, available at most health food stores)

How to Make the Kidney Cleanse Drink

Start with 1 gallon of distilled water
Pour out 5 ounces of water to make room for the ingredients you will add
Add 2 ounces (the whole bottle) of Renaltrex
Add 2 tablespoons of organic raw apple cider vinegar
Add the juice of one organic lemon.
Shake and refrigerate.

Drink this gallon over the next 4 days. If you need to work or run errands during the day, bring it with you in a small cooler or large water bottle.
How to Make Lemon-ACV Water Drink

Take a second gallon of distilled water and pour out 6 ounces (¾ cup).
Add 2 tablespoons of organic raw apple cider vinegar to the water.
Add ½ cup of fresh squeezed organic lemon juice.

Drink this for snacks, during meals, and between meals when thirsty. Drink as much as you like throughout the day. The more you drink, the more successful your kidney cleanse will be. When you finish this mix, make another gallon and continue to drink as needed.
Kidney Stones Detox Drink

If you have kidney stones, drinking lemon, olive oil, and apple cider vinegar is a natural kidney stone remedy that can help. Follow these instructions:

At the first symptom of stone pain, mix two ounces of organic olive oil with two ounces of organic lemon juice.
Drink it straight and follow with a 12-ounce glass of purified water.
Wait 30 minutes.
Next, squeeze the juice of half a lemon into 12 ounces of purified water, add one tablespoon of organic raw apple cider vinegar and drink.
Repeat the lemon juice, water and apple cider vinegar recipe every hour until symptoms improve.

Detox Drinks for Liver Cleansing

Many foods have liver cleansing properties, but beets, lemons, grapefruit, turmeric, peppermint and apple cider vinegar are powerhouses for this purpose. Peppermint is one of several herbs with strong liver cleansing properties. Not only does peppermint stimulate liver bile production,[20] but it has also been found to protect the liver against toxic metals in lab experiments.[21] Not only that, peppermint acts as a stress-relieving drink.

Beets, carrots, and apples are three of several liver cleansing foods that can be juiced to create a delicious juice. My ACV-lemon water mentioned in the Best Detox Drink section is also great for the liver.

Dr. Group’s Liver Cleanse Juice

3 organic carrots (peeled and washed)
1 organic beet (peeled and washed)
2 organic red apples (washed and cut)
6 organic kale leaves
½ in. ginger root
½ organic lemon, peeled

Wash and peel all the items, and then add them to a juicer. If you prefer a thicker juice, you can blend it in a blender. Add ice if you prefer a cold drink.

Turmeric has liver protecting effects, including against NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) and other toxins.[22] It acts as an antioxidant and reduces the body’s production of cytokines, which cause systemic irritation.[22] You can make a delicious liver health drink using turmeric.
Golden Milk

Golden milk is a drink made from milk (I recommend vegan milk like almond milk, rice milk, or coconut milk) and turmeric, with other spices added for flavor and additional health benefits.

2 cups milk of your choice
1 teaspoon ground turmeric powder, or 1 tablespoon grated fresh turmeric
1 teaspoon ground ginger, or 1 tablespoon grated fresh ginger
4 teaspoons ground black pepper
Dash cinnamon or 1 cinnamon stick
Honey (optional)

Whisk all ingredients together in a saucepan over medium heat. Simmer to combine the flavors, and then strain through cheesecloth (you can skip this step if desired). Drink warm as a golden milk latte, or refrigerated.

Detox Drinks for Gut and Digestive Health

If you want to improve your digestion, try a detox smoothie. Compared with juicing, where the pulp is discarded, creating a smoothie from provides your body with the natural fiber from the fruits and vegetables, as well as all their nutrients. Ginger has excellent digestive benefits, including reducing nausea and vomiting.[23] It also helps other digestive issues, including gas, bloating, and constipation.[24]

Here’s a delicious and soothing drink that will ease digestive complaints and start your day off great.

Lemon Ginger Detox Tea

A coffee cup full of hot water (about 2 cups)
1 organic lemon, cut into slices
2-inch piece of fresh ginger, peeled and sliced thin
1/8 teaspoon ground turmeric (or 1/2 teaspoon grated fresh)

Bring all ingredients to a boil in a small saucepan. Keep a close watch on it, or the water will evaporate! You can double the recipe if you want to drink more the next day. Do not microwave the tea, as microwaves negatively affect food and the nutrients contained within them.

Kickin’ Ginger Lemon Water

If you want a cold drink for digestion, try this spicy but delicious detox water recipe.

Pour 1 gallon of purified water in a glass pitcher (for best results)
Squeeze fresh juice from 2 whole lemons into the water
Cut the third lemon into wedges and add
Mince about 1-inch fresh ginger root (peeled)
Add 1 tablespoon (to taste) of fresh ground red chili powder

Stir together and enjoy!

Drinks for Toxic Metal Detox

Toxic metals can accumulate in our bodies from the foods we eat, the air we breathe and the water we drink. Mercury, lead, cadmium and other metals are common in the environment, and even low levels have harmful effects on the body.
Dr. Group's Toxin-Free Super Water

I love to drink Super Water regularly, and it works particularly well to help remove toxic metals.

Calculate half your body weight; drink that amount in ounces of Super Water every day of the cleansing process. For example, if you weigh 150 pounds, you should drink 75 ounces of Super Water daily. Drink this water after you cleanse on a regular basis to maintain overall health.

Prepare one gallon of purified water, preferably kept in a glass bottle. Pour out some so that you can add the ingredients below. You can add water back in to suit your taste.
Add 2 tablespoons of raw, unpasteurized organic apple cider vinegar to the gallon of water. Shake well. If the taste is too strong for you to handle, reduce to 1 tablespoon per gallon until you become accustomed to the taste.
Optional: Add the juice of ½ of an organic lemon and 1-2 ounces organic aloe vera juice per gallon of Super Water. These additions will improve your cleansing results.

To really boost your toxic metal cleansing effort, try Zeotrex®. The formula is an integral component of the 30-day toxic metal cleanse. Add 20 drops of Zeotrex to 2 fluid ounces (¼ cup) of distilled water and drink this first thing in the morning, on an empty stomach. Repeat 20 minutes before your evening meal. Repeat this for 30 days, and drink the Super Water throughout the day.

Answers to Common Questions

Are you wondering what you should expect when drinking detox drinks? I’ve gathered some of the most common questions and provided answers.

Do I need to stay close to a toilet?

No, for the most part, these drinks in and of themselves will not affect your digestion so strongly that you’ll need to rush off to the bathroom. The exception is aloe vera juice, which can have strong digestive-stimulating properties. With that drink, I recommend starting with a small amount and seeing how your body responds before drinking larger amounts.

How often or over how many days should I drink the detox drinks?

These drinks can be added to your healthy daily diet plan on a regular basis. If you are consuming most of these recipes, like golden milk or mint tea, have them as often as you like! Or you may want to try detoxing your body for a certain period by eliminating processed foods, meat, dairy and other foods. In that case, if you want to replace a meal with a drink, consume your drink of choice as a replacement for breakfast, or 30 minutes before lunch or dinner. If you are doing a full liver, colon or kidney cleanse, I recommend a five-day plan.

When I make detox water, do I squeeze the fruit or vegetables into the water or just put them into the water to infuse?

If you squeeze the fruits and veggies, it gives more flavor to your water and also infuses your water with more of the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals from the produce. After squeezing the juice into the water, you can add them to the pitcher or jug, which will allow the flavors to deepen.
What do I do with the leftover fruit once the water is consumed?

Most people throw it away, but you can freeze it and later add to a smoothie!

Should I drink these refrigerated or at room temperature?

Your body needs more energy to metabolize cold water, so if you are cleansing, room temperature drinks will help your body process the water more efficiently. If making detox water, keep it at room temp in a pitcher for at least 24 hours, but if you do not drink all of it, you can refrigerate it for longer preservation.

Will detox drinks make me lose weight?

Not necessarily. Some ingredients do kick-start metabolism, but if you want to lose weight, you need a balanced diet with physical exercise as well. Try to eat a healthful, plant-based diet. Detoxing your body systems can help with weight loss, and healthy drinks are a great accompaniment to any type of cleanse.
Boosting Your Detox Regimen

In summary, detox drinks are not only delicious and nutritious, but they can help your body cleanse you from all the toxins you are exposed to daily. Choosing ingredients that target the organs that you have trouble with can make a world of difference.

How about you? Have you tried any detox drinks that you love? Share the recipe in the comments below!


DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Nutrients for detoxification

Detoxification is a term often synonymous with short-term programs promising a feeling of wellness, vitality and even rapid weight loss as an almost overnight result. The reality however is that the processes of detoxification are happening within every cell every minute of the day.

Emerging research continues to support the hypothesis that toxicity is a major contributor to many chronic disease states. Many would argue that levels of individual toxins found in our food, water and environment are not significant enough to cause harm, however it is often the compounded effects of multiple poison exposure which is the greatest concern.

Humans are exposed to a cocktail of heavy metal toxicants in the environment. Though heavy metals are deleterious, there is a paucity of information on toxicity of low dose mixtures.[1]

Metal mixtures are demonstrated to result in higher toxicities compared to individual metals, with animal studies showing “low-dose” mixtures to contribute to reduced brain weight and structural lesions, neuronal degeneration, hepatocellular injury, decreased antioxidant activity and kidney necrosis.[1] This supports the need for ongoing support for the removal of heavy metals from the body and protection against their uptake.

Multiple endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are also present in the environment, and thus supporting their detoxification is essential. EDCs include a wide range of substances, both natural and man-made, including pharmaceuticals, dioxin and dioxin-like compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, DDT and other pesticides, and plasticisers such as bisphenol A. EDCs may be found in many everyday products including plastic bottles, metal food cans, detergents, flame retardants, food, toys, cosmetics and pesticides.[2]

EDCs may interfere with normal endocrine function through their ability to:[2]

mimic, or partly mimic, naturally occurring hormones in the body such as oestrogens, androgens and thyroid hormones, potentially producing overstimulation
bind to a receptor within a cell and block the endogenous hormone from binding (the normal signal then fails to occur and the body fails to respond properly. e.g. anti-oestrogens and anti-androgens)
interfere or block the way natural hormones or their receptors are made or controlled (for example, by altering their metabolism in the liver).

Poor diet and lifestyle (and exogenous toxin exposure) can deplete internal antioxidant and detoxification systems, contributing to increased production and poorer clearance of endogenous toxins. For example, poor intestinal integrity can lead to greater lipopolysaccharide (LPS) passage and a subsequent inflammatory cascade that, when unmanaged, depletes glutathione and sees an accumulation of harmful pro-inflammatory and oxidative substances. Poor clearance of endogenous oestrogens can also contribute to disease, so too can elevations in uncleared reverse T3.

In order to avoid toxicity effects, a diet and lifestyle which supports detoxication and detoxification of both exogenous and endogenous toxins is essential. Detoxication refers to the mechanism of preventing entry of damaging compounds into the body, whilst detoxification is the process of removing toxic chemicals from the body.

Many patients who are unwell, or living/working in a toxic environment, may benefit further from additional supplementation with specific compounds.

The role of the GIT in minimising toxic overload

Good https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gastrointestinal_tract [GastroIntestinal Tract (GIT)] health and local microbial balance, sound nutritional status with protein, fibre and essential micronutrient intake, together with the consumption of plant foods (e.g. cruciferous vegetables) and green tea is a useful way to support detoxication of the many potentially poisonous compounds that threaten health.

The role of GIT cells must be considered when aiming to facilitate detoxication and reduce an individual’s accumulation of both external and endogenously derived toxins. It is estimated that 25% of detoxification processes occur within GIT enterocytes. These cells carry out both phase 1 (via the action of CYP450 enzymes) and phase 3 (via antiporter protein action) functions in an attempt to reduce the passage of non-metabolised xenobiotics to the internal environment.

A large portion of the toxins we are exposed to on a daily basis enter the body within foods and beverages we consume. If intestinal hyperpermeability (“leaky gut”) is present, this allows greater entry of undesirable compounds into the body, many of which can produce “toxicity” symptoms once they reach a certain threshold. In addition, leaky gut allows these potentially toxic compounds to by-pass the processes of detoxication; detoxification that would normally be carried out within the gut cells.

Furthermore, as the GIT is a major site of metabolised toxin excretion (originating from the liver), compromised intestinal integrity, combined with insufficient fibre and dysbiosis, may also lead to reabsorption of toxin metabolites otherwise bound for elimination. Research also shows local inflammation in gut cells to result in glutathione depletions which in turn may compromise antiporter protein (i.e. phase 3) function.

Correcting dysbiosis with a broad spectrum, high dose probiotic, together with dietary prebiotic fibres and additional nutrients including L-glutamine, can help not only to reduce local inflammation, but also to restore integrity to the GIT.

Moreso, beneficial micro-organisms assist detoxication by binding/sequestering damaging compounds (e.g. heavy metals mercury,[3,4] arsenic,[3,4] cadmium[3] and lead[3]). The bacterial metal-binding interactions, are believed to be largely attributed to charge attractions between the net negative bacterial cell and the positively charged metal (with exceptions such as arsenic[3]).

Supporting liver detoxification

The second phase of liver detoxification is heavily nutrient dependent, thus ongoing consumption of amino acids, vitamins, minerals and other supportive compounds (e.g. sulfurophane, beta-glucuronidase) are useful to facilitate optimal detoxification processes.

A primary route of phase 2 detoxification is glutathione conjugation. In addition to its role in conjugation, glutathione (GSH) is a significant hepatic antioxidant. If GSH is depleted by the oxidative by-products of phase 1, the GSH-dependent phase 2 activity is inhibited. GSH depletion has been suggested to represent an important contributory factor to oxidative liver damage and enhanced morbidity related to liver hypofunction.[5]

GSH is a tripeptide made up from the amino acids glutamine, glycine and cysteine, thus an adequate supply of these substrates is paramount. Foods from the brassica family (cabbage, broccoli, Brussel sprouts) are inducers of this pathway. Broccoli sprouts in particular have been found to be potent phase II inducers.[6] Glutathionation is involved in heavy metal removal, and this process can be supported by N-acetyl-cysteine, selenium and alpha-lipoic acid.

Curcuma longa and sulforaphane are also known to enhance the activity of glutathione S-transferase (GST).[7,8]

Sulfurophane is a molecule belonging to the isothiocyanate group of organosulfur compounds. Sulfurophane is found in broccoli sprouts and other cruciferous vegetables such as kale, Brussel sprouts and cabbage. It is also well-known for its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity.

Due to its role in the induction of phase 1 and phase 2 detoxification enzymes (e.g. for removal of chemical carcinogens), sulforaphane-rich foods represent an ideal addition to the daily diet and to a protocol designed to facilitate healthy detox. Sulforophane also has a recognised capacity to induce the activation of nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2). When Nrf2 binds to DNA it induces many antioxidant and detoxifying pathways, protecting cells from damage.

Further phase 2 pathways include amino acid conjugation, methylation, sulfation, acetylation and glucuronidation.

Glycine (and to a lesser extent taurine, glutamine, arginine and ornithine) are required for phase 2 amino acid conjugation. People on a low protein diet, and those with chronic exposure to toxins, are at risk of impaired amino acid conjugation due to substrate depletion, particularly glycine.[9]

Methylation is the conjugation of toxins with methyl groups. The methyl donor is S-adenosylmethionine (SAMe). SAMe is synthesised from the amino acid methionine, a process which requires the nutrients choline, vitamin B6, vitamin B12 and folic acid.

Sulfation involves the conjugation of toxins with sulfur-containing compounds. Nutrients needed to maintain sulfation are the sulfur-containing amino acids, particularly cysteine and methionine. An adequate level of molybdenum is also necessary for this phase 2 process.[9]

Acetylation is the conjugation of toxins with acetyl-CoA. Acetylation is dependent on the vitamins B1, B5 and vitamin C.[9]

Glucuronidation is one of the primary pathways of liver phase 2 detoxification. It is responsible for the detoxification of both endogenous compounds (e.g. hormones such as oestrogen) and exogenous toxins (e.g. drugs and carcinogens). Glucuronidation combines these potentially toxic compounds with glucuronic acids forming glucuronide conjugates. These conjugates are then suitable for safe elimination via the biliary tract. This process depends on adequate levels of glucuronic acid. Fish oils and limonene from the peel of oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits may also activate glucuronidation.[9]

A situation known to compromise healthy excretion of glucuronide conjugates is the elevation of beta-glucuronidase within the GIT. Beta-glucuronidase exerts a cleavage action on glucuronide metabolites. High beta-glucuronidase levels have thus been associated with the generation of free toxic and carcinogenic metabolites[10] (which may be granted passage back into the body). Poorer clearance of metabolised oestrogen and an increased risk of oestrogen-dominant conditions are associated with this scenario.

Calcium-d-glucarate, which naturally occurs in fruits and cruciferous vegetables, is known to undergo conversion to D-glucaro-1,4-lactone. This substance exerts an inhibition effect on beta-glucuronidase, preventing the generation of these free toxins which may compromise local GI health, and potentially be granted re-entry into the body. Sound GIT integrity is potentially useful for prevention of re-absorption in this circumstance.

Certain pre- and probiotics have exhibited the ability to beneficially minimise beta-glucuronidase.[10,11] Furthermore, via the production and release of short chain fatty acids, probiotic fermentation of prebiotic fibres supports gut integrity, whilst certain lactic acid bacteria have also been shown to increase the activity of numerous other antioxidant (and detoxification) enzymes and substances including glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione reductase, glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase.[11]

Glucuronidation has been shown to be enhanced with green tea administration.[8] Green tea has numerous demonstrated health effects, including antioxidant functions and enhancement of detoxification via increased glutathione S-transferase activity,[12,13] glutathione peroxidase and glutamate cysteine ligase.[13]

Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant green tea catechin and, like sulforophane, is shown to activate Nrf2, hence representing a key compound responsible for green tea’s role in regulating induction of phase 2 detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes.[13] Green tea therefore represents an ideal inclusion into the diet when enhancement of detoxification is the aim.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Ultimate Guide to Detox Drinks for Body Cleansing

Written by Dr. Edward Group

Published Jun 5, 2018

What Is a Detox Drink?

There’s nothing supernatural about a detox drink – it is just a drink with ingredients that have detoxification properties. It can be juice, tea, a smoothie, or even water made with herbs, fruits, vegetables, vitamins, and minerals that help remove toxins from the body For best results, they should be made with all organic ingredients and should have no added sugar. The good news is that most are quick and simple to make and they can improve your overall health and wellness.

Different ingredients work better for detoxing your liver, kidneys, digestive system, and whole body, and I will reveal which homemade drinks work best for different organ systems. I will also recommend some homemade do-it-yourself (DIY) drinks for cleansing toxic metals from your body and for weight loss.


ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Berries

Besides being delicious and incredibly versatile, berries are a great source of both fiber and antioxidants, two important components of a well-balanced detox diet. Fiber moves slowly through the gastrointestinal tract and helps bulk up the stool to support regularity and excrete waste more efficiently. (3) Antioxidants, on the other hand, have been shown in animal models to protect the liver against oxidative stress while simultaneously preserving immune cell function. (4) Berries like blueberries and strawberries also have a high water content and can promote hydration as well as proper elimination.

Rehkuhmended: ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT
* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Green Tea

Green tea is known for its antioxidant properties.[4] Antioxidants work to counter any damage to cells caused by toxins and pathogens, so drinking a tea or juice with high antioxidant properties helps your body detoxify. Studies have found that green tea lowers bad (LDL) cholesterol and blood pressure as well.[5, 6] Matcha green tea powder has 100 times more antioxidants than plain green tea[7]: While green tea is an infusion from the tea leaves, matcha powder is a drink made from ground up young green tea leaves, resulting in more detoxifying antioxidants in your drink. Matcha has been found to have positive effects on the kidney and liver.[8]


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Glucuronidation has been shown to be enhanced with green tea administration.[8] Green tea has numerous demonstrated health effects, including antioxidant functions and enhancement of detoxification via increased glutathione S-transferase activity,[12,13] glutathione peroxidase and glutamate cysteine ligase.[13]

Epigallocatechin 3-gallate (EGCG) is the most abundant green tea catechin and, like sulforophane, is shown to activate Nrf2, hence representing a key compound responsible for green tea’s role in regulating induction of phase 2 detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes.[13] Green tea therefore represents an ideal inclusion into the diet when enhancement of detoxification is the aim.

Rehkuhmended: SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Benefts Of A Citrus Cleanse

By Sandy Halliday

Citrus fruit are perfect for cleansing the gastrointestinal tract since they contain adequate amounts of fiber both in soluble and insoluble forms. The high citric acid content is effective in cleansing and eliminating wastes and toxins such as heavy metals from the cells.

You can use any citrus fruit or juice like oranges, lemons, tangerines, grapefruits and limes for a citrus cleanse.
Citrus Cleanse benefits

1.Vitamins & Minerals

Citrus fruits contain impressive amounts of vitamins and minerals including Vitamins C, B complex, E, beta-carotene, bioflavonoids, pectin, potassium, magnesium, phosphorous and zinc which can help with the body cleansing process.

As the body is being cleansed it needs ample amounts of vitamins and minerals to boost the detox system.

When you peel citrus fruit to eat them or juice them it’s important to leave on some of the pith as this is where most of the nutrients are found.

Citrus fruits are particularly rich in vitamin C which is needed in many metabolic functions of the body. Vitamin C is an antioxidant which helps to mop up free radicals which are created during the detox process.

Oranges are one of the richest sources of Vitamin C. In studies by the National Cancer Institute in America the people who ate the most oranges compared to those who ate the fewest had the lowest incidence of cancer.

One of the best ways to get the overall benefits of vitamin C in citrus fruits is to juice them.

Detox diet plan

2. High water content

Citrus fruits have high water content; water is needed to help dilute toxins as they are released from the cells. Water in fruits will also help improve stool quality so that stools may be eliminated regularly to clear out toxins.

When you eat or drink juices made from citrus fruits not only do you increase your water intake for the day but you also experience a refreshing way to cleanse or detox.

3. Stimulates liver detox

The rinds of citrus fruits contain limonene which not only gives them their characteristic smell but Citrus Detoxstimulates the detox enzymes in the liver.

So, when you juice citrus fruit for a citrus cleanse it’s a good idea to include some of the peel. Just make sure your fruit is organic.

The morning Lemon Detox Drink is particularly effective at stimulating the production of bile which the liver uses to eliminate toxins.


Rehkuhmended: GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored
* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffeine
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage


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July 1, 2014

10 Health Benefits of V8

V8 is vegetable juice comprising of 8 fruits, namely, tomato, carrot, romaine lettuce, beet, parsley, watercress and spinach. It is a 1933 in blend invention in Illinois, USA, which was later developed by W.G Peacock. V8 is a vitamin rich vegetable juice with multiple health benefits as we shall discover in this article.

Health Benefit 1: Source of Lycopene

V8 is rich in lycopene by virtue of the fact that tomatoes make part of the 8 juices blend. Lycopene is an anti-oxidant that is a bright red carotene pigment and phytochemical usually found in tomatoes. It is responsible for the e bright red color in ripe tomatoes. Lycopene neutralizes the harmful effects of free radicals. Free radicals cause various chronic diseases such as cancer and cardiovascular diseases.

Health Benefit 2: Vitamins

Tomato juice in v8 provides vitamin A and C. Vitamin A is a vitamin that is fat and available from retinoid as well as carotid. This Vitamin A promotes…a healthy immune system…good vision (especially at night)…as well as growth of cells. On the other hand vitamin C or ascorbic acid vitamin C is soluble in water. This Vitamin C is also important in the body for boosting immune system and preventing attack from diseases such as scurvy.

Health Benefit 3: low calories in Beets

V8 juice contains natural sugar and low calorie, thanks to beet vegetable making up the v8 juice. Beet contain no fat with good amount of fiber(both soluble and insoluble).The 37 calories per half a cup servings makes them ideal for weight watchers.

Health Benefit 4: Potassium in Celery

Celery in the v8 vegetable juice provides a good source of potassium. Of importance here is not the amount of Potassium in Celery but the role it plays a ( diuretic increases urine producTion ). It maintains safe levels of both potassium and sodium without necessarily changing blood ratio.

Health Benefit 5: Alpha and Beta-carotene in Carrots

As one of the constituents of V8, carrots supply you with anti-oxidants alpha and beta-carotene when you consume v8 vegetable juice. These two are provitamin A carotenoids, which are changed to vitamin A (retinol) when needed by the body. The vitamin A or retinol is important for visual acuity. Deficiency in this vitamin could cause blindness, hence very important in the diet. Which could lead to blindness. These two anti-oxidants also promote a healthy immune system as well as destroy harmful micro-organisms that cause diseases in the body.

Health Benefit 6: The Flavor and Low calories in Lettuce

To appreciate how low calories in lettuce, you need to figure this out: Simply to metabolize the 390 calories in celery, you may require walking for one hour and 48 minutes! It is therefore a good food for maintaining weight. Notably, One cup of raw leaf lettuce contains 9 calories. Lettuce contains fiber, carbohydrates, fat, and some protein as well.

Health Benefit 7: The Vitamins A, C, Folate in Parsley

Parsley in v8 vegetable contains vitamins such as A, C and folate as well as potassium. These nutrients play various roles in the body, enhancing parsley to boost immune system, nervous system, strong bones and so on.

Health Benefit 8: Vitamin A in Watercress

This super-vegetable Watercress contains vitamin A from beta-carotene, a retinol belonging to the fat-soluble vitamins.

Health Benefit 9: Mineral Rich Spinach

The final vegetable constituent in this v8 juice is spinach, rich in vitamins A and C, iron, potassium, folic acid, and magnesium.

Health Benefit 10: Energy Boost

V8 restores used up vitamins especially by athletes as it aids in easy absorption of minerals and vitamins.


Rehkuhmended: V8 Energy Protein

Rehkuhmended: V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " DeTox NooTrishuhn ".


+ Leegulyz Ahl Druhgz And End Thuh Druhg Wohr

( ŎLsō SpĕLd Ăz ) LēgüLŏēz ŎL Drŭgz Ănd Ĕnd Ðŭ Drŭg Wōr

See YouTube PlLayLisT: Legalize ALL Drugs And End The Drug War PLayLisT


Table of Contents

.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss

BaysT On: RTh SihTihZen RyTs Uhv Thuh RTh KonsTiTTuushuhn

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

KuhnkLoozhuhn:

Eech ( Nashuhnul And MeeewnissipuL And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss ".


Leegulyz Ahl Druhgz ( ŎLsō SpĕLd Ăz ) LēgüLŏēz ŎL Drŭgz

Table of Contents

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

10 Reasons to Legalize All Drugs

By Anthony Martinelli

rThe war on drugs has been an unequivocal failure. Although many people are hesitant when it comes to the idea of Leegulyz Ahl Druhgzlegalizing all drugs – which is understandable given the extreme dangers of certain substances – it’s truly the only solution to ending the pain, death and social regression that comes with the drug war.

Below are what we here at TheJointBlog believe to be ten of the most important reasons for why we should [[[|Leegulyz Ahl Druhgz|legalize all illegal substances]]], not just cannabis.

1: The war on drugs, and the black market it creates, has led to a pandemic of violence and death, and only legalization will solve the problem.

The existence of drug cartels, and the thousands of lives they’ve taken, is caused directly by the war on drugs, and the fact that drugs are illegal. Without the illegal drug market, these cartels wouldn’t exist, or at the very least their power and influence would be greatly diminished.

With an end to our war on drugs comes an end to a lot of organized violence, and many unnecessary deaths.

2: The war on drugs has has been an economic disaster, funded by taxpayers.

Well over a trillion dollars of taxpayers’ money has gone into fighting a war that the government can never win. A hardline, oftentimes barbaric approach to drug use has not diminished their presence in our society. Instead, prohibition has enriched the criminals who choose to sell illegal drugs, and has done absolutely nothing to decrease usage rates. In a faltering economy, with a huge deficit to account for, the money spent on this ridiculous war cannot be justified.

3: The war on drugs creates an entire class of nonviolent [ Prisoners who are TOO OFT NOT real criminals violating OTHER People].

Drug prohibition has resulted in a mass population of nonviolent citizens being thrown in prison and labeled as lifelong criminals. When someone receives drug felony – which can occurs when even a minuscule amount of an illegal substance is in someone’s possession – it permanently alters their life. Student loans and grants become hard or even impossible to get, as do jobs and many housing opportunities. In many instances drug felons must resort to a life of crime simply to get by, because there are so few options available to them.

Roughly 50% of all inmates in federal prison were sentenced for nonviolent drug-related offenses. Putting these people behind bars alongside violent criminals is inhumane, and often leads to offenders becoming permanently hardened and de-socialized.

4: Legalizing drugs will take away the fear addicts have of seeking help, resulting in decreased addiction rates.

With the war on drugs, those who are seriously addicted to hard drugs often have no means of receiving the help they need to break the addiction and move on with their lives. Addicts fear that if they seek help, they could be persecuted and/or prosecuted for their illegal drug use.

In Portugal, which has decriminalized the possession of all drugs, drug usage rates have declined significantly, especially among minors. There’s also been a large decrease in addiction rates, due to addicts being more likely to seek help as they no longer fearing arrest.

In Portugal, decriminalizing drug possession has also reduced overdoses and STDs.

5: The war on drugs has perpetuated institutional racism.

It’s an undeniable fact that the war on drugs disproportionately effects minorities . For example, reports show that black-Americans are 2.5 times more likely to be arrested for cannabis, and 8 times more likely to be jailed for a drug offense, compared to someone who’s white. This is despite the fact that statistically minorities and whites use drugs at the same rate.

This discrepancy, of course, doesn’t come as a surprise when federal DEA (Drug Enforcement Administration) agents are being told not to enforce drug laws in “white areas”.

If we end the war on drugs, we remove a legal tool for racist law enforcement officers and judges to use against minorities.

6: Legal drugs would be safer than black-market drugs, saving lives and reducing healthcare costs.

If drugs were legal, they would be regulated, meaning that warning labels could be mandated, the product could be quality controlled and instructions for the safest way to ingest the drug could be included. This would result in a large decrease in drug deaths/emergency room visits that are caused by street drugs being cut with other substances, or caused by users ingesting the drug the wrong way.

7: Legalizing drugs would free up police time and resources, and would unclog the court system.

If drugs were legal, it would stop police from wasting massive amounts of time and resources perpetuating the drug war. This would allow them to focus on serious crimes that actually reduce public safety, such as homicides and theft. This would also free up the court system.

8: Legalizing drugs would help prevent prison overcrowding.

The United States possesses just 5% of the world’s population, yet harbors over 25% of the world’s prisoners. The failed war on drugs- which as we mentioned above, accounts for roughly 50% of all federal inmates – is primarily to blame for this. If drugs were legalized, prisons would be freed up, allowing room for those who commit serious crimes. This would also help prevent serious criminals from being released early due to a lack of prison space.

9: The war on drugs develops mistrust in our government and our legal system.

Rather than properly educating the public on the dangers of drug use, and helping rehabilitate those who may be addicted, we label all drugs as being demonic entities and throw users in prison. Not only does this build mistrust in our legal system, it also breeds fear and hatred.

In addition to mistreating our citizens, our war on drugs leads to largely skewed priorities. Since Nixon declared this war in 1971, substances like cannabis have been labeled and treated the same as fatal substances such as meth and PCP. In our education system (yes, we’re looking at you, DARE), kids are taught that cannabis is equal in danger to substances like heroin. When kids find out this isn’t true about cannabis, likely through personal use, what’s to stop them from thinking they’ve also been lied to about other drugs? Education is key, and propaganda is dangerous.

We need to continue our work toward a fair and equal justice system. In such a system, there would be no room for failures like the war on drugs, and people would have the ability to choose what they put in their body without the fear of imprisonment.

10: Personal Freedom.

Jailing people for the use and possession of drugs, often for years or decades, flies contrary to the idea that we’re are and should be a free people. We are fully aware that hard drugs can have a devastating effect on the lives of many, but clearly a line has been crossed when simply possessing an illegal drug can have a harsher criminal sentence than crimes such as manslaughter, and can carry with it a life sentence…

drug decriminalization, drug legalization, drug war, end the drug war, end the war on drugs, legalize all drugs, legalize drugs, reason to legalize drugs, reasons to end the drug war, reasons to end the war on drugs, war on drugs

Anthony Martinelli


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

National Families in Action

A Guide to the Drug-Legalization Movement

What This Guide Contains

Welcome to the National Families in Action Guide to the Drug Legalization Movement. This guide contains a record of the national and local groups and individuals who have worked to legalize drugs since the early 1970s.

Commentary
An overview of the drug legalization movement and successes it has had.

Background
Definitions, purpose, goals, and strategies of drug legalization movement.

Organizations
A list of local, state and national drug legalization organizations that have worked to legalize drugs since the early 1970s. Click links for organizational profiles.

People
A list of people who serve or have served on the boards or advisory boards of drug-legalization organizations. Click links for individual profiles. An asterisk indicates that person no longer supports drug legalization and has requested that National Families in Action publish this information.


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

National Families in Action

A Guide to the Drug Legalization Movement

Commentary

Index


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

National Families in Action

A Guide to the Drug-Legalization Movement

Organizations

Index

A
Americans for Medical Rights
Anti-Prohibitionist Radical Co-Ordination
Arizonans for Drug Policy Reform

C
Californians for Medical Rights
Campaign for New Drug Policies
Coalition for Fair Treatment
Common Sense for Drug Policy
Coloradans for Medical Rights
Criminal Justice Policy Foundation

D
Drug Policy Foundation
Drug Reform Coordination Network

F
Families Against Mandatory Minimums
Floridians for Medical Rights
Forfeiture Endangers American Rights
Foundation on Drug Policy and Human Rights

H
The Harm Reduction Coalition

I
International Foundation for Drug Policy and Human Rights International Harm Reduction Coalition

L
The Lindesmith Center
The Lindesmith Center West

M
Marijuana Policy Project
Media Awareness Project
Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic Studies (MAPS)

N
National Drug Strategy Network
Nevadans for Medical Rights
National Organization for the Reform of Marijuana Laws
NORML Foundation
The November Coalition

P
The People Have Spoken
Plants Are Medicine

U
Utahns for Property Protection


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

National Families in Action

A Guide to the Drug-Legalization Movement

People

Index

A list of people who serve or have served on the boards or advisory boards of drug-legalization organizations. Click links for individual profiles. An asterisk indicates that person no longer supports drug legalization and has requested that National Families in Action publish this information.

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In THuh Payj Naymd " Legalize All Drugs ".


End Thuh Druhg Wohr Ănd Ĕnd Ðŭ Drŭg Wōr

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Let's Be Blunt: It's Time to End the Drug War

Art Carden
Contributor

April 20 is the counter-culture "holiday" on which lots and lots of people come together to advocate marijuana legalization (or just get high). Should drugs—especially marijuana—be legal? The answer is “yes.” Immediately. Without hesitation. Do not pass Go. Do not collect $200 seized in a civil asset forfeiture. The war on drugs has been a dismal failure. It’s high time to end prohibition. Even if you aren’t willing to go whole-hog and legalize all drugs, at the very least we should legalize marijuana.

For the sake of the argument, let’s go ahead and assume that everything you’ve heard about the dangers of drugs is completely true. That probably means that using drugs is a terrible idea. It doesn’t mean, however, that the drug war is a good idea.

Prohibition is a textbook example of a policy with negative unintended consequences. Literally: it’s an example in the textbook I use in my introductory economics classes (Cowen and Tabarrok, Modern Principles of Economics if you’re curious) and in the most popular introductory economics textbook in the world (by N. Gregory Mankiw).The demand curve for drugs is extremely inelastic, meaning that people don’t change their drug consumption very much in response to changes in prices. Therefore, vigorous enforcement means higher prices and higher revenues for drug dealers. In fact, I’ll defer to Cowen and Tabarrok—page 60 of the first edition, if you’re still curious—for a discussion of the basic economic logic:

"The more effective prohibition is at raising costs, the greater are drug industry revenues. So, more effective prohibition means that drug sellers have more money to buy guns, pay bribes, fund the dealers, and even research and develop new technologies in drug delivery (like crack cocaine). It’s hard to beat an enemy that gets stronger the more you strike against him or her."

People associate the drug trade with crime and violence; indeed, the newspapers occasionally feature stories about drug kingpins doing horrifying things to underlings and competitors. These aren’t caused by the drugs themselves but from the fact that they are illegal (which means the market is underground) and addictive (which means demanders aren’t very price sensitive).

Those same newspapers will also occasionally feature articles about how this or that major dealer has been taken down or about how this or that quantity of drugs was taken off the streets. Apparently we’re to take from this the idea that we’re going to “win” the war on drugs. Apparently. It’s alleged that this is only a step toward getting “Mister Big,” but even if the government gets “Mister Big,” it’s not going to matter. Apple didn’t disappear after Steve Jobs died. Getting “Mr. Big” won’t win the drug war. As I pointed out almost a year ago, economist and drug policy expert Jeffrey Miron estimates that we would have a lot less violence without a war on drugs.

At the recent Association of Private Enterprise Education conference, David Henderson from the Naval Postgraduate School pointed out the myriad ways in which government promises to make us safer in fact imperil our safety and security. The drug war is an obvious example: in the name of making us safer and protecting us from drugs, we are actually put in greater danger. Without meaning to, the drug warriors have turned American cities into war zones and eroded the very freedoms we hold dear.

Freedom of contract has been abridged in the name of keeping us “safe” from drugs. Private property is less secure because it can be seized if it is implicated in a drug crime (this also flushes the doctrine of “innocent until proven guilty” out the window). The drug war has been used as a pretext for clamping down on immigration. Not surprisingly, the drug war has turned some of our neighborhoods into war zones. We are warehousing productive young people in prisons at an alarming rate all in the name of a war that cannot be won.

Albert Einstein is reported to have said that the definition of insanity is doing the same thing over and over again and expecting different results. By this definition, the drug war is insane. We are no safer, and we are certainly less free because of concerted efforts to wage war on drugs. It’s time to stop the insanity and end prohibition.


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Karen

May 13, 2018

Did Portugal Really Legalize All Drugs?

Lisbon, Portugal

I hear this a lot: “America should legalize all drugs because Portugal did it and everything was fine.” I thought it was time to explain exactly what Portugal did do in relation to their drug problem and what the result was.

In 1999, Portugal approved their National Strategy for the Fight Against Drugs as a way of coping with runaway addiction problems. Portugal had been a relatively closed country between 1933 and 1974 and then the floodgates opened to allow outside markets and influences into the country. Along with commerce, drugs like marijuana and heroin flooded in as well.

The population that not been exposed to these drugs had no education on the harm that was possible. Addiction and death rose in a towering wave of devastation. In the 1980s, one in ten citizens was addicted to heroin.

There were various ideas on how to combat this problem but none of them were very successful. In the late 1990s, the idea of decriminalizing personal drug possession gained popularity.

Please note: They decriminalized the possession of small amounts of addictive substances, enough that an individual would typically use in 10 day’s time. They legalized nothing. It’s still illegal to use drugs. But being a drug user is treated as a health problem, not a criminal problem.

They also didn’t decriminalize drug dealing or trafficking. A person with more than a personal supply of a drug will still be treated like a criminal. There was no intention that drugs should be allowed to freely wash through Portuguese communities. According to one analysis by the Institute for the Study of Labor in Germany:

“The focus on treatment, care, and rehabilitation as an alternative to criminal punishment of drug users is intended to stabilize the demand while a more effective law enforcement targeting drug trafficking and production was designed to reduce the supply of illicit drugs.”

So What Really Happens in Portugal?

Decriminalizing personal drug possession did not mean that a person found with drugs would simply be told to go on his way and have a good day. He (or she) receives a citation to appear before a local Commission for the Dissuasion of Drug Addiction. Police seize any drugs found. If necessary to ensure the individual appears before the Commission, police are authorized to detain the person.

When seen by the Commission, if the user is not addicted and has no prior record or if the person is addicted and agrees to treatment, there will probably be no further action taken.

Otherwise, the Commission can impose a variety of penalties, for example:

A fine equal to a month’s pay
Revocation of public benefits being received
Cancellation of the right to carry a gun
Prohibition of the privilege to visit certain people or places
Loss of professional licenses
Requirement to report to the Commission or health services regularly
Assignment of a specific number of hours of community service

What many people miss is the fact that the 1999 strategy was not a dramatic change from prior methods of dealing with drug use in Portugal. Even in the years before this strategy was implemented, the practice was not to incarcerate people found using drugs. The 1999 strategy simply stated and organized the country’s policy in relation to personal drug use and the way it would be addressed to improve the health of the country.

The Outcome

This change did not have the effect of eliminating the drug problem in the country. Indeed, quantities of heroin, cocaine and hashish seized in the country increased after decriminalization—hashish, dramatically so. For example:

In February 2018, police seized 5,000 doses of cocaine from a traveler at the Lisbon airport.
Also in February, police seized 4.5 tons of benzyl methyl ketone, a substance used to make synthetic drugs like ecstasy.
In March 2018, 2.5 tonnes of cocaine were seized from a warehouse in Lisbon.

But it did channel more people into treatment. The emphasis shifted from punishment to recovery. Those who were ordered to appear before the Commission stated that they were less afraid for their futures than if they had to appear in a criminal case. The government guarantees drug treatment for those who are addicted and provides subsidies to employers who hire those who are addicted.

There are estimated to be about 30,000 problem drug users. Nearly 17,000 people receive treatment with medication such as methadone. Nearly half of those entering treatment are there to get help for heroin addiction, about a third need help for cannabis addiction, and 12% were addicted to cocaine. While overdose deaths are low, they have been climbing slightly since 2011.

Perhaps one of the best outcomes of this approach is the dramatic reduction in new cases of HIV related to injecting drugs.

It is important to note that Portugal has adopted a far more aggressive drug prevention program targeting students than other European countries. Drug prevention is taught in sciences, biology and civic education classes.

While a person who wants to create a more permissive atmosphere for drug use might say “Portugal legalized all drugs and they did great,” there is obviously more to the story. Law enforcement, prevention, referral to treatment and government-guaranteed treatment were also organized to relieve the citizenry of the burden of drug use and addiction.


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

14 Years After Decriminalizing Drugs, This Chart Shows Why Portugal’s Bold Risk Paid Off

By Zeeshan Aleem

Jun 9, 2015

Portugal had one of the worst heroin epidemics in the Western world. At one point in the 1990s, a staggering 1% of the population was addicted to heroin. Overdoses were rampant, and drug-related deaths from AIDS were the highest in the European Union.

Reeling from a dire public health crisis and seeing no results from a conventional war on drugs, the Portuguese government decided it had to chart a new course, and in 2001 it decriminalized the possession of all drugs. People caught with less than a 10-day supply of a drug are directed to "dissuasion commissions," usually composed of a lawyer, a doctor and a social worker, who recommend treatment or a minor fine. Most of the time, someone who sits before a dissuasion commission faces no penalty whatsoever.

Since Portugal decriminalized drugs 14 years ago, governments and drug policy experts around the world have scrutinized data about drug use coming out of the country. Studies in recent years suggest their grand experiment has been a success. Still, 14 years is a small window to measure a massive policy, and any new information is critical for fleshing out the nature and effects of decriminalization.

Data from the European Monitoring Center for Drugs and Drug Addiction, reported recently by the Washington Post, does just that. According to the center's 2015 report, Portugal has the second-lowest drug overdose rate of every European country measured in the report. Finding Portugal in the chart below will require a bit of scrolling:

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Portugal's performance in perspective: Only three people for every million die of a drug overdose in Portugal, which puts one of the eurozone's poorest countries in a different league than rich international powerhouse Germany (17.6 per million) and in a different universe than social democratic utopia Sweden (69.7 per million).

The report includes the caveat that countries can vary in their ability to measure drug-induced deaths. It's possible some of those higher numbers among the richer countries are in part due to their superior research capabilities. But it's also likely that Portugal is an exception among Europe's less affluent countries since its decriminalization efforts have helped wear down the taboo associated with drug use and have been accompanied by a set of robust public health institutions devoted to monitoring the country's drug use.

Portugal's strikingly low overdose rates are in keeping with a trend that took hold in the country from the moment it decriminalized. The chart below via the Transform Drug Policy Foundation shows Portugal had a precipitous fall in overdoses after decriminalizing, and overdose rates remained low in the years after it bottomed out:

v9hm4uonc8e8cfuyig4e2lx1rnhij15nch7icl7fuen7c6guhuej0ivv4kiqq6nb.jpg?w=646&fit=max&auto=format&q=70
Transform Drug Policy Foundation

The latest numbers from the 2015 report confirm that overdoses remain at a rate that keeps Portugal well below the European average of 17.3 deaths per million.

So how did it all happen? The answer doesn't lie in decriminalization as much as what it liberates the state from. As Johann Hari notes in Chasing the Scream, a book on the international war on drugs that includes reporting from Portugal, "In the United States, 90% of the money spent on drug policy goes to policing and punishment, with 10% going to treatment and prevention. In Portugal, the ratio is the exact opposite."

Treating drug use as a disease: When Portugal decriminalized drugs, it handed drug control from the Justice Department to the Ministry of Health, a change that captures the seismic shift in the country's perception of drug use. Drug addiction was not to be considered a moral or legal problem but a health challenge. As João Goulão, the architect of Portugal's decriminalization model, told Hari, "using drugs is only a symptom of some suffering, and we have to reach the reasons." The Portuguese approach to ascertaining those reasons is the way a doctor tries to screen for disease.

The commissions that deal with individuals caught possessing drugs exist to make people's lives safer. Whether someone caught with drugs shows signs of addiction, they are provided with information on safe use — for example, they're advised to not use hard drugs on their own, in the case they have an adverse reaction or consume too much. If the person is showing signs of addiction, they're recommended to free medical services, ranging from clinics that help people achieve sobriety to methadone services that wean people off opioid addiction more slowly.

These offerings have created a public more educated on the dangers of drug use and more comfortable with admitting when it has a problem. And they're essential to explaining Portugal's success in conquering its addiction problems — including its overdose rate.


Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

February 9, 2016

Approaches to Decriminalizing Drug Use and Possession (English/Spanish)

Overview

One solution to reducing the number of people swept into the criminal justice system for drug law violations is to enact various forms of decriminalization of drug use and possession. Decriminalization is the removal of criminal penalties for drug law violations (usually possession for personal use). Roughly two dozen countries, and dozens of U.S. cities and states, have taken steps toward decriminalization. By decriminalizing possession and investing in treatment and harm reduction services, we can reduce the harms of drug misuse while improving public safety and health.

In practice, decriminalization means that otherwise law-abiding people are no longer arrested, let alone incarcerated, merely for possessing a drug.

Key Facts

Benefits of Decriminalization

Decriminalizing drug possession and investing in treatment and harm reduction services can provide major benefits for public safety and health, including:

Reducing the number of people arrested
Reducing the number of people incarcerated
Increasing uptake into drug treatment
Reducing criminal justice costs and redirecting resources from criminal justice to health systems
Redirecting law enforcement resources to prevent serious and violent crime
Diminishing unjust racial disparities in drug law enforcement and sentencing, incarceration and related health characteristics and outcomes;
Minimizing the social exclusion of people who use drugs, and creating a climate in which they are less fearful of seeking and accessing treatment, utilizing harm reduction services and receiving HIV/AIDS services
Improving relations between law enforcement and the community
Protecting people from the wide-ranging and debilitating consequences of a criminal conviction

Decriminalization Does Not Affect Drug Use Rates

Countries that have adopted less punitive policies toward drug possession have not experienced any significant increases in drug use, drug-related harm or crime relative to more punitive countries.
The National Research Council stated in 2015, that there is “little apparent relationship between severity of sanctions prescribed for drug use and prevalence or frequency of use.”

The Portuguese Decriminalization Model

In 2001, Portuguese legislators enacted a comprehensive form of decriminalization of low-level possession and consumption of all illicit drugs and reclassified these activities as administrative violations. Alongside decriminalization, Portugal significantly expanded its treatment and harm reduction services, including access to sterile syringes and methadone maintenance therapy.
After nearly a decade and a half, Portugal has experienced no major increases in drug use. Yet it has seen reduced rates of problematic and adolescent drug use, fewer people arrested and incarcerated for drugs, reduced incidence of HIV/AIDS, reduced druginduced deaths, and a significant increase in the number of people receiving treatment.
According to the United Nations, “Portugal’s policy has reportedly not led to an increase in drug tourism. It also appears that a number of drug-related problems have decreased.” Independent research concludes that “there is ample evidence of a successful reform.”

Recommendations

The Drug Policy Alliance supports eliminating federal and state criminal penalties and collateral sanctions for drug use and possession violations.

Administrative penalties – such as civil asset forfeiture, administrative detention, driver’s license suspension, excessive fines, and parental termination or child welfare interventions – run counter to the intent of a decriminalization policy and should not be imposed.

Countries or states that pursue decriminalization using threshold limits should set maximum-quantity thresholds that reflect the realities of drug consumption in their jurisdictions. If threshold limits are set too low, the policy may have no impact, or may increase the number or length of incarcerations.

Decriminalization policies should be accompanied by an expansion of harm reduction and treatment programs, including medication-assisted treatment. Local and state governments can take a step towards decriminalization by employing pre-arrest diversionary practices and adopting 911 Good Samaritan laws.


Approaches to Decriminalizing Drug Use & Possession PDF

Thuh NeksT DokkyuumenT Wuhz Ohridjinnullee Fruhm:

Thuh NeksT DokkyuumenT Iz AT:

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SaTiva In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz SuhTeevuh

marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-BEC2T4.jpg
Frum: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-26081220.html

See:

Marijuana Indica iz thuh SanskriT Simp Lang Bhang

Bhang Pronunciation
(US) IPA: /bæŋ/

Etimolluhjee bhang (n.)

"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
Sum Incica Bud Haz Noh CBDz

Fruhm: https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/the-difference-between-indica-and-sativa-marijuana
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Included page "ruderalis" does not exist (create it now)

See:

Iz Mehrihwahnuh Smohk ohvrdohss lethal???

NexT TexT Fruhm: Here's how much marijuana it would take to kill you

"With more people lighting up than ever…it's important to remember how many fatally overdose on the drug:

"Zero. That's according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which collects data on a range of other substances, both legal and illicit, and the Drug Enforcement Administration…

"It's pretty impossible to ingest a lethal dose of marijuana...

"Cannabinoid receptors are not found in the brainstem areas that control breathing. Thus, 'lethal overdoses from cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur,' The National Cancer Institute explains…

"[W]hile there are no recorded cases of deaths from marijuana overdose, one bong rip too many can make users feel incredibly uncomfortable. Their heart starts to race, hands tremble, and anxiety strikes. There are things they can do to mitigate a 'What I have done?' high…

"Drink some water to stay hydrated and eat a snack — preferably one that is ready-to-eat and does not require operating a stove — to boost your blood sugar…"

See: Human Essential Nutrition

"…The good news is, as reported in The British Journal of Psychiatry, cannabis is safe in overdose. In other words, it is physically impossible for a human to die as a direct result of a cannabis overdose. Having said that, this guide will be helpful to medical marijuana patients who find themselves smoking or ingesting too much of their favorite plant…What are the signs and symptoms of a cannabis overdose?…"
* Fruhm: https://www.medicaljane.com/2015/11/05/can-you-overdose-on-marijuana-survival-tips-for-greening-out/


Tohk


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Ohnlee Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz Tuu OfT KahLd Smohk.


NeksT Iz Pruuf ThaT Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drug CookT Tu A Vizzibbul Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


Wuhn Kynd Uhv Vaypr Iz Vizzibbul Smohk Gass.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


See Ahlsoh:


Thuh Payj Naymd " LeeThul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz "


LeeThul Druhg Kombinnaeeshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd ( MuLTy+Drugz Kuhnsuhmpshuhn = Kuhnsuumeeng Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

See:



Ohpeeoeed mikschrz that sumtymz koz deth

Table of Contents


methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth.

Methadone by itself is an opiate which causes depression of central nervous system. Methadone is a pharmacological that reduces the opiate craving as well as lessens withdrawal symptoms and if it coupled with counseling, enables to reach tolerance threshold although prevents from drowsiness and euphoria. Appropriate and safe daily dosage ranges from 20 to 30 mg in initial stages and average 60 to 100 mg at latter stages. Because of its long half-life of 24 to 36 hours, between 4 to 10 days is required to achieve a stable maintenance dosage (52–53). Several studies on methadone maintenance therapy have demonstrated conditions in which mortalities happened. Based on a cross sectional study most of the 238 patients who died in between 1990-1995 were drug users and suffered from medical illnesses. Almost 21% of the mortalities occurred in the first week of methadone treatment and 88% of these patients were polysubstance abusers... Related to the first week of MMT…Only around 10% of deaths…tested positive for methadone alone. In another study was reported 62 (71%) patients were involved illicit drug consumption from all 87 MMT patients ‘death. According to these studies, overdose during methadone maintenance therapy is related to polydrug use (54–56).
- Frum: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411899/


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth ".



Opiates and Amphetamines Mixing Dangers

Thuh Nekst Teskt Wuhz Fruhm:

Is There an Increased Risk for Overdose if You Mix Opioids with Amphetamines?

Written by: Editorial Staff…

Issues with Mixing Amphetamines and Opiates

In many circles, the combination of an opiate drug and a central nervous system stimulant is referred to as a setup or even a speedball, though this term most often applies to combinations of cocaine and heroin or cocaine and morphine. According to sources, such as the textbook Concepts of Chemical Dependencyand the three-book series Neuropathology of Addictions and Substance Misuse, combining stimulants and depressants can lead to serious risks.

If either of the drugs is being used for medical reasons, combining central nervous system stimulants and central nervous system depressants reduces the effectiveness of the medicinal purposes of one or both drugs.

This combination leads to an increased risk for overdose. The effects of the stimulant medication counteract the effects of the opiate medication. Individuals may believe they have a much higher tolerance for the opiate drug than they actually have, and they may take excessive amounts of the opiate. Stimulant drugs are typically metabolized quickly in comparison to central nervous system depressant drugs like opiates, and a person using both of these drugs may wind up with dangerous levels of the opiate drug in their system. This can lead to toxic effects or an overdose, which can be fatal.

The opposite situation is also possible, where the individual ingests more stimulant medication that they can tolerate due to the countering of the stimulant effects by the opiate drug. This can lead to the potential for overdose or toxic effects associated with the stimulant drug. Amphetamine overdose can also be fatal; however, the more common complication is overdosing on the opiate drug.

Combining drugs that have opposite mechanisms of action and opposite effects can lead to an increased potential for side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions.

Combining opiates and amphetamines can lead to an increased risk for heart attack or stroke.

Mixing these substances leads to an increased burden on the liver. Over time, this can lead to serious liver damage.

Individuals who combine these drugs orally run the risk of developing issues with the gastrointestinal system, such as ulcers or abscesses.

The effects of these drugs lead to significant alterations in cognitive capacities. This contributes to an increased potential for accidents due to poor judgment or engaging in risky behaviors that an individual would not normally attempt.

There is an increased risk for an individual to experience seizures when amphetamines are combined with opiates. Seizures can be potentially fatal.

There is increased risk for an individual to experience psychosis, which consists of having hallucinations and/or delusions. Psychotic individuals are a danger to themselves and others.

Other psychiatric effects can occur as a result of this combination, including mania, depression, anxiety, extreme mood swings, and even potential suicidality.

Chronic use of opiates and amphetamines in combination can lead to the development of significant tolerance to one or both of these drugs. This can result in the person needing more of one or both drugs to get the same effects that they previously experienced at lower amounts. Developing tolerance to drugs increases overdose risk.



If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death

…The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is

* because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants

__**Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs,

  • which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide.

In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.**__..


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid and Benzodiazepine Use and Risk of Opioid-Related Overdose

* in Medicare Part D Beneficiaries

Inmaculada Hernandez, PharmD, PhD1; Meiqi He, MS1; Maria M. Brooks, PhD2; et al

JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(2):e180919. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0919

Key Points

Question: How does the risk of overdose change with the number of days with concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use?

Findings: In this cohort study of US Medicare data, the overdose risk associated with concurrent benzodiazepine use changed over time. Concurrent benzodiazepine use was associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose during the initial 90 days and an increase of 1.87 times on days 91 to 180.

Meaning: Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.

Results: Of 71 248 total participants, 25 600 (35.9%) were male and 59 532 (83.6%) were white. Mean (SD) age was 66.5 (14.8) years. On the day before overdose or censoring event, 20 665 of 71 248 patients with an opioid prescription (29.0%) were concurrently using benzodiazepines and 14 132 of 20 665 concurrent users (68.4%) had more than 180 days of overlapping supplies of both medications. The risk of overdose was highest on the first days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and decreased over time; compared with opioid use alone, the hazard ratio for overdose was 5.05 (95% CI, 3.68-6.93) during the first 90 days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.80) for days 91 to 180 among those who did not have an event before 90 days.

Conclusions and Relevance: During the first 90 days, concurrent benzodiazepine use is associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose. The implementation of policies deterring concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use is warranted. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research, reviews, and editorials covering all aspects of biomedicine. The journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death Fivefold

A number of studies have already highlighted the deadly risk you take when combining opioids with Benzodiazepines. Most recently, research published in JAMA ( See: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2685628 Key PoinTs KwohTed Uhbuhv ) looked at how the risk of overdose changes when you combine the two drugs for a number of days in a row.

As it turns out, during the first 90 days of concurrent use [ uhv Opioid-Benzodiazepine combo ], your risk of a deathly overdose rises fivefold, compared to taking an opioid alone. Between days 91 and 180, the risk remains nearly doubled, after which the risk tapers off, becoming roughly equal to taking an opioid alone. According to the authors:

"Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use."

The study also found that the greater number of clinicians were involved in a patient's care, the greater the risk of overdose — a finding that highlights the lack of communication between doctors prescribing medication to the same patient, and the clear danger thereof. As noted by senior study author Yuting Zhang, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, "These findings demonstrate that fragmented care plays a role in the inappropriate use of opioids."

Other Studies Confirm Extreme Risk of Opioid-benzodiazepine Mix

Other studies have come to similar conclusions. A 2013 study found the combination of opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common drug combination in cases where an overdose death involved two or more drugs.16 According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, more than 30 percent of opioid overdoses involve concurrent use of benzodiazepines.17

Remarkably, another 2013 study18 discovered "substantial co-use" of opioids and benzodiazepines among pregnant women that led to death, which is doubly tragic. As reported in a third study that year, which stressed the importance of urine drug testing whenever patients are prescribed an opioid, to ensure their safety:19

"[C]oadministration of [ opioids and benzodiazepines ] produces a defined increase in rates of adverse events, overdose and death, warranting close monitoring and consideration when treating patients with pain. To improve patient outcomes, ongoing screening for aberrant behavior, monitoring of treatment compliance, documentation of medical necessity, and the adjustment of treatment to clinical changes are essential."

A study published in 2017 found the ratio of patients, aged 18 to 64, who used opioids and benzodiazepines concurrently rose from 9 percent in 2001 to 17 percent in 2013, a relative increase of 80 percent. Not surprisingly, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines for at least one day doubled the odds of an opioid overdose compared to taking just opioids.

Why Opioid-benzodiazepine Combination Is so Deadly

In 2014, Ohio ended up using an opioid/benzodiazepine mix in a death row execution when the conventionally used drugs were unobtainable.21 That just goes to show this drug combination has an assured lethality at the "right" dosage. The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants.

Your CNS, which includes your brain and spinal cord, coordinates and regulates the activity of automatic functions such as breathing. Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs, which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide. In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.

Like opioids, benzodiazepines are not intended for long-term use, yet many chronic pain patients end up staying on them for years, and may even take them with opioids for long periods of time. As noted by Dr. Len Paulozzi, medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, benzodiazepines "are prominent fellow travelers with opioids. The problem is, people get on them and they stay on them …"


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh

National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine

DeThs-Fruhm-Opioid_And_%20Cocaine-1999-Tu-2017.jpg
Thuh Uhbuhv Immaj And Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:
* https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

Figure 7. National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine, by Opioid Involvement–Number Among All Ages, 1999-2017. The figure above is a bar and line graph showing the total number of U.S. overdose deaths involving cocaine from 1999 to 2017. Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine rose from 3,822 in 1999 to 13,942 in 2017. The bars are overlaid by lines showing the number of deaths involving cocaine and any opioid, cocaine without any opioid, and cocaine and other synthetic narcotics. The number of deaths in combination with any opioid has been increasing steadily since 2014 and is mainly driven by deaths involving cocaine in combination with other synthetic narcotics (Source: CDC WONDER).

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh ".



See AhLsoh: Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz



Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Cocaine with Alcohol

Cocaine on its own can negatively impact your cardiovascular health, leading to dangerously elevated heart rate, vasospasm, and a spike in blood pressure. When you drink alcohol while using cocaine, the cardiovascular impact is compounded, and may hasten the onset of long-term cardiac disease such as cardiomyopathy, pathological arrhythmias, and even myocardial infarction (heart attack).

The National Institute on Drug Abuse explains that combining cocaine and alcohol causes your body to create a chemical called cocaethylene, which can build up over years of time or cause sudden death, and is more dangerous than either cocaine or alcohol on their own.

A 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network report discovered that the numbers of those who mix alcohol and cocaine is high, reporting that more than 150,000 emergency department visits were associated with concurrent alcohol and cocaine use.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Heroin and Cocaine

When heroin and cocaine are abused concurrently, this comorbid use is called “speed balling.”4 And while cocaine can decrease the uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction (one reason people mix these drugs),5 the combination greatly increases the odds of a fatal overdose [ deth ]. ( Sohrss: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine RehlehvanT Infoh KwohTed Beeloh )…

Heroin and cocaine cause many opposing effects in your body. Because of this, you might not realize you are overdosing on one of the drugs until it is too late.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Can a person overdose on cocaine?

Yes, a person can overdose on cocaine. An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of a drug to produce serious adverse effects, life-threatening symptoms, or death. An overdose can be intentional or unintentional…

Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences of overdose are irregular heart rhythm, heart attacks, seizures, and strokes. Other symptoms of cocaine overdose include difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, high body temperature, hallucinations, and extreme agitation or anxiety…

Death from overdose can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Many people who use cocaine also drink alcohol at the same time, which is particularly risky and can lead to overdose. Others mix cocaine with heroin, another dangerous—and deadly—combination.

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh ".



Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz ".


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Tohk ".


Smohkeeng Kan Koz AkkyuuT Koffeeng Then Kronnik BronkyTiss


Smohkeeng Iz EeThr:
1: Brneeng ( Wood Ohr An UhThr FlammabuL Rb PahrT ) Tu Smohk, Or
2: BreeTheeng ( In Then Out ) Smohk Frum A Kush Rb Such Az Tobacco Or [[[Mehrihwahnuh]].


  • Tohkeeng Kush Smohk Haz A High Risk Tu Koz loud rude devvil kof suhfreeng. ThaT Loudness Shood GeT KuhnsidraT-Lee KrTeeuhsLee Kuhvrd WiTh A CLoTh Kof MuhfLr, Lyk A KiTchen CLoTh Ohr PahrT Uhv A ShrT. ThaT Kof CloTh ShouLd Be PuT Neer In A Handy PLayss, Lyk RyT Undr THuh Hand That U Plan Tu HohLd Thuh Tohrch. Then Wen U STahrT Tu Brn Your Mehrihwahnuh Wood Tu Kush Smohk And STahrT Tu ( Tohk = DeeLibrayTLee BreeTh In Gaz WiTh Kemz ThaT Koz A SykuhTropik EefekT ), Thuh Kush Smohk, NohrmuLee In UhbowT 3 Sekuhnds, Thuh Rdj ThaT SignuLz Kof PuLss Iz FelT Thuh Soon Your Kof CloTh MyT Bee Handy Eenuf Tu Grab Then MuffLeen gThuh MohsT RrLee Kof Az PossibuL,KwikLee STahrT Tu (MuhfuL = Mayk KwyeTr ) Then AhL Following Kof Pulsez Az PossibuL WuhT MyT Have Ben Mohr Loud Sowndz.

"Non-tobacco smoking was associated with chronic cough (OR=1.73), chronic phlegm (OR=1.53) and wheeze.,.There was no significant difference in lung function measurements between marijuana-only smokers and non-smokers…Marijuana use was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms, coughing on most days, phlegm production, wheezing and chest sounds without a cold…"

Deskripshuhnz uhv wrd chronic

If you smoke a cigarette once, you've simply made a bad choice. But if you're a chronic smoker, you've been smoking for a long time and will have a hard time stopping.

The word chronic is used to describe things that occur over a long period of time and, in fact, comes from the Greek word for time, khronos. If you have chronic asthma, it is a recurring health issue for you. No one likes a chronic liar!

"If it gets to an advanced stage, chronic bronchitis can lead to a life-threatening illness. When the bronchial tubes and lungs become weak enough, it becomes more likely that you will experience respiratory failure, develop lung cancer or a heart or lung disease. You also have a heightened risk for pneumonia. About one percent of people with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease like chronic bronchitis die from their condition every year…

"Chronic bronchitis symptoms include mucus, cough, wheezing and inflammation or irritation of the lining of bronchial tubes. You may also have chills and fever with chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a common cause, but not the only cause. Air pollution may also be a cause. When bronchitis symptoms last a long time, the condition is serious.

Antibiotics, inhalers, and cough medicines are all used to help treat chronic bronchitis. Sometimes a course of respiratory therapy is also used."


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Smohkeeng Kan Koz AkkyuuT Koffeeng Then Kronnik BronkyTiss ".


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Are Weed Hangovers Real? 5 Signs You've Had One

By Elizabeth Enochs

Oct 14 2015

If you've ever been hungover from drinking, then you already know that the miserable side effects caused by one, fantastic night of boozy indulgence can really mess with your mood, well-being, and productivity the entire next day. (Personally, I can't recall a single occasion in which I got drunk and then didn't wake up at least a little bit off the next day.) But have you ever had a weed hangover? Because, evidently, weed hangovers are a real thing, too.

As you can imagine, the research on marijuana hangovers isn't exactly substantial, but according to a 1985 study performed by the National Institute of Health on 13 male, marijuana smokers, some people really do exhibit symptoms of a weed hangover the morning following a serious smoking session.

I don't know about you, but any symptoms I've ever experienced the morning after over-indulging in marijuana have always been so bearable, and relatively easy to treat, that I didn't even think they were serious enough to be considered the symptoms of a weed hangover. After researching for this article, though, I'm beginning to think that weed hangovers may be real — they're just so easy to handle (especially compared to alcohol-induced hangovers) that most stoners don't usually mind them that much.

So whether you're wondering if you've ever had a weed hangover, you think you have a weed hangover right now, or you're hoping to avoid one in the future, read on. Here are five symptoms of a weed hangover, and what you can do to make yourself feel better if you ever experience one.

1. Headaches

Why It Happens: Even one bong hit can cause dry mouth, (or, as it's more commonly referred to, "cotton mouth") so if you overdo it on weed, it makes sense that your body's going to be dehydrated the next day — and dehydration causes headaches.

What You Can Do: If you want to spare yourself from a weed-induced headache, there are steps you can take to do so. The next time you spend your Saturday night getting baked with friends, just be sure to avoid any super salty foods, and drink lots of water before, during, and after your marijuana adventures.

2. Brain Fog

Why It Happens: Marijuana can slow down your perception of time — and studies have shown that when used long-term, weed can also mess with your cognitive function and your short time memory. Also, dehydration messes with your memory and brain function, and smoking weed dehydrates you. So if you combine all these side effects together, you end up with what is not-so-affectionately referred to as "brain fog."

This symptom of a weed hangover is worsened by the fact that, if you stayed up late getting high and having fun, you probably had to sacrifice a few hours of sleep to do so. However, even after putting plenty of sleep between you and your high, your brain can still wake up feeling a bit sluggish if you got a little too enthusiastic with your bud the night before.

What You Can Do About It: Other than coffee, good food, and lots of water, the best cure for brain fog is to get out and exercise. So the next time you wake up with brain fog, go for a long walk or run, then cool down with some yoga, and take a hot (or cold) shower afterwards. It may not make your mental fogginess go away completely, but you'll definitely feel sharper and more alert.

3. Dehydration

Why It Happens: The THC in marijuana is a cannabinoid, and when that cannabinoid binds itself to the receptor of our submandibular glands (the glands in the floor of our mouths which are responsible for producing around 70 percent of our saliva) our mouths temporarily stop producing saliva. This leads to "cotton mouth," and it's also why waking up really, really dehydrated the morning after you get super high is a totally normal and unfortunate aspect of being "stoned-over."

What You Can Do About It: Luckily, dehydration is actually a pretty easy symptom to deal with. To rehydrate and recover, drink lots of water, (I really can't stress this enough) and chow down on water-rich fruits and veggies throughout your day.

4. Dry Eyes

Why It Happens: Again, too much weed will dry you out, (especially if you don't hydrate properly during your festivities) and it will keep you dried out long after your high has worn off. Weed-induced dehydration affects nearly every part of you, and that includes your peepers.

What You Can Do: Hydrate, stay away from fast food, and buy yourself some soothing, rewetting drops to combat any eye discomfort you feel the morning after a weed-binge.

5. Fatigue

Why It Happens: Although weed may help you fall asleep way faster than you normally would, and lots of stoners actually use cannabis to ease their insomnia, some studies have shown that smoking marijuana can lead to poor, restless, sleep. So, if you smoke before bed, it's possible that your high could be messing with the quality of your sleep — and ultimately making you feel fatigued the day after you smoke.

What You Can Do About It: Naturally, the best way to remedy this hangover symptom is by getting lots of sleep — but if that's not an option for you due to work or social obligations, then all you can really do is try to treat your body well throughout the day. Drink coffee and water, eat healthy meals, go for a long walk, and consider taking the day off from weed — or just smoke with caution, and try to refrain from over-indulging too often in the future.


Marijuana Withdrawal: Symptoms and Causes and Management and prevention

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What to Expect from Marijuana Withdrawal: Symptoms of withdrawal

Symptoms of marijuana withdrawal include:

diminished appetite
mood changes
irritability
sleep difficulties, including insomnia
headaches
loss of focus
cravings for marijuana
sweating, including cold sweats
chills
increased feelings of depression
stomach problems

These symptoms can range from mild to more severe, and they vary from person to person. These symptoms may not be severe or dangerous, but they can be unpleasant. The longer you used marijuana, the more likely you are to experience withdrawal symptoms.

Causes [ Uhv Mehrihwahnuh WiThdrawal ]

Marijuana withdrawal symptoms may not be as severe as withdrawal symptoms from other substances. Opioids, alcohol, cocaine, and heroin can produce severe, even dangerous, withdrawal issues. Still, many people who stop using marijuana do experience physical and psychological symptoms.

That’s because your body has to adjust to not having a regular supply of delta-9 tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). THC is the primary psychoactive ingredient in marijuana. When you regularly smoke marijuana, your brain develops a tolerance for it.

The more you smoke, the more your brain depends on this supply of THC. When you stop, your brain has to adjust to not having it. As your body becomes accustomed to this new normal, you may experience unpleasant symptoms. These are symptoms of withdrawal. In some cases, these symptoms can be so troublesome people choose to begin smoking again to get a reprieve.

Management and prevention…

If you smoked regularly and often, tapering off and slowly reducing your marijuana use may help you ease into a marijuana-free life. If you only smoked occasionally, you may be able to stop entirely without any step-down.

When you’re ready to quit [ or for any other reason you need to cope with a Marijuana Withdrawal ], take these self-help steps to make the initial withdrawal period of 24 to 72 hours easier.

Stay hydrated. Drink lots of water and avoid sugary, caffeinated beverages like soda.
Eat healthy foods. Fuel your body with a generous supply of fresh fruit, vegetables, and lean protein. Avoid junk food, which can make you feel sluggish and irritable.
Exercise every day. Squeeze in at least 30 minutes of exercise each day. This provides a natural mood boost, and it can help remove toxins as you sweat.
Find support. Surround yourself with friends, family members, and others who can help you through any withdrawal symptoms you may experience.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Marijuana and Cannabinoids

People have used marijuana, also called cannabis, for a variety of health conditions for at least 3,000 years. More recently, individual components of marijuana or similar synthetic substances have also been used for health purposes. These substances are called cannabinoids.


Kannuhbinnoeed


Kannuhbinnoeed Izm


Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Etymology

( cannabis +‎ -n- +‎ -oid )


Thuss Wrd Kannuhbinnoeed If Brohk UhpahrT Duz SpliT Tu: Kannuhbin + Oeed.


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Kannuhbinnoeedz



Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".



Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."



THC Vrsuhs CBD

Fruhm: CBD vs. THC: Medical benefits

CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However, CBD doesn’t cause the euphoric effects that occur with THC. Some people may prefer to use CBD because of the lack of this side effect.

In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Epidiolex, the first prescription medication to contain CBD. It’s used to treat rare, difficult-to-control forms of epilepsy.

CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:

seizures
inflammation
pain
psychosis or mental disorders
inflammatory bowel disease
nausea
migraines
depression
anxiety
THC is used to help with conditions such as:

pain
muscle spasticity
glaucoma
insomnia
low appetite
nausea
anxiety



Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".


Uhnanduhmyd Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr

  • Wrd Speld Anandamide
    • Wich Wen Sownded OwT GeTs EenuhnseeaeeTed Az Ay nan day my deh.

Uhnanduhmyd MoLLekeewL Az STrukchr And Fohrmeewluh

Uhnanduhmyd-Kannuhbinnoeed-MoLLekeewL-Az-STrukchr-And-Fohrmeewluh.jpg
Pikchr Sayvd Fruhm Payj AT: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/anandamide-endocannabinoid-chemical-molecular-structure-signaling-556944526

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Anandamide is a ( neurotransmitter = Nrv Kom Groop Kem ) produced in the brain that binds to the Kannabinnoeed ReesepTrz. It’s been called the “bliss molecule,” aptly named after ananda, the Sanskrit word for “joy, bliss, or happiness.” It is considered an endocannabinoid — a substance produced in the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Eventually, anandamide was found to do a lot more than produce a state of heightened happiness. It’s synthesized in areas of the brain that are important in memory, motivation, higher thought processes, and movement control. It plays an important role in pain, appetite, and fertility. It also helps put the brakes on cancer cell proliferation.

By increasing neurogenesis — the formation of new nerve cells — anandamide exhibits both anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body which is why it doesn’t produce a perpetual state of bliss.

Tu Lrn Mohr Uhbout Thuh Kynd Uhv Websyt Thiss Info Iz Fruhm, See https://reset.me/about/


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kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed izm


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed 2 Baeesik Kyndz Pikchr Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Biosynthetic pathway resulting in production of cannabinoid acids.
Kannuhbinnoeed_2_Baeesik_Kyndz.jpg

Thuh Pikchr Uhbuhv Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm Thuh InTrneT Paydj AT:


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


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Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
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Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Included page "fytohkannuhbinnoeedz" does not exist (create it now)

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz )

Thuh Next Teksts Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


See Also: Marijuana And The Bible


RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss

BaysT On: RTh SihTihZen RyTs Uhv Thuh RTh KonsTiTTuushuhn

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

KuhnkLoozhuhn:

Eech ( Nashuhnul And MeeewnissipuL And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " RekreeaeeshuhnuL Drug Ohnrz KonsTiTTooshuhnuL RyTss ".


Marijuana And The Bible

Marijuana in FuneTik Inglish iz Mehrihwahnuh or Kannuh bud

MARIJUANA AND THE BIBLE by The Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church

OFFERINGS OF DEVOTION…

Herb (marijuana) is a Godly creation from the beginning of the world. It is known as the weed of wisdom, angel's food, the tree of life and even the "Wick[an] Old Ganja Tree". [Gan=Garden] Its purpose in creation is as a fiery sacrifice to be offered to our (God) during obLigations…. Ganja ((gan=garden) uv (Jah<-Yah<-Ea) is the sacramental rights of every man worldwide and any law against it is only the organized conspiracy of the United Nations and the political governments who assist in maintaining this conspiracy.

The Coptic Church is not politically originated, and this was firmly expressed when we met with the political directorate of the land during the period of pre-incorporation…

Walter Wells — Elder Priest of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church of Jamaica, West Indies (— Kohrekted and Lengkyzd by FrstUrantianOmneeonist)

THE USE OF MARIJUANA IN ANCIENT TIMES

The use of marijuana is as old as the history of man and dates to the prehistoric period. Marijuana is closely connected with the history and development of some of the oldest nations on earth.

It has played a significant role in the religions and cultures of Africa, the Middle East, India, and China. Richard E. Schultes, a prominent researcher in the field of psychoactive plants, said in an article he wrote entitled "Man and Marijuana":

"…that early man experimented with all plant materials that he could chew and could not have avoided discovering the properties of cannabis (marijuana), for in his quest for seeds and oil, he certainly ate the sticky tops of the plant. Upon eating (Kannuh bud) the euphoric, ecstatic and hallucinatory aspects may have introduced man to an other-worldly plane from which emerged religious beliefs, perhaps even the concept of deity.

The plant became accepted as a special gift of the gods, a sacred medium for communion with the spiritual world and as such it has remained in some cultures to the present."

The effects of marijuana was proof to the ancients that the spirit and power of the god(s) existed in this plant and that it was literally a messenger (angel) or actually the Flesh and Blood and/or Bread of the god(s) and was and continues to be a holy (wholistic) sacrament. Considered to be sacred, marijuana has been used in religious worship from before recorded history.

According to William A. Embolden in his book Ritual Use of Cannabis Sativa L, p. 235:

"Shamanistic traditions of great antiquity in Asia and the Near East has as one of their most important elements the attempt to find God without a vale of tears; that cannabis played a role in this, at least in some areas, is born out in the philology surrounding the ritualistic use of the plant. Whereas Western religious traditions generally stress sin, repentance, and mortification of the flesh, certain older non-Western religious cults seem to have employed Cannabis as a euphoriant, which allowed the participant a joyous path to the Ultimate; hence such appellations as "heavenly guide".

According to "Licit and Illicit Drugs" by the Consumer Union, page 397-398:

"Ashurbanipal lived about 650 B.C., but the cuneiform descriptions of marijuana in his library "are generally regarded as obvious copies of much older texts." Says Dr. Robert P. Walton, an American physician and authority on marijuana, "This evidence serves to project the origin of hashish back to the earliest beginnings of history."

THE USE OF MARIJUANA AS INCENSE
According to the Encyclopedia Britannica: "Pharmacological Cults"

"…the ceremonial use of incense in contemporary ritual is most likely a relic of the time when the psychoactive properties of incense brought the ancient worshipper in touch with supernatural forces."

In the temples of the ancient world, the main sacrifice was the inhalation of incense. Incense is defined as the perfume or smoke from spices and gums when burned in celebrating religious rites or as an offering to a deity. Bronze and gold incense burners were cast very early in history and their forms were often inspired by cosmological themes representing the harmonious nature of the universe.

The following piece was taken from "Licit and Illicit Drugs", page 31.

"In the Judaic world, the vapors from burnt spices and aromatic gums were considered part of the pleasurable act of worship. In proverbs (27:9) it is said that 'Ointment and perfumes rejoice the heart.' Perfumes were widely used in Egyptian worship. Stone altars have been unearthed in Babylon and Palestine, which have been used for burning incense made of aromatic wood and spices. While the casual readers today may interpret such practices as mere satisfaction of the desire for pleasant odors, this is almost certainly an error; in many or most cases, a psychoactive drug was being inhaled. In the islands of the Mediterranean 2,500 years ago and in Africa hundreds of years ago, for example leaves and flowers of a particular plant were often thrown upon bonfires and the smoke inhaled; the plant was marijuana."

(Edward Preble and Gabriel V. Laurey, Plastic Cement: The Ten Cent Hallucinogen, International Journal of the Addictions, 2 (Fall 2967): 271-272.

"The earliest civilizations of Mesopotamia brewed intoxicating beer of barley more than 5,000 years ago; is it too much to assume that even earlier cultures experienced euphoria, accidentally or deliberately, through inhalation of the resinous smoke of Cannabis?"

(Ritual Use of Cannabis Sativa L, p. 216.)

"It is said that the Assyrians used hemp (marijuana) as incense in the seventh or eighth century before Christ and called it 'Qunubu', a term apparently borrowed from an old East Iranian word 'Konaba', the same as the Scythian name 'cannabis'." (Plants of the Gods - Origin of Hallucinogenic Use by Richard E. Schultes and Albert Hoffman)

"It is recorded that the Chinese Taoist recommended the addition of cannabis to their incense burners in the 1st century as a means of achieving immortality."

(Marijuana, the First Twelve Thousand Years by Earnest Abel, page 5)

"There is a classic Greek term, cannabeizein, which means to smoke cannabis. Cannabeizein frequently took the form of inhaling vapors from an incense burner in which these resins were mixed with other resins, such as myrrh, balsam, frankincense, and perfumes." (Ritual Use of Cannabis Sativa L)

"Herodotus in the fifth century B.C. observed the Scythians throwing hemp on heated stone to create smoke and observed them inhaling this smoke. Although he does not identify them, Herodotus states that when they "have parties and sit around a fire, they throw some of it into the flames. As it burns, it smokes like incense, and the smell of it makes them drunk, just as wine does us. As more fruit is thrown on, they get more and more intoxicated until finally they jump up and start dancing and singing." (Herodotus, Histories 1.202.)

EVIDENCE INDICATING THE SEMITIC ORIGIN OF CANNABIS
The name cannabis is generally thought to be of Scythian origin. Sula Benet in Cannabis and Culture argues that it has a much earlier origin in Semitic languages like Hebrew, occurring several times in the Old Testament. He states that in Exodus 30:23 that God (Elohim) commands Moses to make a holy anointing oil of myrrh, sweet cinnamon, kaneh bosm, and kassia. He continues that the word kaneh bosm is also rendered in the traditional Hebrew as kannabos or kannabus (Funetik Inglish: "Kannah bud") and that the root "kan" in this construction means "reed" or "hemp", while "bosm" means "aromatic". He states that in the earliest Greek translations of the old testament "kan" was rendered as "reed", leading to such erroneous English translations as "sweet calamus" (Exodus 30:23), sweet cane (Isaiah 43:24; Jeremiah 6:20) and "calamus" (Ezekiel 27:19; Song of Songs 4:14).

Benet argues from the linguistic evidence that cannabis was known in Old Testament times at least for its aromatic properties and that the word for it passed from the Semitic language to the Scythians, i.e. the Ashkenaz of the Old Testament. Sara Benetowa of the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw is quoted in the Book of Grass as saying: "The astonishing resemblance between the Semitic 'kanbos' and the Scythian 'cannabis' leads me to suppose that the Scythian word was of Semitic origin. These etymological discussions run parallel to arguments drawn from history.

The Iranian Scythians were probably related to the Medes, who were neighbors of the semites and could easily have assimilated the word for hemp. The Semites could also have spread the word during their migrations through Asia Minor.

Taking into account the matriarchal element of Semitic culture, one is led to believe that Asia Minor was the original point of expansion for both the society based on the matriarchal circle and the mass use of hashish."

The Ancient Israelites were a Semitic people. Abraham, the father of the Israelite nation, came from Ur, a city of Babylonia located in mesopotamia. The Israelites migrated throughout Asia Minor and could easily have spread the religious use of marijuana.

THE ISRAELITE USE OF INCENSE
It was said that Moses, at the direction of Almighty God, first brought in the use of incense in public worship, and that the other nations of antiquity copied the practice from him. It was however a practice that began with Adam. The "Book of Jubilees", an Apocryphal book, (the Apocrypha was considered canonical by the early church and is to this day by the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church) states that "on the day when Adam went forth from the Garden of Eden, he offered as a sweet savour an offering of frankincense, galbanum, and stacte, and spices, in the morning with the rising of the sun, from the day when he covered his shame." And of Enoch we read that "he burnt the incense of the sanctuary, even sweet spices, acceptable before the Lord (http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/YaHWeHElohim.htm YaHWeH), on the Mount."

Incense was assigned miraculous powers by the Israelites. It was burned in golden bowls or cauldrons placed on or beside the altar. It was also burned in hand-held censers. In the Blessing of Moses, a poem belonging to the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and written about 760 B.C., the sacrificial smoke is offered to the God (Elohim) of Israel.

Let them teach Jacob thy judgments, and Israel thy law; Let them offer sacrificial smoke to thy nostrils, and whole burnt sacrifice upon thy altar.

Throughout the Bible the ancient patriarchs were brought into communion with God (Elohim) through smoking incense and at Mt. Sinai God (a Fire Elemental) talked to Moses out of a bush that burned with fire (Exodus 3:1- 12). After Moses brought the Israelite people out of Egypt he returned to Mt. Sinai at which time God (Elohim) made a covenant with Moses in which the Ten Commandments were revealed. Exodus 19:8 describes the conditions at the time of this covenant.

Exodus 19:8 "And Mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the Lord (http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/yahwehelohim.htm) descended upon it in fire: and the smoke thereof ascended as smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.

The Mysterious smoke mentioned in the covenant on Mt. Sinai is also referred to as a cloud. Exodus 24:15 "And Moses went up into the mount, and a cloud covered the mount. 16 And the glory of the Lord abode upon Mount Sinai, and the cloud covered it six days: and the seventh day he called unto Moses out of the midst of the cloud.

Scriptures make it abundantly clear that the clouds and the smoke are related to the burning of incense. Exodus 40:26 describes Moses burning incense, a cloud covering the tent of the congregation and the glory of the Lord filling the tabernacle.

Leviticus 16:2-13 describes how God appeared in a cloud and refers to it as the clouds of incense. Numbers 16:17-19 describes how every man of the congregation had a censer full of burning incense and that the glory of the Lord (http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/yahwehelohim.htm) appeared unto all the congregation.

Isaiah 6:4 describes how Ezekial saw God (Elohim) in a smoke-filled inner court. Numbers 11:25 describes how God (Elohim) was revealed to Moses and the seventy elders in a cloud; that the spirit rested upon them and that they prophesied and ceased not.

The Book of Grass by Andrew and Vinkenoog includes a section on Ancient Scythia and Iran by Mircea Eliade, one of the foremost experts on the history of religions. On pages 11 and 12 is the following:

"On one document appears to indicate the existence of a Getic shamanism: It is Straho's account of the Myssian KAPNOBATAI, a name that has been translated, by analogy with Aristophanes' AEROBATES, as 'those who walk in clouds'; but it should be translated as 'those who walk in smoke'! Presumably the smoke is hemp smoke, a rudimentary means of ecstasy known to both the Tracians and the Scythians]]…"

This passage should be carefully noted. Biblical passages make it abundantly clear that the ancient Isrealites also walked in clouds and in smoke. In fact it was in the clouds of smoke that God was revealed to the ancient Isrealites. The words "smoke" and "smoking" appear fifty times in the King James Version of the Bible and two separate times the Bible says of the Lord (http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/yahwehelohim.htm), "There went up a smoke out of his nostrils." II Samuel 22:9, Psalms 18:8.

There are numerous other places in the Bible that mention the burning of incense, the mysterious cloud, and smoke. This common thread is found throughout the Bible, including the New Testament. St. Matthew 24:30 "And then shall appear the sign of the Son of Man in heaven: and then shall all the tribes of the Earth morn, and they shall see the Son of Man coming in the clouds of heaven, with power and great glory."

Revelations 1:7 "Behold, he cometh with clouds; and every eye shall see him, and they also which pierced him: and all the kindreds of the earth shall wail because of him. Even so, Amen."

Revelations 8:3 "And another angel came and stood at the altar, having a golden censer: and there was given unto him much incense, that he should offer it with the prayers of all saints upon the golden altar which was before the throne. 4 And the smoke of the incense, which came with the prayers of the saints, ascended up before God (Elohim) out of the Angel's hand."

Revelations 15:8 "And the temple was filled with smoke from the glory of God, and from his power."

THE SYMBOLISM OF FIRE IN THE ANCIENT WORLD
The word "fire" is mentioned several hundred times in the King James version of the Bible. The sacrifice of the Lord is made by fire (Exodus 29:18, 25; Leviticus 2:10-11; Leviticus 6:13; Numbers 28:6; Deuteronomy 4:33; Joshua 13:14; I Samuel 2:28; II Chronicles 2:4; Isaiah 24:15; Matthew 3:11; Luke 1:9; Revelations 8:4-5)

Abraham, the father of the Israelite nation, came from Ur which was a city of Ancient Sumer in South Babylonia. For the Babylonians, fire was essential to sacrifice and all oblations were conveyed to the gods by the fire god Girru-Nusku, whose presence as an intermediary between the gods and man was indispensable. Girru-Nusku, as the messenger of the gods, bore the essence of the offerings upward to them in the smoke of sacrificial fire.

At Babylon: "The glorious gods smell the incense, noble food of heaven; pure wine which no hand has touched do they enjoy." (L. Jeremias, in Encyclopedia Biblica, i.v. 4119, quoting Rawlinson, Cuneif. Inscrip. IV, 19 (59).)

The most important of the ancient Indian gods was Agni, the god of fire, who like the Babylonian god Girru-Nusku acted as a messenger between men and the gods. The fire (Agni) upon the altar was regarded as a messenger, their invoker.

"…For thou, O sage, goest wisely between these two creations like a friendly messenger between two hamlets."

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, the section on "mysticism":

"The Vedas (Hindu sacred writings) are hymns to the mystic fire and the inner sense of sacrifice, burning forever on the 'altar Mind'. Hence the abundance of solar and fire images: birds of fire, the fire of the sun, and the isles of fire. The symbol system of the world's religions and mysticisms are profound illuminations of the human-divine mystery. Be it the cave of the heart or the lotus of the heart, 'the dwelling place of that which is the Essence of the Universe, "the third eye", or the eye of wisdom' - the symbols all refer back to wisdom entering the aspiring soul on its way to progressive self-understanding. 'I saw the Lord with the Eye of the Heart. I said, "Who art thou?" and he answered, "Thou"'."

The ancient Indian mystics said, "…that in the ecstasy of bhang ([[[marijuana]]) the spark of the Eternal in man turns into light the murkiness of matter or illusion and the self is lost in the central soul fire. Raising man out of himself and above mean individual worries, bhang makes him one with the divine force of nature and the mystery 'I am he' grew plain. (Taken from the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission Report which was written at the turn of the twentieth century.)

The concept of spiritual or inner light was found throughout the ancient world. As we shall see that spiritual light was directly related to the burning of incense. According to Lucie Lamy in "Egyptian Mysteries", page 24: "The Pharaonic word for light is akh. This word, often translated as 'transfigured', designated transcendental light as well as all aspects of physical light; and in the funerary text it denotes the state of ultimate sublimation.

"The word akh, first of all, is written with a glyph showing a crested ibis, ibis comata. This bird - the name of which was also akh — lived in the southern part of the Arabian side of the Red Sea (near Al Qunfidhah) and migrated to Abyssinia (Ethiopia) during the winter. Both these places are near the regions from which sacred incense came, and were called the "Divine Land". The bird's crest, together with its dark green plumage shot with glittering metallic specks justifies the meanings 'to shine', 'to be resplendent', 'to irradiate'; of the root akh in the hieroglyphic writing. "Akh indeed expresses all notions of light, both literally and figuratively, from the Light which comes forth from Darkness to the transcendental light of transfiguration. It is also used to designate the 'third eye', the ureaeus, related in old tradition to the pineal body and to the spirit."

In the next chapter we will see that the sacred cloud of incense was instrumental in the transfiguration of Christ (anointed one). Note that Ethiopia was referred to as the "Divine Land" and that it was the source for the sacred incense. The ancients also referred to Ethiopia as the "Land of God".

The ancient Egyptians believed that they had received their divinities from Ethiopia and have always held to the ancient and honored tradition of their southern origin. Ethiopia is so important in ancient history that it is mentioned as being in the Garden of Eden (Genesis 2:12).

The ancient Greek historian Diodorus Siculus wrote: "The Ethiopians conceived themselves to be of greater antiquity than any other nation; and it is probable that, born under the sun's path, its warmth may have ripened them earlier than other men. They supposed themselves to be the inventors of worship, of festivals, of solemn assemblies, of sacrifice, and every religious practice."

MARIJUANA AS THE CHRISTIAN SACRAMENT
According to Jack Herer in The Emperor Wears No Clothes or Everything You Wanted to Know About Marijuana But Were Not Taught in School, "The Essenes, a kabalistic priest/prophet/healer sect of Judaism dating back to the era of the Dead Sea Scrolls, used hemp, as did the Theraputea of Egypt, from where we get the term 'therapeutic'."

The Theraputea of Egypt were Jewish ascetics that dwelt near Alexandria and described by Philo (1st century B.C.) as devoted to contemplation and meditation. Alexandria is where St. Mark is traditionally held to have established the Coptic Church in 45 A.D.

The Coptic Church has been neglected by Western scholars despite its historical significance. This has been due to the various biases and interest of the Catholic Church which claimed Christianity for its own. The result is that for the Coptic Church there is very little history. It is however assumed that the Coptic religious services have their roots in the earliest layers of Christian ritual in Jerusalem and it is known that the Coptic church is of ancient origin going back to the time of the first Christian communities and even before.

Tradition states that "Coptic" was derived from "Kuftaim", son of Mizraim, a grandchild of Noah who first settled in the Nile valley, i the neighborhood of Thebes, the ancient capital of Egypt.

At one time Thebes was the greatest city in the world and history records that by 2200 B.C. the whole of Egypt was united under a Theban prince. The splendor of Thebes was known to Homer, who called it "the city with a hundred gates". (Richard Schultes states that in ancient Thebes marijuana was made into a drink.)

According to E.A. Wallis Budge in The Divine Origin of the Herbalist, page 79, "The Copts, that is to say the Egyptians who accepted the teachings of St. Mark in the first century of our era, and embraced Christianity, seem to have eschewed medical science as taught by the physicians of the famous School of Medicine of Alexandria, and to have been content with the methods of healing employed by their ancestors."

The Essenes were an ascetic sect closely related to the Theraputea that had established a monastic order in the desert outside of Palestine and were known as spiritual healers. It has been suggested that both John the Baptist and Jesus may have been of the Essene sect as they were both heavily dependent on Essene teachings. The scripture makes no mention of the life of Jesus from the age of 13 to 30. Certain theologians speculate that Jesus was being initiated by the Essenes, the last fraternity to keep alive the ancient traditions of the prophets.

Every prophet, however great, must be initiated. His higher self must be awakened and made conscious so that his mission can be fulfilled. Amongst the Essenes' ritual lustrations preceded most liturgical rites, the most important one of which was participation in a sacred meal — an anticipation of the Messianic banquet.

Throughout the ancient world sacrifice was a sacramental communal meal involving the idea of the god as a participant in the meal or as identical with the food consumed. The communion sacrifice was one in which the deity indwells the oblation so that the worshippers actually consume the divine. The original motive of sacrifice was an effort toward communion among the members of a group, on one hand, and between them and their god, on the other.

At its best, sacrifice was a "sacrament" and in one form or another life itself.

The central focus of the early Christian church was the Eucharist or the "body and blood" of the Lord. This was interpreted as a fellowship meal with the resurrected Christ. In meeting the Resurrected One in the Eucharist meal the Christian community had the expectation of the Kingdom of God and salvation. Christ communicated life to his disciples through the Eucharist or Christian sacrament. Christ said in describing the sacrament, "Take, eat, this is my body, this is my blood. Do this as often as you will in remembrance of me." (I Corinthians 11:24- 25)

Baptism is defined as the Christian sacrament used in purification and the spiritual rebirth of the individual. I Corinthians 10:1 makes it clear that the smoking cloud of incense was directly related to baptism. I Corinthians 10:1 "Moreover, brethren, I would not that ye should be ignorant, how that our fathers were under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 2 And were all baptized unto Moses in the Cloud and in the sea; 3 And did all eat the same spiritual meat: for they drank of that Spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ.

In the Biblical story of Creation, God said, "Behold, I have given you every herb bearing seed and to you it will be for meat." (Genesis 1:29) Marijuana is technically an herb and was considered a spiritual meat in the ancient world.

From this passage in Corinthians we see that the spiritual cloud resulting from the burning of incense was instrumental in the baptism of the Israelites. This baptism is also compared to the "eating and drinking" of the spirit of Christ. Spirit is defined as the active essence of the Deity serving as an invisible and life-giving or inspiring power in motion.

Scripture makes it abundantly clear that the sacrificial cloud or smoke contained the Spirit of God (Christ) and was instrumental in inspiring, sanctifying, and purifying the patriarchs.

In Numbers 11:25 the cloud results in the Spirit resting upon Moses and the seventy elders. This passage indicates that they prophesied ecstatically. "Prophesy" is defined as follows: to utter or announce by or as if by divine inspiration; to speak for God or a deity; to give instruction in religious matters.

Throughout the Holy Bible prophets of God spake as they were moved by the Holy Spirit. The smoking burning cloud of incense contained the spirit and was instrumental in bringing about the spiritual revelations of the prophets. In the ancient world [[[marijuana]] was used to reveal the future. The virtues of marijuana include speech-giving and inspiration of mental powers. "Psychoactive" is defined as effecting the mind or behavior. When we of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church think of mind or behavior we think of that inward essence or element that makes up the individual. This is the person's spirit. We are all spiritual beings. It is just as important to keep the spiritual part of a person healthy as it is to keep the physical body healthy and in fact they are related. Hence marijuana and its relationship to spiritual food.

In the Apocrypha (Book of Jubilees), Chapter 10, God tells an angel to teach Noah the medicines which heal and protect from evil spirits. Surely God taught Noah about marijuana. In the ancient world marijuana played an important role in purification and protecting from evil influences.

Note the following concerning the transfiguration of Christ: St. Matthew 17:1 "And after six days Jesus taketh Peter, James, and John his brother, and bringeth them up into a high mountain apart. 2 And he was transfigured before them: and his face did shine as the sun, and his raiment was white as light. 3 And, behold, there appeared unto them Moses and Elias talking with him. 4 Then answered Peter, and said unto Jesus, Lord, it is good for us to be here: if thou wilt, let us make here three tabernacles; one for thee, one for Moses, and one for Elias. 5 When yet he spake, behold a bright cloud overshadowed them; and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him."

The Bible Dictionary by John McKenzie, page 898, says concerning the transfiguration that the cloud and the formula of the utterance of the Father are derived from the baptism of Jesus.

He says that the change described in the appearance of Jesus suggests the change which is implied in the resurrection narratives.

Some of the synonyms for transfiguration are transformation, metamorphosis, transubstantiation, and avatar. These terms imply the change that accompanies resurrection or deification. Across the world, legends of godlike men who manage to rise, in a state of perfection go back to an era before human beings had cast away from the divine source. Hence the gods were beings which once were men, and the actual race of men will in time become gods. Christ revealed this to the people of his day when he told them to whom the word of God came, "Ye are gods." (St. John 10:34)

St. Matthew 17:2 says that during the transfiguration of Christ that his face did shine as the sun. The face of Moses also shone when he returned from the cloud on Mt. Sinai (Exodus 30:34).

The shining countenances are the result of their resurrections, of their being spiritually illumined in the cloud of smoking incense. Most people are under the impression that Christ baptized with water. As you can see from the following account of John the Baptist this isn't so. John the Baptist baptized with water and Christ baptized with fire.

St. Matthew 3:11 "I indeed baptize you with water into repentance: but he that cometh after me is mightier than I, whose shoes I am not worthy to bear; he shall baptize you with the Holy Spirit and with fire."

It is only logical that this baptism with the Holy Spirit and with fire is related to the baptism of Christ in the burning, smoking cloud of incense and to the baptism of the patriarchs in which the patriarchs did all eat of the same spiritual meal (incense). In the section dealing with the "Holy Spirit" the Encyclopedia Britannica states that Christian writers have seen in various references to the Spirit of Yahweh in the Old Testament an anticipation of the doctrine of the Holy Spirit. It also says that the Holy Spirit is viewed as the main agent of man's restoration to his original natural state through communion in Christ's body and, thus, as the principle of life in the Christian community. The patriarchs were recipients of a revelation coming directly from the Spirit (incense) and this was expressed in the heightening and enlargement of their consciousness. It is clear from Scripture that this spiritual dimension was also evident in the life of Jesus, in whom the experience of the Hebrew prophets was renewed.

Through the Eucharist Christ passed this spiritual dimension on to his apostles. One of the apostles even makes mention in Philippians 4:18 of a sweet smelling sacrifice that is well pleasing to God.

Christ compares this baptism to the drinking of a cup. St. Mark 10:38 "But Jesus said unto them, Ye know not what ye ask: can ye drink of the cup that I drink of? and be baptized with the baptism that I am baptized with?"

This cup is referred to as the cup of salvation in Psalms 116:12.

Psalms 116:12 "What shall I render unto the Lord for all his benefits toward me? I will take the cup of salvation and call upon the name of the Lord (http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/yahwehelohim.htm).

It is called the cup of blessing in connection in connection with the eucharist.

1 Corinthians 10:16 "The cup of blessing which we bless, is it not the communion of the blood and the body of Christ? 17 For we being many are one bread, and one body; for we are all partakers of one bread. Here we see a connection between the cup of blessing and the communion of the blood of Christ. Blood is the life-giving substance of the living being. Christ communicated life to his disciples through the Eucharist or Christian sacrament.

In I Corinthians 10:16 we note the mention of bread as the communion of the body of Christ and that we are all partakers of one bread. This is the spiritual bread or food used by Christ and his disciples. (A synonym for the Eucharist or the Body and Blood of the Lord is the bread of life.) It is interesting to note that the finest marijuana in Jamaica is called Lamb's bread.

1 Corinthians 12:13 "For by one Spirit are we all baptized into one body, whether we be Jew or Gentiles, whether we be bond or free; and have all been made to drink into one Spirit.

1 Corinthians 11:25 "After the same manner also he took the cup, when he had supped, saying, This cup is the New Testament in my blood: this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me…

If these passages are compared to 1 Corinthians 10:1-4, it is plain that the "eating of one bread" is the same as the patriarchs "eating the same spiritual meat" and the "drinking of one Spirit" (the cup) is the same as the patriarchs "drinking of the Spiritual Rock that followed them: and that Rock was Christ." By making this comparison we see that the terminology of the Eucharist is directly related to the smoking cloud of incense used in the baptism of Christ and the patriarchs.

It is interesting to note that smoking was referred to as "eating" or "drinking" by the early American Indians. Peter J. Furst in Hallucinogen and Culture states the following: "Considering its enormous geographic spread in the Americas at the time of European discovery, as well as the probable age of stone tobacco pipes in California, the inhaling (often called "drinking" or "eating") of tobacco smoke by the Shaman, as a corollary to therapeutic fumigation and the feeding of the gods with smoke, must also be of considerable antiquity."

In Licit and Illicit Drugs, page 209, the following is quoted:

"Columbus and other early explorers who followed him were amazed to meet Indians who carried rolls of dried leaves that they set afire — and who then "drank the smoke" that emerged from the rolls. Other Indians carried pipes in which they burned the same leaves, and from which they similarly "drank the smoke".

The Encyclopedia Britannica states in the section on "Sacrifice" that the interpretation of sacrifice and particularly of the Eucharist as sacrifice has varied greatly within the different Christian traditions because of the sacrificial terminology in which the Eucharist was originally described became foreign to Christian thinkers.

We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church declare that the true understanding of the Eucharist has been passed down from generation to generation so that we are able to give an accurate interpretation of the sacrificial terminology used to describe the Eucharist. We have shown, using history and Biblical passages, that his terminology is directly related to burning smoking incense. We have shown that the "eating" or "drinking" contained in the terminology concerning the Eucharist is associated with the inhalation of smoke. We have shown that marijuana was used as incense and that it was the number one spiritual plant of the ancient world.

We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church declare that the cup that Christ baptized his disciples with in the baptism of the Holy Spirit and fire was in fact a pipe or chillum in which marijuana was smoked. This is a bottomless cup and soon as it is emptied, it is filled again and passed in a circle. There is a picture of this cup or pipe below, as well as on the cover. Like the pipe of the ancient North American Indians, this cup was a portable altar. Christ was the Father of the doctrine of the Eucharist which is the communion that Jesus gave his brethren. Jesus taught that the communion is his body and blood. Jesus was not speaking of His physical body and blood. He was speaking of His spiritual body and spiritual blood that was the communion of his holy church. The supper that Jesus celebrated with his disciples "on the night that he was betrayed" (1 Corinthians 11:23) inaugurated the heavenly meal that was to be continued.

1 Corinthians 11:23 "For I have received of the Lord that which also I delivered unto you, that the Lord Jesus the same night in which he was betrayed took bread: 24 And when he had given thanks, he brake it and said, Take, eat, this is my body, which is broken for you; this do in remembrance of me. 25 After the same manner also he took the cup, which he had supped, saying, This cup is the new testament in my blood; this do ye, as oft as ye drink it, in remembrance of me… 27 Wherefore whosoever shall eat of this bread, and drink of this cup of the Lord unworthily, shall be guilty of the body and blood of the Lord. 28 But let a man examine himself, and let him eat of the bread, and drink of that cup. 29 For he that eateth and drinketh unworthily, eateth and drinketh damnation to himself, not discerning the Lord's body.

Christ said, "Do this in remembrance of me." Here the original unity of man with God is restored. In general the reception of the Holy Spirit is connected with the actual realization, the inward experiencing of God. Marijuana has been referred to as a mild euphoric (the producer of a feeling of well-being) that produces a profound religious experience of a mystical and transcendental nature. This religious experience is said to be brought about by the stirring of deeply buried, unconscious sensitivities so that one experiences ultimate reality or the divine and confirms the feeling of the worshipper that he has been in the presence of God and has assimilated some of His powers.

To be lifted above sense to behold the beatific vision and become "incorporate" in God is the end sought in ecstasy. The priest or mystic in enthusiasm or ecstasy enjoys the beatific vision by entering into communion with God and by undergoing deification. The experience of ecstasy, states Mircea Eliade, one of the foremost authorities on religion, is a timeless primary phenomenon. Psychological experience of rapture, he continues, are fundamental to the human condition and hence known to the whole of archaic humanity. (Some of the synonyms of rapture are bliss, beatitude, transport, exaltation.)

Baudelaire, a member of the Club Des Hashichins (Hashish Club) founded in Paris around 1835 and writer of Artificial Paradises states the following about hashish: Hashish is the unadulterated resin from the flowering tops of the female hemp plant.

"One will find in hashish nothing miraculous, absolutely nothing but an exaggeration of the natural. The brain and organisms on which hashish operates will produce only the normal phenomena peculiar to that individual — increased, admittedly, in number and force, but always faithful to the original. A man will never escape from his destined physical and moral temperament: hashish will be a mirror of his impression and private thoughts - a magnifying mirror, it is true, but only a mirror.

He cautions that the user must be in the right frame of mind to take hashish, for just as it exaggerates the natural behavior of the individual, so too does hashish intensify the user's immediate feelings. Baudelaire describes three successive phases a hashish user will pass through. He says the final stage is marked by a feeling of calmness, in which time and space have no meaning, and there is a sense that one has transcended matter. He says that in this state, one final supreme thought breaks into consciousness. "I have become God."

Realization of one's union with God is necessary in understanding the true Christian sacrament. The understanding of man's relationship to God and God's relationship to man (God in Man and Man in God) was quite prevalent in the ancient world, particularly among the religions that utilized marijuana as part of their religious practice.

Said the great Hindu sage, Manu, "He who in his own soul perceives the Supreme Soul in all beings and acquires equanimity toward them all, attains the highest bliss." To recognize oneness of self with God was contained in all the teachings of Gautama Buddha. In the Liturgy of Mithra (the Persian god of light and truth) the suppliant prays "abide with me in my soul; leave me not," and "that I may be initiated and the Holy Spirit may breathe within me." The communion became so intimate as to pass into identity: "I am thou and thou art I." Athanasius, a theologian, ecclesiastical statesman, and Egyptian national leader who was closely tied to the Coptic Church in Egypt said, "Even we may become gods (Elohim: Chyldz uv http://hebrewdivinenames.webs.com/El.htm) walking in the flesh,"…

Western theology (Catholic and Protestant) teaches that the spirit created matter but remained aloof of it. In Hinduism and other Eastern religions, the spirit is the inside, the matter is the outside; the two are inseparable. Eastern theologians hive rightly perceived that the God one worships must posses all the aspects of his worshippers' nature as well as his own divine nature. Otherwise, how can he create beings whose nature is entirely foreign to his own? What, then, would be the meaning of the Biblical phrase: "God (Elohim) made man in his own image"?

The fact that modern Christendom has no sense of union with God has led to numerous churches without the understanding for building a Christian culture and kingdom to replace the confusion of modern politics. This lack of understanding was not lacking in the ancient church and was a major source of enthusiasm for the prophets of old. In fact, the power of the early church was manifested due to this understanding of the spirit of God dwelling in man, the temple of God. To the ancient prophets it was not a God above, nor a God over yonder, but a God within. "Be still and know that I am God" — for the visionaries and mystics of every time and place, this has been the first and greatest of the commandments.

In 1 Corinthians 11:28 Christ said, "Let a man examine himself, and so let him eat of the bread, and drink of the cup." Probably the most relevant study to date about what might be considered typical marijuana experience concludes that marijuana gives spontaneous insights into self (Dr. Charles Tart, "On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication", Science and Behavior, 1971).

The sacramentality of marijuana is declared by Christ himself and can be understood only when a person partakes of the natural divine herb. The fact is communion of Jesus cannot be disputed or be destroyed. Marijuana is the new wine divine and cannot be compared to the old wine, which is alcohol. Jesus rejected the old wine and glorified the "new wine" at the wedding feast of Cana.

Cana (Funetik Inglish: Kahnuh) is a linguistic derivation of the present day cannabis and so it is. (Some Biblical scholars — and there is a certain amount of support in early tradition of the view — have looked upon the miracle of Cana (= Kahnuh) - (Bud) as a sign of the Eucharist.)

Note the references to new wine in the Bible:

Isaiah 65:8 "Thus saith the Lord, As the new wine is found in the cluster, and one saith, Destroy it not; for a blessing is in it; so will I do for my servant's sake"

Acts 2:13 "Others mocking said, "These men are full of new wine."

Isaiah 65:8 declares that the new wine is found in the cluster and that a blessing is in it. When one mentions clusters, one thinks of clusters of grapes. Webster's New Riverside Dictionary, Office Edition, defines marijuana: 1. Hemp 2. The dried flower clusters and leaves of the hemp plant, esp. when taken to induce euphoria.

The Encyclopedia Britannica says the following about hemp:

Seed producing flowers form elongate, spike like clusters growing on the pistillate, or female plants; pollen producing flowers form many branched clusters or staminate, on male plants. Here and in Webster's, marijuana fits the description of the new wine and as history has shown a blessing is in it. Baudelaire said the following about the effects of hashish: "This marvelous experience often occurs as if it were the effect of superior and invisible power acting on the person from without…This delightful and singular state…gives no advance warning. It is as unexpected as a ghost, an intermittent haunting from which we must draw, if we are wise, the certainty of a better existence. This acuteness of thought, this enthusiasm of the senses and the spirit must have appeared to man through the ages as the first blessing."

In the books of Acts the apostles were accused of being full of new wine. Acts 2:13 was the time of pentecost when the Holy Spirit descended upon the apostles. Numerous outpourings of the Spirit are mentioned in the Acts of the apostles in which healing, prophesy, and the expelling of demons are particularly associated with the activity of the Spirit. Incense (marijuana) was used by the ancients for healing, prophesy, and the expelling of demons.

When Christ ascended into heaven in the cloud (Acts 1:9-11) he sent his disciples the Holy Spirit with the "gift of tongues (Funetik Inglish Simp Lang Langz)" (Acts 2:3) and there appeared unto them cloven tongues like as a fire, and it sat upon each of them, and they were filled with the Holy Spirit and were given the power to prophesy or witness.

(Marijuana has been credited with speech giving and inspiration of mental powers.)

The first two gifts of the Holy Spirit are traditionally said to be wisdom and understanding, which no doubt are the two things most needed by the human race. In Jamaica today marijuana is referred to as the "weed of wisdom" and is reputed to be the plant that grew on Solomon's grave, a man known for his great wisdom. Marijuana expands consciousness and enhances the capacity for mystical and creative inspiration.

In Acts 2:3 Fire speaks figuratively of the Holy Spirit. Fire was also a means which to transport a saint to heaven. 2 Kings 2:11 "And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, and parted asunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven."

Recent writers have speculated that this passage was in reference to flying saucers. That is because they look at this passage physically. This ascension of Elijah like the ascension of Christ in the cloud into heaven is the "withdrawal" from the external or physical world, to be the inmost reality of all. This can be referred to as ecstasy, rapture, or transport and is a result of the Holy Spirit. Ecstasy, rapture, or transport therefor agree in designating a feeling or state of intense, often extreme mental and emotional exaltation. Rapture is defined as ecstatic joy or delight; joyful ecstasy. Some of the synonyms of rapture are bliss, beatitude, transport, and exultation. The true rapture is therefore one in which one is spiritually transported to the heavens. Don't expect to float up into the sky.

Marijuana as history has shown is the catalyst used to achieve the spiritual journey into the heavens. That is why in India it was referred to as the Heavenly-Guide, the Poor Man's Heaven, and the Sky-flier. That is why Professor Mircea Eliade, perhaps the foremost authority on the history of religion, suggested that Zoroaster may have caused hemp to bridge the metaphysical gap between heaven and earth.

One dictionary defines marijuana as the leaves and flowering tops when taken to induce euphoria. Euphoria is defined by the same dictionary as great happiness or bliss. (In India, marijuana has been referred to as the joy-giver and the soother of grief.)

Bliss is defined as the ecstasy of salvation, spiritual joy. Some of the synonyms of bliss are beatitude, transport, rapture, ecstasy, paradise, heaven.

Throughout the ancient world there is mention of "magical flight", "ascent to heaven", and "mystical journey". All these mythological and folklore traditions have their point of departure in an ideology and technique of ecstasy that imply "journey in spirit".

The pilgrimage from earth to heaven is not a journey to some other place or some other time, but is a journey within. One must realize that "death" through which we must pass before God can be seen does not lie ahead of us in time. Rather it is now that we have a man of sin within us that must be killed and a new man free from sin that must be born. This is actualized in baptism and the sacramental life in the church. For as many of you as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ (Galatians 3:27). The effect of baptism is spiritual regeneration or rebirth, whereby one is "enChristened", involving both union with Christ and remission of sins. In Titus 3:5 baptism is the "bath of regeneration" accompanying renewal by the Spirit. Some of the synonyms of regeneration are beatification, conversion, sanctification, salvation, inspiration, bread of life, Body and Blood of Christ. Sara Benetowa of the Institute of Anthropological Sciences in Warsaw is quoted in the Book of Grass as saying:

"By comparing the old Slavic word 'Kepati' and the Russian 'Kupati' with the Scythian 'cannabis' Shrader developed and justified Meringer's supposition that there is a link between the Scythian baths and Russian vapor baths.

"In the entire Orient even today to 'go to the bath' means not only to accomplish an act of purification and enjoy a pleasure, but also to fulfill the divine law. Vambery calls 'bath' any club in which the members play checkers, drink coffee, and smoke hashish or tobacco."

St. Matthew's account of the institution of the Eucharist attaches to the Eucharist cup these words: "Drink of it, all of, for this is the blood of the covenant, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins (st. Matthew 26:27). Drinking the sacramental cup therefor serves like baptism (Acts 2:38) where Peter said unto them, "Repent, and be baptized everyone of you in the name of Jesus Christ for the remission of sins, and ye shall receive the gift of the Holy Spirit. We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church declare a three-part doctrine of the Holy Herb, the Holy Word, and the Holy Man (Woman).

The present and future benefits to the individual communicant have their importance given them by Jesus, who said, "He who eats my flesh and drinks my blood has eternal life, and I will raise them up at the last day." (John 6:54) As such we must see that the divine person who is active in creation, in renewal, and in human rebirth and resurrection, is also active in the Eucharist. There was a profound change in America when marijuana smoking started on a large scale in the late 1960's. A large number of people resisted the draft, resisted the war … started letting their hair and beards grow … became interested in natural foods… the ecology and the environment. What we really saw was the awakening of our generation to the beginning of Christian mentality through marijuana smoking. The earmarks of this mentality are: I don't want to go to war; I really don't want to be part of the political-military-economic fiasco you call society.

Like the Indians Hemp Drug Commission three quarters of a century earlier, the Canadian Le Dain Commission conducted an inquiry into the use of marijuana. On page 156 of the report is the following: "In the case of cannabis, the positive points which are claimed for it include the following: It is a relaxant; it is disinhibiting; it increases self-confidence and the feeling of creativity (whether justified by creative results or not); it increases sensual awareness and appreciation; it facilitates self acceptance and in this way makes it easier to accept others; it serves a sacramental function in promoting a sense of spiritual community among users; it is a shared pleasure…"

On page 144 of the Report, marijuana is associated with peace. "In our conversation with (students and young people) they have frequently contrasted marijuana and alcohol effects to describe the former as a drug of peace, a drug that reduces tendencies to aggression while suggesting that the latter drug produces hostile, aggressive behavior. Thus marijuana is seen as particularly appropriate to a generation that emphasizes peace and is, in many ways, anticompetitive."

In a magazine article by G. S. Chopra entitled "Man and Marijuana" on page 235 is a section dealing with Human Experiments. One hundred persons with an established marijuana smoking habit smoked marijuana. They described the symptoms as follows:

"I have done things today which I usually dislike but which I rather enjoyed doing today." "Nothing seemed impossible to accomplish." "I assumed a cool and composed attitude and forgot all mental worries." "I behaved in a childish and foolish manner." "It relieves sense of fatigue and gives rise to feelings of happiness." "I feel like laughing." "My head is dizzy." "I feel like taking more food." "The world is gay around me." "I feel inclined to work." "I am a friend to all and have no enemy in the world."

According to the Encyclopedia Britannica, in the section on "Roman Catholicism":

"To understand the meaning and use of the Eucharist we must see it as an act of universal worship, of cooperation, of association else it loses the greater part of its significance. Neither in Roman Catholic nor in Protestant Eucharistic practice does the sacrament retain much of the symbolism of Christian unity, which clearly it has. Originally, the symbolism was that of a community meal, an accepted social symbol of community throughout the whole of human culture."

Marijuana has been used as sacrifice, a sacrament, a ritual fumigant (incense), a good-will offering, and as a means of communing with the divine spirit. It has been used to seal treaties, friendships, solemn binding agreements and to legitimize covenants. It has been used as a traditional defense against evil and in purification. It has been used in divinations (1. the art or practice that seeks to foresee or foretell future events or discover hidden knowledge; 2. unusual insight; intuitive perception.) It has been used in remembrance of the dead and praised for its medicinal properties.

Most Christians agree that participation in the Eucharist is supposed to enhance and deepen communion of believers not only with Christ but also with one another. We must therefor ask the question, "What substance did the ancients use as a community meal to facilitate communion with the Lord?" The answer to that question is marijuana. Hemp as originally used in religious ritual, temple activities, and tribal rites, involved groups of worshippers rather than the solitary individual. The pleasurable psychoactive effects were then, as now, communal experiences.

Practically every major religion and culture of the ancient world utilized marijuana as part of their religious observance. Marijuana was the ambrosia of the ancient world. It was the food, drink, and perfume of the gods. It was used by the Africans, the Egyptians, the Assyrians, the Asians, the Europeans, and possibly the Indians of the Americas. Would it be too much to suggest that the ancient Israelites also utilized marijuana?

The following information was taken from the most authoritative books dealing with the history of marijuana. They are mentioned at the end of this work.

MARIJUANA IN INDIA
In Indian tradition marijuana is associated with immortality. There is a complex myth of the churning of the Ocean of Milk by the gods, their joint act of creation. They were in search of Amrita, the elixir of eternal life. When the gods, helped by demons, churned the ocean to obtain Amrita, one of the resulting nectars was cannabis. After churning the ocean, the demons attempted to gain control of Amrita (marijuana), but the gods were able to prevent this seizure, giving cannabis the name Vijaya ("victory") to commemorate their success.

Other ancient Indian names for marijuana were "sacred grass", "hero leaved", "joy", "rejoicer", "desired in the three worlds"' "gods' food", "fountain of pleasures"' and "Shiva's plant".

Early Indian legends maintained that the angel of mankind lived in the leaves of the marijuana plant. It was so sacred that it was reputed to deter evil and cleanse its user of sin. In Hindu mythology hemp is a holy plant given to man for the "welfare of mankind" and is considered to be one of the divine nectars able to give man anything from good health, to long life, to visions of the gods. Nectar is defined as the fabled drink of the gods.

Tradition maintains that when nectar or Amrita dropped from heaven, that cannabis sprouted from it. In Hindu mythology Amrita means immortality; also, the ambrosial drink which produced it.

In India hemp is made into a drink and is reputed to be the favorite drink of Indra (the King of Indian gods.) Tradition maintains that the god Indra gave marijuana to the people so that they might attain elevated states of consciousness, delight in worldly joy, and freedom from fear.

According to Hindu legends, Siva, the Supreme God of many Hindu sects, had some family squabble and went off to the fields. He sat under a hemp plant so as to be sheltered from the heat of the sun and happened to eat some of its leaves. He felt so refreshed from the hemp plant that it became his favorite food, and that is how he got his title, the Lord of Bhang. Cannabis is mentioned as a medicinal and magical plant as well as a "sacred grass" in the Atharva Veda (dated 2000 - 1400 B.C.)

It also calls hemp one of the five kingdoms of herbs…which releases us from anxiety and refers to hemp as a "source of happiness", "joy-giver" and "liberator". Although the holy books, the Shastras, forbid the worship of the plant, it has been venerated and used as a sacrifice to the deities. Indian Tradition, writing, and belief is that the "Siddhartha" (the Buddha), used and ate nothing but hemp and its seeds for six years prior to announcing (discovering) his truths and becoming the Buddha.

Cannabis held a preeminent place in the Tantric religion which evolved in Tibet in the seventh century A.D. Tantrism was a religion based on fear of demons. To combat the demonic threat to the world, the people sought protection in plants such as cannabis which were set afire to overcome evil forces.

In the tenth century A.D. hemp was extolled as indracanna, the "food of the gods". A fifteenth-century document refers to cannabis as "light-hearted", "joy-full" and "rejoices", and claimed that among its virtues are "astringency", "heat", "speech-giving", "inspiration of mental powers", "excitability" and the capacity to "remove wind and phlegm".

Today in the Tantric Buddhism of the Himalayas of Tibet, cannabis plays a very significant role in the meditative ritual to facilitate deep meditation and heighten awareness. In modern India it is taken at Hindu and Sikh temples and Mohammedan shrines. Among fakirs (Hindu ascetics) bhang is viewed as the giver of long life and a means of communion with the divine spirit. Like his Hindu brother, the Musalman fakir reveres bhang as the lengthener of life and the freer from the bonds of self.

At the turn of the twentieth century, the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission set up to study the use of hemp in India contains the following report:

"…It is inevitable that temperaments would be found to whom the quickening spirit of bhang is the spirit of freedom and knowledge. In the ecstasy of bhang the spark of the Eternal in man turns into the light the murkiness of matter.

"…Bhang is the Joy-giver, the Sky-filler, the Heavenly- Guide, the Poor Man's Heaven, the Soother of Grief…No god or man is as good as the religious drinker of bhang…The supporting power of bhang has brought many a Hindu family safe through the miseries of famine. To forbid or even seriously restrict the use of so gracious an herb as the hemp would cause widespread suffering and annoyance and to large bands of worshipped ascetics, deep-seated anger. It would rob the people of a solace on discomfort, of a cure in sickness, of a guardian whose gracious protection saves them from the attacks of evil influences…

MARIJUANA IN CHINA
Hemp was so highly regarded in ancient China that the Chinese called their country "the land of mulberry and hemp". Hemp was a symbol of power over evil and in emperor Shen Nung's pharmacopoeia was known as the "liberator of sin". The Chinese believed that the legendary Shen Nung first taught the cultivation of hemp in the 28th century B.C. Shen Nung is credited with developing the sciences of medicine from the curative power of plants. So highly regarded was Shen Nung that he was deified and today he is regarded as the Father of Chinese medicine. Shen Nung was also regarded as the Lord of fire. He sacrificed on T'ai Shan, a mountain of hoary antiquity.

A statement in the Pen-ts'ao Ching of some significance is that Cannabis "grows along rivers and valleys at T'ai-shan, but it is now common everywhere." Mount T'ai is in Shangtung Privince, where the cultivation of the hemp plant is still intensive to this day. Whether or not this early attribution indicates the actual geographic origin of the cultivation of the Cannabis plant remains to be seen. (An Archeological and Historical Account of Cannabis in China by Hui-Lin Li)

A chines Taoist priest wrote in the fifth century B.C. that cannabis was used in combination with Ginseng to set forward time in order to reveal future events. It is recorded that the Taoist recommended the addition of cannabis to their incense burners in the 1st century A.D. and that the effects thus produced were highly regarded as a means of achieving immortality. In the early Chinese Taoist ritual the fumes and odors of incense burners were said to have produced a mystic exaltation and contribution to well-being.

Webster's New Riverside Dictionary defines marijuana: 1. Hemp 2. The dried flower clusters and leaves of the hemp plant, esp. when taken to induce euphoria. Euphoria is defined as a strong feeling of elation or well-being.

Like the practice of medicine around the world, early Chinese doctoring was based on the concept of demons. The only way to cure the sick was to drive out the demons. The early priest doctors used marijuana stalks into which snake-like figures were carved.

Standing over the body of the stricken patient, his cannabis stalk poised to strike, the priest pounded the bed and commanded the demon to be gone. The cannabis stalk with the snake carved on it was the forerunner to the sign of modern medicine (the staff with the entwined serpents.)

MARIJUANA IN JAPAN
Hemp was used in Ancient Japan in ceremonial purification rites and for driving away evil spirits. In Japan, Shinto priests used a gohei, a short stick with undyed hemp fibers (for purity) attached to one end. According to Shinto beliefs, evil and purity cannot exist alongside one another, and so by waving the gohei (purity) above someone's head the evil spirit inside him would be driven away. Clothes made of hemp were especially worn during formal and religious ceremonies because of hemp's traditional association with purity.

MARIJUANA IN ANCIENT IRAN
Ancient Iran was the source for the great Persian empire, Iran is located slightly to the northeast of the ancient kingdoms of Sumeria, Babylonia, and Assyria. According to Mircea Eliade, "Shamanistic ecstasy induced by hemp smoke was known in ancient Iran." Professor Eliade has suggested that Zoroaster, the Persian prophet, said to have written the Zend-Avesta, was a user of hemp.

In the Zend-Avesta hemp occupies the first place in a list of 10,000 medicinal plants. One of the few surviving books of the Zend-Avesta, called the Venidad, "The Law Against Demons", calls bhanga (marijuana) Zoroaster's "good narcotic", and tells of two mortals who were transported in soul to the heavens where, upon drinking from a cup of bhang, they had the highest mysteries revealed to them.

Professor Eliade has theorized that Zoroaster may have used hemp to bridge the metaphysical gap between heaven and earth.

MARIJUANA IN ANCIENT EGYPT
In the book, Plants of the Gods: Origin of Hallucinogenic Use by Richard E. Schultes and Albert Hofman, page 72, it is stated that the specimens of marijuana nearly 4,000 years old have turned up in an Egyptian site and that in ancient Thebes the plant was made into a drink.

MARIJUANA IN EUROPE
According to Nikolaas j. van der Merwe (Department of Archaeology, University of Cape Town, South Africa) the peasants of Europe have been using cannabis as medicine, ritual material, and to smoke or chew as far back as oral traditions go.

Marijuana was an integral part of the Scythian cult of the dead wherein homage was paid to the memory of their departed leaders. This use of cannabis was found in frozen Scythian tombs dated from 500 to 300 B.C. Along with the [[cannabis]]] a miniature tripod-like tent over a copper censer was found in which the sacred plant was burned.

It is interesting to note that two extraordinary rugs were also found in the frozen Scythian tombs. One rug had a border frieze with a repeated composition of a horseman approaching the Great Goddess who holds the "Tree of Life" in one hand and raises the other hand in welcome.

MARIJUANA IN AFRICA
The African continent is probably the zone showing the widest prevalence of the hemp drug habit. When white men first went to Africa, marijuana was part of the native way of life. Africa was a continent of marijuana cultures where marijuana was an integral part of religious ceremony. The Africans were observed inhaling the smoke from piles of smoldering hemp. Some of these piles had been placed upon altars. The Africans also utilized pipes. The African Dagga (marijuana) cults believed that Holy Cannabis was brought to earth by the gods. (Throughout the ancient world Ethiopia was considered the home of the gods.)

In south central Africa, marijuana is held to be sacred and is connected with many religious and social customs. Marijuana is regarded by some sects as a magic plant possessing universal protection against all injury to life, and is symbolic of peace and friendship. Certain tribes consider hemp use a duty. The earliest evidence for cannabis smoking in Africa outside of Egypt comes from fourteenth century Ethiopia, where two ceramic smoking-pipe bowls containing traces of excavation. In many parts of East Africa, especially near Lake Victoria (the source for the Nile), hemp smoking and hashish snuffing cults still exist.

MARIJUANA IN THE NEW WORLD
According to Richard L. Lingeman in his book Drugs from A to Z, page 146, "Marijuana smoking was known by the Indians before Columbus." After the Spanish conquest in 1521 the Spaniards recorded that the Aztecs (Mayans) used marijuana.

The present day Cuna Indians of Panama use marijuana as a sacred herb and the Cora Indians of the Sierra Madre Occidental of Mexico smoke marijuana in this course of their sacred ceremonies.

In the Ritual Use of Cannabis Sativa L by William A Emboden, Jr., pages 229 and 231, is the following: "A particularly interesting account of a Tepehua (no relationship to "Tepecana") Indian ceremony with cannabis was published in 1963 by the Mexican ethnologist Roberto William Garcia of the University of Veracruz, northernmost branch of the Maya language family.

"In his account of Teehua religion and ritual, William Garcia (1963:215-21) describes in some detail a communal curing ceremony focused on a plant called santa rose, "The Herb Which Makes One Speak", which he identified botanically as Cannabis Sativa: According to Garcia it is worshipped as an earth deity and is thought to be alive and comparable to a piece of the heart of God."

MARIJUANA USE BY THE MOSLEMS
It is interesting to note that the use of hemp was not prohibited by Mohammed (570-632 A.D.) while the use of alcohol was. Moslems considered hemp as a "Holy Plant" and medieval Arab doctors considered hemp as a sacred medicine which they called among other names kannab. The Sufis (a Moslem sect) originating in 8th century Persia used hashish as a means of stimulating mystical consciousness and appreciation of the nature of Allah. Eating hashish to the Sufis was "an act of worship". They maintained that hashish gave them otherwise unattainable insights into themselves, deeper understanding and that it made them feel witty. They also claimed that it gave happiness, reduced anxiety, reduced worry, and increased music appreciation.

According to one Arab legend Haydar, the Persian founder of the religious order of Sufi came across the cannabis plant while wandering in the Persian mountains. Usually a reserved and silent man, when he returned to his monastery after eating some cannabis leaves, his disciples were amazed at how talkative and animated (full of spirit) he seemed. After cajoling Haydar into telling them what he had done to make him feel so happy, his disciples went out into the mountains and tried the cannabis themselves. So it was, according to the legend, that the Sufis came to know the pleasures of hashish. (Taken from the Introduction to A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature by Earnest Abel.)

SUMMARY
Due to the prosecution of God's church from the beginning of the Christian era and due to the persecution against marijuana the true understanding of the Eucharist has remained hidden from Christendom and the world, only to be revealed in these times, the culmination of all human history.

We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church declare marijuana for the communion of saints, the forgiveness of sins, and for the resurrection of mankind. The fruits of the mystery[:]…propitiation for sins, defense against temptation, and the indwelling of Christ in the faithful.

Preparations for communion consist of confession of sins, fasting from sin, and reconciliation with all mankind. As such the participant in the Eucharist will be in a condition in which prayer and meditation are easy and fruitful. He will find his emotion purified and stimulated, his spirituality quickened and his heart filled with love.

SOURCES
Richard E. Schultes, article: "Man and Marijuana"

Richard E. Schultes and Albert Hofman, Plants of the Gods - Origin of Hallucinogenic Use (McGraw-Hill Book Co. [U.K.] Limited, Maidenhead, England [1979]).

G.S. Chopra, article: "Man and Marijuana", International Journal of the Addict,1969, 4, 215-247.

Earnest L. Abel, Marijuana, the First Twelve Thousand Years (Phenum Press, New York, 1980)

Earnest L. Abel, A Comprehensive Guide to Cannabis Literature

Earnest L. Abel, Marijuana Dictionary: Words, Terms, Events and Persons Relating to Cannabis(Greenwood Press, Westpoint, Connecticut [1982])

Edward M. Breecher and the Editors of Consumer Reports, The Consumer Union Report, "Licit and Illicit Drugs", (Little, Brown, and Co.)

Louis Lewin, Phantastica, Narcotic and Stimulating Drugs: Their Use and Abuse, (London: Kegan, Trench, Turbner and Co., Ltd. Translated from the second German edition by P.H.A. Wirth, 1931) (N.Y., Dutton, 1964, reprint, 1924, trans. 1931)

Sula Benet, Cannabis and Culture, ed. V. Rubin (The Hague: Moutan, 1975)

Richard E. Lingeman, Drugs from A to Z, A Dictionary (McGraw-Hill Book Co., 1969, 74)

John R. Glowa, The Encyclopedia of Psychoactive Drugs (Chelsea House Pub., N.Y., New Haven, Philadelphia, 1986)

George Andrews and Simon Vinkenoog, The Book of Grass: An Anthology on Indian Hemp; Chandler and Sharp Series in Cross Cultural Themes (N.Y., Grove Press [1967])

Jack Herer, The Emperor Wears No Clothes, 1985, 90, 91, 92.

Peter T. Furst, Hallucinogens and Culture (Chandler and Sharp Publishers, Inc., 1976)

Baudelaire, Artificial Paradises

Dr. Charles Tart, "On Being Stoned: A Psychological Study of Marijuana Intoxication" (Science and Behavior, 1971)

William A. Emboden, Jr. Ritual Use of Cannabis Sativa L

S.I. Rudenko, Frozen Tombs of Siberia (Dent., London, 1970)

Edward Atchley, A History of the Use of Incense in Divine Worship

E. A. Wallis Budge, The Divine Origin of the Craft of the Herbalist

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Paul England (G.G. Harrap, London, England, 1931)

Francis Robicsek, The Smoking Gods: Tobacco in Mayan Art, History, and Religion (University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1978)

Diodurus, Histories 1.97.7

Herman Scneider, History of World Civilization, 2v (New York, 1931)

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Webster's Third New International Dictionary, 1966

The Book of the Dead, Edit. E.A.W. Budge, British Museum, 1895, p. 250

J. Jeremias, in Encyclopedia, Iv, 4119, quoting Rawlinson, Cuneiform Inscription IV. 19 (59) Cnf. the story of Bel and the Dragon.

John McKenzie, The Bible Dictionary (N.Y. MacMillan Pub. Co., 1965)

Encyclopedia Britannica, "Holy Spirit" (15th Edition, 1978)

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Encyclopedia Britannica, "Pharmacological Cults" (15th Edition, 1978), p. 199

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King James version of The Bible

The Apocrypha

We hope you enjoyed this pamphlet. If you have any questions or comments, we would like to see them. Send them to the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church, P.O. Box 1161, Minneola, FL 34755-1161.

We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church decided to publish this pamphlet in order to give the public an opportunity to study the church and its doctrine; not from inflated and misleading media but from historical and Biblical reference. The Church has received extensive publicity as "60 Minutes" has done a segment; Life, Omni, Science, Rolling Stone, and High Times magazines have all done articles, countless newspaper articles have been written, and various brothers have been on radio and TV talk shows around the country.

We of the Ethiopian Zion Coptic Church revere ganja (garden of Ea/Yah, aka cannabis) as our "holy" Eucharist and "spiritual intensifier" with Biblical, historical and divine associations for its use.

Ganja (garden of Ea/Yah) is the mystical body and blood of "Jesus" — the burnt offering made by fire — which allows a member to see and know the "living God", or the "God in man".

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