Chemistry Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size


Kem Izm Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTs

( Kem Izm = KehmisTree )

Simp Kemz

Groop Kem Izm Iz DehskRybd By Thuh NexT TekST.

Groop Kem Iz Thuh Simp Lang Uhbreeveeaeeshuhn Fohr KehmikkuL Kompowndz In Thuh Grwp Kem Syz Ohmz Uhv Thuh ( Groop Kem Typ = Kompownd KehmikkuL Type )

Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

SykuhTrohpik Gruup Kemz

Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8:0: Opioid Izm
8.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
9: Sykuhtrohpik Vaypr
10: addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug
11: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs )

End Uhv Kem Izm Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTs


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTss Uhv Kem Izm

KehmisTree Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Kemz

Simp Kem Izm

Simp Kemz

Kem STayTs

End Uhv Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTss Uhv Kem Izm


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


Thuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


( Kemz = KehmikkuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


THuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "ChemicaL ELemenT" Iz Shruhngk


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…

[[[Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz]]

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz


Gruup Kem Izm


Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz

Groop Kemz Ahr Gruups Uhv [[Simp Kemz]]].


Groop Kemz


Groop Kemz Ahr Gruups Uhv Simp Kemz.


Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions


Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)


Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:



Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

nature22379-f1.jpg

Included page "nuukleeoh-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

Nucleotide Mettabbohlyts In Foodz:

* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

protein-for-vegans-vegetarians

Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Ded Kem Syz Ohmz

Inorganic Chemical Compounds

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ded Kem Syz Ohmz ".


SykuhTrohpik Gruup Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Dayngjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Tu DeTh.


Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8:0: Opioid Izm
8.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
9: Sykuhtrohpik Vaypr
10: addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug
11: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See Ahlsoh:


Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


Kush Jem


Kush Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

The History and Origins of the Kingdom of Kush…

Kerma: the First Kingdom of Kush

The first Kingdom of Kush, also known as Kerma, is one of if not the oldest African states outside of Egypt. It developed around the settlement of Kerma (just above the third cataract on the Nile, in Upper Nubia). Kerma arose around 2400 B.C. (during the Egyptian Old Kingdom), and had become the capital of the Kush Kingdom by 2000 B.C.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

1700 BCE
The Kingdom of Kush is formed to the south of Egypt.

c. 1 CE - c. 25 CE
Amanitore, Candace of Meroe, reigns over the most prosperous era of the latter-day Kingdom of Kush.
c. 330 CE
Meroe is conquered by the Kingdom of Axum; Kingdom of Kush in decline.
350 CE
End of the Kingdom of Kush and city of Meroë in Nubia.


Hindu Kush

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

The name Hindu Kush derives from the Arabic for “Mountains of India.” Its earliest known usage occurs on a map published about ad 1000.


See AhLsoh:


Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] gem (n.)

"a precious stone" (especially when cut or polished), c. 1300, probably from Old French gemme (12c.), from Latin gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from Proto-Italic *gebma- "bud, sprout," from PIE *geb-m- "sprout, bud" (source also of Lithuanian žembėti "to germinate, sprout," Old Church Slavonic prozebnoti "to germinate")…

Of persons, "a rare or excellent example (of something)" from late 13c. Alternative forms iemme, gimme persisted into 14c. and might represent a survival of Old English gimm "precious stone, gem, jewel," also "eye," which was borrowed directly from Latin gemma.

gem (v.)

c. 1600, "to adorn with gems;" earlier (mid-12c.)

"to bud," from gem (n.).

Related: Gemmed; gemming.


3 Typs Uhv Kush Jemz:

1: Sollid Kush Jemz

2: A ThoT Kush Jem

  • ReeGahrdz An ImpohrTanT ( biochemical FacT Ohr SaeefTee Info ) UhbouT Ehnee Psychoactive drug, Lyk Thohz In Thuh Kush Byb EL.

3. An Adorn Kush Jem Iz A Kuhnsuum Task.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum:

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] adorn (v.)

late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: adorning, Adorned.


Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

Thohz Sowndz Myt Get Rehpreezehnted In Fohnehtik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz Az:

  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psychotropic [si″ko-trop´ik]
psychoactive.
psychoactive substance.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic (sī′kə-trō′pĭk, -trŏp′ĭk)
adj.
Having an altering effect on perception, emotion, or behavior. Used especially of a drug.
n.
A psychotropic drug or other agent.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs

Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Updated September 25, 2019

Why Psychotropics Are Prescribed

Psychotropics have been study-proven to help people with mental illness, including BPD as well as anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia.

The National Institute of Mental Health found that patients with depression who were prescribed a psychotropic showed more progress in two months than those who went without treatment showed their entire lives.

Psychotropic drugs are by no means a cure-all. Instead, they work to help minimize symptoms of BPD, like intense mood swings or violent episodes, that can interfere with therapy. Psychotropics take the edge off so you can develop skills to cope with and better manage your mental health.

Types

Depending on your mental health condition and symptoms, your doctor could prescribe one of the following types of psychotropics:

Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Anxiolytics
Hypnotics
Mood stabilizers
Stimulants

Psychotropic substances are also found in alcohol as well as illegal and recreational drugs like marijuana and cocaine.


Thuss Sykotroppik Drugz Inkluud Sykeeatrik Druhgz And Rekreeayshuhnul Druhgz.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum: https://www.verywellhealth.com/kristalyn-salters-pedneault-phd-425092

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD.

Highlights

  • Associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University
  • Former research associate of the National Center for PTSD Behavioral Science Division

Education

Dr. Salters-Pedneault earned a BA in psychology from American University and an MA and PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Massachusetts Boston.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.



Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

See ALso:


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jem.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


ReGahrdeeng A Few SoLLid Kush Jemz

PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

PhenyLeThyLamine-AmpheTamine-MeThAmpheTamine.png
Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

MeTh BreakDown

PEA Amf MeTh Pikchr

PhenyLeThyLamine-AmpheTamine-MeThAmpheTamine.png
Ihmaj OhrihjihnuLLee Fruhm:

Following TexT Frum: https://www.quora.com/Does-methamphetamine-break-down-into-phetamine-after-two-days-for-drug-test

Methamphetamine is double methylated phenylethylamine.

Methamphetamine actually breaks down and metabolizes into amphetamine.

Amphetamine is scientifically known as methylated phenylethylamine.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Methylation, the transfer of a methyl group (―CH3) to [ a chemical ] compound. Methyl groups may be transferred through addition reactions or substitution reactions; in either case, the methyl group takes the place of a hydrogen atom on the compound. Methylation can be divided into two basic types: chemical and biological.


NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

DeMethylAtion Iz The ReemoovuL Uhv A MeThyL Group (―CH3) Frum A Kem Compound.


See AhLsoh Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh


See: Kush Groop Kemz


Included page "kush-vaypr" does not exist (create it now)


Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Ohnlee Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz Tuu OfT KahLd Smohk.


NeksT Iz Pruuf ThaT Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drug CookT Tu A Vizzibbul Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


Wuhn Kynd Uhv Vaypr Iz Vizzibbul Smohk Gass.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


See Ahlsoh:

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Tohk ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jemz.


Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


Kaffeen UhmownT In Kohkoh Powdr

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

** 10 Incredible Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder
June 05, 2017

Who doesn’t like a healthy helping of cocoa? Cocoa is one of the most loved flavors on the planet. So much so that it can almost become addictive. The rich intense flavor of cocoa powder is delicious with anything including smoothies, coffee, or oatmeal. Many people even make savory cocoa sauces to put on their meat. Other than its incredible flavor, there are many other benefits for cocoa powder. Cocoa has been found to have truly impressive health benefits.

10 Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall.

1.Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.

2.Boost Your Sex Appeal

We all know that anything made with cocoa is straight up sexy. This is because cocoa is an aphrodisiac *wink wink*. If you want to find you way into anyone’s heart, you give him or her something with cocoa powder’s rich, deep, seductive flavor (these Cassava Flour Brownies with Caramel might do the trick). Another mood-enhancing chemical found in cocoa is phenylethylamine, this chemical releases the same endorphins that are released when we fall in love, and so it can help improve your sex life.

3.Feel the Power

Cocoa contains a healthy amount of caffeine. This helps to boost energy and fight fatigue. Not only does it have a good amount of caffeine, but it contains magnesium as well. Two tablespoons of cocoa powder has about 14% of your body’s daily value of Magnesium. Magnesium has been found to keep your body energized naturally. Magnesium has been found to protect your body against other issues such as high blood pressure, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis. Cocoa is known to be one of the healthiest ways to keep your body energized and awake.

4.Protect Your Heart

Cocoa is choc-full of the anti-inflammatory antioxidants flavanols. These antioxidants have been found to help your heart and your entire cardiovascular system. Flavanols may protect your body against cardiovascular disease, improves your blood circulation and lowers the risk of stroke. Other antioxidants, called polyphenols, in cocoa are known to help reduce HDL is (bad cholesterol) levels and prevent atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. It is impressive what cocoa can do for your heart.

5.Keep the Wrinkles Away

For beautiful flawless skin, you simply need to get your daily serving of cocoa. Polyphenols have been found to help your protect your cells from premature oxidation this will keep your skin from looking aged or becoming wrinkled. It can also improve your skin texture and give it a glowing look. In one study, researchers found that cocoa helped improve skin microcirculation and skin hydration. You will look more youthful and bright with just a little more cocoa in your diet.

Not only does eating cocoa powder help your skin, but using cocoa butter as a moisturizer has also been found to keep skin soft and smooth.

You can try making your own moisturizer at home with this simple recipe.

Cocoa Butter Moisturizer

½ cup of Organic Cocoa Butter

½ cup of Organic Coconut Oil

Directions

Slowly heat ingredients up in a double boiler
Once ingredients have melted together, transfer into a larger mixing bowl and place in freezer until the mixture is firm but still has some give, about 20 minutes
Using an electric beater, beat the mixture for about 3-5 minutes until white peaks form and it looks like a very thick whipped cream.
Scoop into a jar and cover
Place the moisturizer in the fridge for at least an hour

This all natural, organic moisturizer will not only make your skin look amazing, but it will smell amazing as well. You don’t need to worry about any harsh, damaging chemicals being absorbed into your skin. Once you try this wonderful moisturizer, you won’t want any other moisturizer.

6.Keeps Your Brain Sharper

Cocoa has been found to improve your cognitive function and memory. Cocoa has been found to increase blood flow to the brain. Cocoa could possibly prevent age‐related cognitive impairment and forgetfulness. Certain studies have said that cocoa could possibly prevent Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological diseases. Just a little bit more cocoa can help keep your brain at its best for longer and keep your memory at its best.

7.Helps your Gut

Your digestive health can be greatly improved by a diet rich in cocoa. The flavanols in cocoa have been found to become a prebiotic when they are digested. Prebiotics have been found to work with probiotics to help promote digestive health. They balance the bacteria in your gut and ensure that the “good” bacteria in your stomach flourish and this helps to improve the health of your entire digestive system.

8. Protects Your Teeth

Researchers have found that more cocoa powder in your diet can actually prevent tooth decay. Certain compounds in the cocoa bean husk have antibacterial properties and have been found to fight against plaque. It could even be more effective than fluoride to fight cavities. Also, the compound, CBH, which is found in cocoa powder, has been found to help harden your enamel. If you want to keep those pearly whites as beautiful as possible, add some more cocoa to your diet.

9. Boosts Your Metabolism to Keep You Thin

The polyphenols in cocoa have been found to help boost your metabolism and this will encourage you to lose weight faster. Cocoa improves your body’s ability to metabolize the dietary fat that you consume from becoming fatty tissue in your body. Since cocoa helps your digestive health, this also keeps you from gaining weight. The least processed cocoa extracts seemed to have the largest impact on your metabolism.

10. Balances Hormonal Mood Swings

There’s a reason why women crave cocoa during their *ahem* “lady time”. Cocoa has been found to balance brain neurotransmitter levels, and this is especially helpful during PMS when serotonin levels tend to drop. Cocoa can calm changes in hormone levels as well and it also restores feelings of well being. The mood enhancing aspects of cocoa that we already discussed is helpful here as well.

Improving Your Health with Cocoa

Simply finding healthful ways of adding cocoa to your diet can make a huge impact on your health. Eating cocoa with a bunch of processed sugar will negate any of the benefits that cocoa offers. Also, some scientists say that eating cocoa with dairy milk can make the antioxidants in cocoa not as effective. Just adding a tablespoon of pure cocoa powder to your favorite smoothie or your favorite recipe of overnight oats can be the additional bit of cocoa that you need to truly improve your health. Try some new recipes that use this ingredient in its raw form so that it can have the largest impact on your body.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


See Ahlsoh:

Kannuhbinnoeed

Phenylethylamine

Amphetamine

MeTh EesehnchuLz

Opioid Izm

Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh

Benzodiazenpine Izm


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd ( MuLTy+Drugz Kuhnsuhmpshuhn = Kuhnsuumeeng Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

See:


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz ".


SykuhTrohpik Vaypr

Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


EgzampuLz Uhv SykuhTrohpik Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd ( MuLTy+Drugz Kuhnsuhmpshuhn = Kuhnsuumeeng Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

See:


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz ".


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng SykuhTrohpik Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLayss, Maybee Hid Fruhm Tuu Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss uh SivviLyzd Good Manr Wich Iz AkTeeng KrTeeuhss
3: And Kuhvreeng Wuhn'z MouTh Wen Koffeeng Frum BreeTheeng In Smohk WiTh SykuhTrohpik Drugz Frum BrmT Kush Rrb.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Thuh FakT ThaT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness.

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum SykuhTrohpik Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Ohnlee Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz Tuu OfT KahLd Smohk.


NeksT Iz Pruuf ThaT Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drug CookT Tu A Vizzibbul Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


Wuhn Kynd Uhv Vaypr Iz Vizzibbul Smohk Gass.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


See Ahlsoh:

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Table of Contents

Drug AddikT SyTs Tend Tu miss-BLaeem pSykohAkTiv Drugz Fohr Suhm [[Heewman]]]'z bad KehrakTr fahLTs.

Kuhmpehr Thuh Nekst Risks blamed on Marijuana With Thuh Following Naturopathic Praise Uhv Marijuana.


++Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhn: https://www.addictions.com/marijuana/#risks

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Mental Effects of Marijuana use include:

An anxiety that does not go away or gets worse as a result of smoking pot
Depression or a depressed state
Social intolerance or a lack of desire to be social
Paranoia or feeling like everyone is out to get you
Acute psychotic reactions

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Heart:

Increased heart rate by 20-100%
Increased risk of heart attack
Increased risk of cardiovascular vulnerabilities

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on the Lungs:

Carcinogenic toxins create lung cancer
Increased exposure to disease
Increased risk of pneumonia
Increased risk of cold

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] Effects of Marijuana on Life:

Lack of motivation
Physical impairment
Mental impairment
Reduced cognitive abilities
Poor social life

[ Supposed Risks uhv ] the Side Effects of Marijuana Addiction?

Extensive research has shown that smoking marijuana can lead to some physical and psychological consequences such as:

Changes in appetite
Mood swings
Red eyes
Sleep disturbances
Increased heart rate
Difficulty concentrating
Memory problems
Dry mouth
A productive cough
Depression

[ Supposed Risk uhv ] Paranoia is also a common symptom of marijuana use,

  • although friends and family members of the individual suffering from marijuana addiction are more likely to notice this effect than the user. Only after they are in recovery do most individuals realize the degree to which marijuana-induced paranoia has been negatively impacting their lives.

Most of these symptoms will wear off as the drug itself wears off, but for some, the psychological effects of marijuana can last many months or even years after the individual stops smoking pot.

Insomnia can persist for many months, often pushing individuals to relapse and to return to marijuana.

Anxiety and depression are also common outcomes of marijuana abuse that can persist for months, often leading to relapse…

No longer using marijuana after a prolonged phase of marijuana use can lead to the following

[ possible ] withdrawal symptoms:

Irritability
Insomnia
Poor appetite
Anxiety
Depression
Agitation
Cravings
Mood swings


Kuhmpehr Those Addict Site warnings Tu Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


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