Kem Izm

ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTss Uhv Kem Izm

KehmisTree Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Kemz

Simp Kem Izm

Simp Kemz

Kem STayTs

Gruup Kem Izm

End Uhv Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTss Uhv Kem Izm


KehmisTree Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


Thuh Wrd KehmisTree MyT GeT Brohk UhpahrT Tu 3 Simp Lang Wrkz:
1: Kem
2: IsT
3: Ree


Kem Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Uh Kem Iz Uh Kehmikkul


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd "Kem Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Ist uhv Omnyon Izm

Ist iz a Simp Lang wrd which haz the exact saym meaning az the suffix -ist.

-ist

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm

Pronunciation

  • IPA(key): /-ɪst/

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm

Etymo:ogy Uv Suffix -ist

word-forming element meaning "one who does or makes," also used to indicate adherence to a certain doctrine or custom, from French -iste and directly from Latin -ista (source also of Spanish, Portuguese, Italian -ista), from Greek agent-noun ending -istes, which is from -is-, ending of the stem of verbs in -izein, + agential suffix -tes.

Adherence In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Adheerenss Uv IsT

ETymoLogy Uv Wrd Adherence (n.)

mid-15c., "steady attachment of the mind or feelings to a person, cause, belief, etc.," from Middle French adhérence, from Medieval Latin adhaerentia, abstract noun from Latin adhaerent-, stem of adhaerens, present participle of adhaerare "stick to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Rarely in a physical sense, adhesion being the usual word for that.

Adhere Uv IsT

ETymoLogy Uv adhere (v.)

1590s, from Middle French adhérer "to stick, adhere" (15c., corrected from earlier aderer, 14c.) or directly from Latin adhaerare "to stick, cling to," from ad "to" (see ad-) + haerere "to stick" (see hesitation). Originally often of persons, "to cleave to a leader, cause, party, etc." (compare adherent (n.), which still often retains this sense). Related: Adhered; adhering.


Ree


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

re-

1: a prefix, occurring originally in loanwords from Latin,

  • used with the meaning “again” or “again and again” to indicate repetition,
  • or with the meaning “back” or “backward” to indicate withdrawal or backward motion:

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ree ".


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT in Thuh Payj Naymd " KehmisTree Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Kem


Kem Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Uh Kem Iz Uh Kehmikkul


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd "Kem Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn ".


Gruup Kem Trm Deskripshuhn


Uh Gruup Kem Iz .


Uh Gruup Kem Iz:

Uh Gruup Kem Iz:


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

chemical compound Noun

1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions


Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " [Gruup Kem Trm Deskripshuhn ".


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn ".


Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "Chemical ElemenT" Iz Shruhngk


Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Floride

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Is Fluoride Bad for You? Effects for Thyroid & Body

August 3, 2019 (Updated: September 9, 2019) — by Katie Wells

Dr Scott Sorries Medical Advisor

Wellness Mama Dr Terry Wahls

Medically reviewed by

  • Dr. Scott Soerries, MD,
  • Dr. Terry Wahls, MD

The effects fluoride has on the thyroid and body

Reading Time: 8 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.

You likely know that mercury, lead, and other heavy metals are not great for the body and can cause a host of issues. But whether or not fluoride is safe (or effective) is more controversial.
Is Fluoride Beneficial?

In the early part of the twentieth century, it was discovered that small communities who had higher levels of naturally occurring fluoride in their drinking water had fewer dental caries (cavities). Naturally fluoridated water at about 1mg/L seemed to be beneficial to dental health. (Fluoride that is naturally occurring is calcium fluoride.)

Unfortunately, the fluoride that is often added to water supplies in the U.S. is hydrofluoric acid (an industrial by-product), not elemental fluorine or calcium fluoride. It’s well known that naturally occurring substances (even heavy metals) are generally better tolerated by the body than synthetic counterparts.

But because early studies showed few dental caries in communities using fluoridated water, fluoridated water became known as one of 10 best public health achievements of the twentieth century according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC).

However, rates of dental caries have been going down for all western countries, both using fluoridation and not, suggesting that there is no connection between fluoridated water and fewer cavities.

For example, Sweden does not fluoridate its water and has the same amount of dental caries as the United States. Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Arvid Carlsson argued against its use in Sweden by saying that topical use of fluoride may work for dental caries but drinking fluoride was not a good idea, especially when you consider that the amount any individual consumes can vary quite a bit.

Though some earlier studies showed that fluoride in the water supply can help reduce dental caries, a 2015 Cochrane review found that the most recent and comprehensive evidence shows that there is simply not enough evidence to support fluoridating water.

Though fluoride may help prevent cavities when used topically, there are other (better) ways to improve oral health without fluoride.

Sources of Fluoride

Fluoridated water is an obvious source of fluoride but there are many others as well. Because there are so many sources of fluoride today, it’s especially concerning that water supplies are “spiked” with fluoride. Here are some of the major sources of fluoride:

Packaged foods and drinks (made with fluoridated water)
Pesticides
Tea (the plant naturally absorbs fluoride; herbal teas are fine)
Teflon pans
Mechanically separated meat (fragments of bone can be left behind)
Industry (aluminum, fertilizer, iron, oil refining, semi-conductor, and steel industries)
Fluorinated pharmaceuticals (the fluorine doesn’t usually break down into fluoride, but may)
Dental products

Of course, there are reasons other than fluoride to avoid some of the things on this list. For someone who is interested in natural health (and avoiding many of these things already), avoiding fluoride isn’t all that hard.

How Fluoride Affects the Thyroid

Though there is some debate about whether fluoride is safe, the evidence is pretty clear that it can affect thyroid function, and for anyone at risk to begin with (many women are), fluoride is potentially dangerous. Considering thyroid disease affects 20 million Americans (mostly women), this is an important angle to consider.

In the 1930s a product containing fluoride was used to treat people with hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). The fluoride poisoned the enzymes in the thyroid gland and slowed down the production of thyroid hormones. This drug stopped being used because some people’s thyroid glands were permanently damaged from its use.

Studies show that fluoride affects the thyroid gland specifically. Studies done in India found that children in communities with high fluoride intake had a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Another study found that people with unfluoridated water were less likely to develop hypothyroidism.

Fluoride and Iodine

Fluoride can lead to thyroid inflammation and autoimmune thyroid disease (like Hashimoto’s). Fluoride is also an endocrine disruptor. Dr. Izabella Wentz explains in this post how it’s misidentified as iodine in the body so it is taken up into the body and stored in body tissues the way iodine should be.

One study found that iodine levels directly impact how much harm fluoride can do to the thyroid and may help protect the thyroid from fluoride. On the other hand, many people who have thyroid disease like Hashimoto’s have low levels of iodine but can’t tolerate supplemental iodine either. In those cases, fluoride is particularly problematic.
How Fluoride Affects the Skeletal System

Fluoride is also fairly clearly implicated in bone health issues. Though supporters of fluoride claim that it can help improve bone density, evidence shows that the amount of fluoride plays a very important part in whether fluoride helps or hurts bone health.

This study looked at different populations in China with varying levels of naturally occurring fluoride in the water ranging from 0.25 mg/L to 7.97 mg/L (as a comparison, places that add fluoride to water typically add to .7-1 mg/L). What the study found was that fractures happened less when fluoride levels were at about 1 mg/L but more when they were on the lowest and highest parts of the range. Clearly, there’s a fine line between helpful and harmful here.

Skeletal fluorosis is a serious bone disease which causes hardening and thickening of the bones which makes movement difficult. It can be confused with a number of other skeletal issues including arthritis. Skeletal fluorosis is caused by excessive exposure to fluoride which can happen over time as fluoride can accumulate in the body. The most recent research shows that early signs of skeletal fluorosis can occur with as little as 6 mg of fluoride a day (much less for those with kidney disease).

The Upside

Having good health to begin with, particularly normal levels of vitamins and minerals, can help reduce the negative effects of fluoride. One study found that normal levels of calcium helped prevent fluoride-induced bone issues in rats. Another found that sufficient levels of vitamin D could be protective. Additionally, another study found that magnesium-deficient rats absorbed more fluoride than rats with normal magnesium levels and also had more fluoride in their bones and teeth.

What does this mean? That we can do something about fluoride exposure by doing some of the same things that are good for health overall. Optimizing calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium levels (here are some ideas on that) and eating a nutrient-dense diet is a great first step.

Fluoride and the Brain

Fluoride is a confirmed neurotoxin and many prestigious reviews have dug into the research that is available on the topic over the years. A 2012 Harvard review found that of the 27 studies in the review, 26 of them concluded that there is a relationship between elevated fluoride and reduced IQ.

A 2014 Lancet review documents fluoride as a neurotoxin that could be harmful to child development. The review concludes, “The presumption that new chemicals and technologies are safe until proven otherwise is a fundamental problem.”

Newer research is finding the same neurotoxicity problems as earlier studies. A 2017 study found that fluoride exposure in utero was linked to poorer cognitive performance later in life.

Fluoride Affects Other Parts of the Body

While the effects of fluoride on the thyroid, skeletal system, and brain is fairly clear cut, the science is less clear on how fluoride affects other parts of the body. Here are some other ways fluoride may cause harm:

Cancer – A connection between fluoride and cancer is a hotly debated topic, probably because the research is inconclusive and at times confusing.
Early sexual development – One researcher found that fluoride accumulates in high amounts in the pineal gland (that secretes hormones). A 1997 study found that fluoride was associated with faster sexual development in the female gerbils in the study.
Male infertility – Some data suggest that a decline in male fertility could be associated with topical fluoride use. Animal studies show concern but more information is needed.

So… Should I Be Worried About Fluoride?

There are many conflicting opinions on whether fluoride is safe and whether it’s something to worry about. (I know, you hear me say things like that a lot!) Mark Sisson’s opinion on it is that fluoride isn’t great but that we should focus on improving health in other ways first (clean diet, plenty of sleep, low stress, etc) before worrying about filtering fluoride from the water. On the other hand, if you are filtering your water because of any number of the other pollutants that could be in it, you may as well filter out fluoride too.

There is evidence on either side of the debate. My personal stance is that for people with thyroid issues (like me) it’s clearly best to avoid fluoride. And since fluoride does come with a warning to call the poison control center immediately if ingested (and after seeing a close friend’s scare when her son ingested some fluoride), I buy unfluoridated toothpaste and don’t keep fluoride-containing products around our house.

How to Protect Teeth Without Fluoride

Though fluoride may have a protective effect on teeth, there are other (better) ways to keep teeth healthy than to smear them with fluoride.

Dental Diet

What you eat can impact your oral health even more than brushing or flossing. Teeth are in a constant state of remineralization as the saliva in the mouth provides minerals to the teeth and the cells in the teeth use these minerals to strengthen themselves.

Diet can play a huge part in this process (and the health of your teeth). According to Weston A. Price’s (and others) research, a diet rich in healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals can help heal and protect oral health. I go into more detail in this post.

Balancing Hormones

Hormones can have a huge effect on oral health as they can control the acid/alkaline balance in the mouth. They also affect how well the body can heal from or fight disease. Many of us have symptoms of hormone imbalance and things like optimizing sleep, stress, diet, and fitness can make a big difference in hormone health (and oral health).
Homemade Toothpaste

Many conventional kinds of toothpaste contain chemicals and artificial ingredients that can do more harm than good! That’s why I started making my own remineralizing toothpaste. I’ve been using it for years and have had no new cavities (and have even healed some that were waiting for a filling).

Fluoride: Bottom Line

There’s lots of conflicting evidence surrounding fluoride and fluoridating water. Some agencies and dentists think fluoride use has been a huge health advancement. But there’s also growing evidence that fluoride can be harmful. I like to go on the side of caution (especially when there are natural ways to improve oral health) and avoid it. We use a water filter that removes fluoride as well.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Scott Soerries, MD, Family Physician and Medical Director of SteadyMD. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Terry Wahls, a clinical professor of medicine and clinical research and has published over 60 peer-reviewed scientific abstracts, posters, and papers. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

Do you use fluoride? Why or why not?

Sources:

Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.

Li, Y., Liang, C., Slemenda, C. W., Ji, R., Sun, S., Cao, J., … Johnston, J. R. (2001, May). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures.

Estimated “Threshold” Doses for Skeletal Fluorosis. (n.d.).

Beary, D. F. (2005, February 02). The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur.

Chapman, S. K., Malagodi, M. H., & Thomas, J. R. (n.d.). Effect of vitamin D in fluoride-treated rats

Impact of fluoride on neurological development in children. (2014, December 22).

Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. J. (2014, March). Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.

Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico. (n.d.).

Regression Analysis of Cancer Incidence Rates. (n.d.).

Fluoride. (n.d.).

J., L. (n.d.). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland.

Male Fertility. (n.d.).

Prystupa, J. (2011, February). Fluorine–a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

Water Fluoridation “Obsolete” According to Nobel Prize Scientist. (n.d.).

Main, D. (2016, April 06). Fluoridation May Not Prevent Cavities, Scientific Review Shows.

Singh, N., Verma, K. G., Verma, P., Sidhu, G. K., & Sachdeva, S. (2014). A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Homemade Remineralizing Toothpaste Recipe (Natural + Simple)

August 29, 2017 (Updated: July 30, 2019) — by Katie Wells
How to make your own remineralizing toothpaste with natural ingredients

Reading Time: 5 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.
Table of Contents[Show]

I’ve talked before about the link between nutrition and oral health and the ability of teeth to remineralize and regenerate and shared my own experience with reversing a cavity. The approach I used was two-part: addressing mineral levels in the body/saliva and using a natural remineralizing toothpaste that provided minerals to the surface of the teeth.
A Remineralizing Toothpaste

There is a lot of emerging information about tooth remineralization, a process that many dentists previously thought was impossible. This article goes into detail about the science behind tooth remineralization and the dietary steps necessary. (It also explains why ingredients in most toothpastes, even natural ones, are not optimal!) I also did a podcast interview with a dentist who explains the science of remineralization (listen here).

The information I found in researching this was mirrored by my own experience over the last few years with natural toothpastes and a remineralizing diet.
Natural Toothpaste

I’ve noticed definite changes in my teeth over the last few years of using this toothpaste. My teeth are whiter than they’ve ever been and everyone who I’ve asked to try this remineralizing toothpaste has remarked that it makes their teeth feel very clean.

The most surprising change in my teeth, however, was that they are no longer sensitive to cold! For as long as I can remember, biting into anything cold (or even thinking of it!) made me shudder and hurt my front teeth. After switching toothpaste, I noticed that I could eat cold foods without my teeth hurting at all. I have never been able to do that before!

This toothpaste recipe is kid-approved, and since it has no fluoride, its safe on babies, toddlers, and those with thyroid problems.
Remineralizing Toothpaste Ingredients

5 parts calcium powder (you can use cleaned powdered egg shells!)
1 part diatomaceous earth (optional, contains trace minerals and silica. UPDATE: A reader noted that DE can be abrasive and is not needed with the baking soda, so if you don’t have DE… no worries!)
2 parts baking soda
3 parts xylitol powder – this ingredient is not completely necessary, but just keeps it from tasting bitter
3-5 parts coconut oil to achieve desired texture
Optional ingredients: essential oils for flavor (mint, cinnamon, and orange are all good), myrrh, and trace minerals

Remineralizing Toothpaste Instructions

Mix all powdered ingredients (calcium, baking soda, xylitol) well in a bowl.
Add coconut oil one part at a time until you get desired consistency.
Add any optional ingredients, including essential oils for flavor (my favorite is peppermint orange)
Store in small container like ½ pint glass jar. To use, either dip clean toothbrush into it, or use Popsicle stick or spoon to put on toothbrush. I’ve also thought of storing in a plastic bag with a corner cut off to be able to squeeze like toothpaste, but haven’t tried it yet.

Notes

natural homemade remineralizing toothpaste ingredientsFor this recipe, “part” denotes whatever unit of measurement you are using. For instance, if part=tablespoon, you would need 5 tablespoons calcium powder, 1 tablespoon diatomaceous earth, etc.
The Internal Side of Remineralization

It is really important to note that remineralization is not a process that happens only in the mouth and that simply using a toothpaste (like the one above) with a higher concentration of minerals will not likely be enough to help teeth. Remineralization is a whole-body process and in order for it to happen, the body must have adequate levels of certain nutrients, especially fat soluble vitamins and certain minerals.


Gruup Kem Izm


Gruup Kem Trm Deskripshuhn


Uh Gruup Kem Iz .


Uh Gruup Kem Iz:

Uh Gruup Kem Iz:


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

chemical compound Noun

1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions


Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " [Gruup Kem Trm Deskripshuhn ".


Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz


Gruup Kemz


Gruup Kemz Ahr Gruups Uhv Simp Kemz.


Gruup Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds )


Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Gruup Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Druhgz
4: Thuh Sykkotroppik Druhgz Ohr Sykoaktiv Druhgz.

See AhLsoh:



Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

nature22379-f1.jpg

Included page "nuukleeoh-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

Nucleotide Mettabbohlyts In Foodz:

* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

protein-for-vegans-vegetarians

Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Ded Kem Syz Ohmz

Inorganic Chemical Compounds

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ded Kem Syz Ohmz ".


Included page "druhgz" does not exist (create it now)


SykuhTrohpik Ohr Sykoaktiv Druhgz


SykuhTrohpik Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Med Dikshuhnehree Deskripshuhnz Uhv Wrd SykuhTrohpik

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic (sī′kə-trō′pĭk, -trŏp′ĭk)
adj.
Having an altering effect on perception, emotion, or behavior. Used especially of a drug.
n.
A psychotropic drug or other agent.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Overview of Psychotropic Drugs and Mental Illness

Psychotropic drugs are prescribed to treat a variety of mental health problems when these problems cause significant impairment to healthy functioning. Psychotropic drugs typically work by changing the amounts of important chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Some mental health issues show improvement when neurotransmitters in the brain are increased or decreased. Psychotropic drugs are usually prescribed by a psychiatrist, a psychiatric nurse practitioner (PMHNP), or a primary care physician, although in some areas clinical psychologists with prescriptive privileges may prescribe drugs to clients.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs: Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Updated September 25, 2019

Why Psychotropics Are Prescribed

Psychotropics have been study-proven to help people with mental illness, including BPD as well as anxiety, bipolar disorder, depression, and schizophrenia.

The National Institute of Mental Health found that patients with depression who were prescribed a psychotropic showed more progress in two months than those who went without treatment showed their entire lives.

Psychotropic drugs are by no means a cure-all. Instead, they work to help minimize symptoms of BPD, like intense mood swings or violent episodes, that can interfere with therapy. Psychotropics take the edge off so you can develop skills to cope with and better manage your mental health…

Psychotropic substances are also found in alcohol as well as [ controversial ] and recreational drugs like marijuana and cocaine.


Thuss Sykotroppik Drugz Inkluud Sykeeatrik Druhgz And Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum: https://www.verywellhealth.com/kristalyn-salters-pedneault-phd-425092

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD.

Highlights

  • Associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University
  • Former research associate of the National Center for PTSD Behavioral Science Division

Education

Dr. Salters-Pedneault earned a BA in psychology from American University and an MA and PhD in clinical psychology from the University of Massachusetts Boston.


Syk Druhg Typss


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs: Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Updated September 25, 2019

Types

Depending on your mental health condition and symptoms, your doctor could prescribe one of the following types of psychotropics:

Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Anxiolytics
Hypnotics
Mood stabilizers
Stimulants


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Syk Druhg Typss ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " SykuhTrohpik Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


SykoakTiv Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt GeT Mayd ShohrT Az Sykoaktiv.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.


THiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " SykoakTiv Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Included page "drug" does not exist (create it now)


Thuss, Uh ( SykuhTrohpik Ohr Uh SykoakTiv ) Druhg MyT Bee LisTed In 1 Uhv Thuh NeksT LisTs.


SykuhTrohpik Gruup Kemz

Sykeeatrik Druhgz

Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz


SykuhTrohpik Gruup Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng Buh-Hah-ee Vrchuu KahLd IndeepehndehnT InvehsTiggayshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh SykuhTrohpik Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Druhg ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Druhg In Thuh Nrv SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Druhgz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv SykuhTrohpik Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Dayngjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Tu DeTh.


Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

0: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2::0: Sykeeatrik Druhgz
2.1: Lithium Carbonate
2:2: Aripiprazole Suhmtymz Kahld Abilify
2:3: Antipsychotic Drugs
2:4:Haloperidol
2:5: butyrophenone

The Most Dangerous Psychiatric Drugs: Highest Risk Medications
1. Antipsychotics
2. Benzodiazepines
3. Sleeping Pills (“Z-Drugs”)
4. Psychostimulants
5. Mood Stabilizers (Anti-Manic Medications)
What about antidepressants, are they dangerous?
Which of these psychiatric drug classes is the most dangerous?

1: RekreeaeeshuhnuL Druhgz
2: SykoakTiv
3: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
4: Kush Jemz
5. Kannuhbinnoeed
6.1: Phenylethylamine
6.2: Amphetamine
6.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
7:0: Opioid Izm
7.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
8: Sykuhtrohpik Vaypr
9: addict syt blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Sykuhtrohpik Gruup Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


See Ahlsoh:


See Ahlsoh:

Kannuhbinnoeed

AddicT SyT blaeem Drug Tho Naturopath Praise Drug

Kush Jemz

Phenylethylamine

Amphetamine

MeTh EesehnchuLz

Opioid Izm

Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh

Benzodiazenpine Izm


SykuhTrohpik Vaypr

Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


EgzampuLz Uhv SykuhTrohpik Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. SykuhTrohPik Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr; Yuu May See Suhm AT YouTube Vid Naymd: " E-Meth: SNL" By Saturday Night Live WiTh Ther YouTube Channel In Wich They "promote a new electronic pipe [ Wich GeTs Yuuzd Tu Tohk ] MeTh [ Vaypr ].

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng SykuhTrohpik Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLayss, Maybee Hid Fruhm Tuu Much Public Veew
2: And If Thow AhrT WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss Uh SivviLyzd Good Manr Wich Iz AkTeeng KrTeeuhss

5: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Thuh FakT ThaT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz { ( Less- Ohr Non- ) koffeeng } Mohr KwyeT KrTeeuhss DiskreeTness.

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum SykuhTrohpik Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Luhngz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

If Thow HasT Non-Lrnd Wer Uh Shop Iz ThaT Selz Small Glass PyPss AppropriaT Fohr Tohking Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Tohk


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Ohnlee Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz Tuu OfT KahLd Smohk.


NeksT Iz Pruuf ThaT Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For Ehnee PsychoAcTive Drug CookT Tu A Vizzibbul Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vaypr

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

vapour (US), vapor

1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Vaypr ".


Wuhn Kynd Uhv Vaypr Iz Vizzibbul Smohk Gass.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


See Ahlsoh:


Thuh Payj Naymd " LeeThul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz "


LeeThul Druhg Kombinnaeeshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd ( MuLTy+Drugz Kuhnsuhmpshuhn = Kuhnsuumeeng Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

See:



Ohpeeoeed mikschrz that sumtymz koz deth

Table of Contents


methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth.

Methadone by itself is an opiate which causes depression of central nervous system. Methadone is a pharmacological that reduces the opiate craving as well as lessens withdrawal symptoms and if it coupled with counseling, enables to reach tolerance threshold although prevents from drowsiness and euphoria. Appropriate and safe daily dosage ranges from 20 to 30 mg in initial stages and average 60 to 100 mg at latter stages. Because of its long half-life of 24 to 36 hours, between 4 to 10 days is required to achieve a stable maintenance dosage (52–53). Several studies on methadone maintenance therapy have demonstrated conditions in which mortalities happened. Based on a cross sectional study most of the 238 patients who died in between 1990-1995 were drug users and suffered from medical illnesses. Almost 21% of the mortalities occurred in the first week of methadone treatment and 88% of these patients were polysubstance abusers... Related to the first week of MMT…Only around 10% of deaths…tested positive for methadone alone. In another study was reported 62 (71%) patients were involved illicit drug consumption from all 87 MMT patients ‘death. According to these studies, overdose during methadone maintenance therapy is related to polydrug use (54–56).
- Frum: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4411899/


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " methadone opiate prescripTion kan koz lethul deth ".



Opiates and Amphetamines Mixing Dangers

Thuh Nekst Teskt Wuhz Fruhm:

Is There an Increased Risk for Overdose if You Mix Opioids with Amphetamines?

Written by: Editorial Staff…

Issues with Mixing Amphetamines and Opiates

In many circles, the combination of an opiate drug and a central nervous system stimulant is referred to as a setup or even a speedball, though this term most often applies to combinations of cocaine and heroin or cocaine and morphine. According to sources, such as the textbook Concepts of Chemical Dependencyand the three-book series Neuropathology of Addictions and Substance Misuse, combining stimulants and depressants can lead to serious risks.

If either of the drugs is being used for medical reasons, combining central nervous system stimulants and central nervous system depressants reduces the effectiveness of the medicinal purposes of one or both drugs.

This combination leads to an increased risk for overdose. The effects of the stimulant medication counteract the effects of the opiate medication. Individuals may believe they have a much higher tolerance for the opiate drug than they actually have, and they may take excessive amounts of the opiate. Stimulant drugs are typically metabolized quickly in comparison to central nervous system depressant drugs like opiates, and a person using both of these drugs may wind up with dangerous levels of the opiate drug in their system. This can lead to toxic effects or an overdose, which can be fatal.

The opposite situation is also possible, where the individual ingests more stimulant medication that they can tolerate due to the countering of the stimulant effects by the opiate drug. This can lead to the potential for overdose or toxic effects associated with the stimulant drug. Amphetamine overdose can also be fatal; however, the more common complication is overdosing on the opiate drug.

Combining drugs that have opposite mechanisms of action and opposite effects can lead to an increased potential for side effects, such as nausea, vomiting, or allergic reactions.

Combining opiates and amphetamines can lead to an increased risk for heart attack or stroke.

Mixing these substances leads to an increased burden on the liver. Over time, this can lead to serious liver damage.

Individuals who combine these drugs orally run the risk of developing issues with the gastrointestinal system, such as ulcers or abscesses.

The effects of these drugs lead to significant alterations in cognitive capacities. This contributes to an increased potential for accidents due to poor judgment or engaging in risky behaviors that an individual would not normally attempt.

There is an increased risk for an individual to experience seizures when amphetamines are combined with opiates. Seizures can be potentially fatal.

There is increased risk for an individual to experience psychosis, which consists of having hallucinations and/or delusions. Psychotic individuals are a danger to themselves and others.

Other psychiatric effects can occur as a result of this combination, including mania, depression, anxiety, extreme mood swings, and even potential suicidality.

Chronic use of opiates and amphetamines in combination can lead to the development of significant tolerance to one or both of these drugs. This can result in the person needing more of one or both drugs to get the same effects that they previously experienced at lower amounts. Developing tolerance to drugs increases overdose risk.



If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death

…The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is

* because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants

__**Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs,

  • which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide.

In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.**__..


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid and Benzodiazepine Use and Risk of Opioid-Related Overdose

* in Medicare Part D Beneficiaries

Inmaculada Hernandez, PharmD, PhD1; Meiqi He, MS1; Maria M. Brooks, PhD2; et al

JAMA Netw Open. 2018;1(2):e180919. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2018.0919

Key Points

Question: How does the risk of overdose change with the number of days with concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use?

Findings: In this cohort study of US Medicare data, the overdose risk associated with concurrent benzodiazepine use changed over time. Concurrent benzodiazepine use was associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose during the initial 90 days and an increase of 1.87 times on days 91 to 180.

Meaning: Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.

Results: Of 71 248 total participants, 25 600 (35.9%) were male and 59 532 (83.6%) were white. Mean (SD) age was 66.5 (14.8) years. On the day before overdose or censoring event, 20 665 of 71 248 patients with an opioid prescription (29.0%) were concurrently using benzodiazepines and 14 132 of 20 665 concurrent users (68.4%) had more than 180 days of overlapping supplies of both medications. The risk of overdose was highest on the first days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and decreased over time; compared with opioid use alone, the hazard ratio for overdose was 5.05 (95% CI, 3.68-6.93) during the first 90 days of concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use and 1.87 (95% CI, 1.25-2.80) for days 91 to 180 among those who did not have an event before 90 days.

Conclusions and Relevance: During the first 90 days, concurrent benzodiazepine use is associated with a 5-fold increase in the risk of opioid-related overdose. The implementation of policies deterring concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use is warranted. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association is a peer-reviewed medical journal published 48 times a year by the American Medical Association. It publishes original research, reviews, and editorials covering all aspects of biomedicine. The journal was established in 1883 with Nathan Smith Davis as the founding editor. The journal's editor-in-chief is Howard Bauchner of Boston University, who succeeded Catherine DeAngelis on July 1, 2011.


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Opioid-Benzodiazepine Combination Raises Risk of Death Fivefold

A number of studies have already highlighted the deadly risk you take when combining opioids with Benzodiazepines. Most recently, research published in JAMA ( See: https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jamanetworkopen/fullarticle/2685628 Key PoinTs KwohTed Uhbuhv ) looked at how the risk of overdose changes when you combine the two drugs for a number of days in a row.

As it turns out, during the first 90 days of concurrent use [ uhv Opioid-Benzodiazepine combo ], your risk of a deathly overdose rises fivefold, compared to taking an opioid alone. Between days 91 and 180, the risk remains nearly doubled, after which the risk tapers off, becoming roughly equal to taking an opioid alone. According to the authors:

"Policy interventions should focus on preventing concurrent opioid and benzodiazepine use in the first place instead of reducing the length of concurrent use. Patients using both medications should be closely monitored, particularly during the first days of concurrent use."

The study also found that the greater number of clinicians were involved in a patient's care, the greater the risk of overdose — a finding that highlights the lack of communication between doctors prescribing medication to the same patient, and the clear danger thereof. As noted by senior study author Yuting Zhang, Ph.D., of the University of Pittsburgh Graduate School of Public Health, "These findings demonstrate that fragmented care plays a role in the inappropriate use of opioids."

Other Studies Confirm Extreme Risk of Opioid-benzodiazepine Mix

Other studies have come to similar conclusions. A 2013 study found the combination of opioids and benzodiazepines was the most common drug combination in cases where an overdose death involved two or more drugs.16 According to the National Institute of Drug Abuse, more than 30 percent of opioid overdoses involve concurrent use of benzodiazepines.17

Remarkably, another 2013 study18 discovered "substantial co-use" of opioids and benzodiazepines among pregnant women that led to death, which is doubly tragic. As reported in a third study that year, which stressed the importance of urine drug testing whenever patients are prescribed an opioid, to ensure their safety:19

"[C]oadministration of [ opioids and benzodiazepines ] produces a defined increase in rates of adverse events, overdose and death, warranting close monitoring and consideration when treating patients with pain. To improve patient outcomes, ongoing screening for aberrant behavior, monitoring of treatment compliance, documentation of medical necessity, and the adjustment of treatment to clinical changes are essential."

A study published in 2017 found the ratio of patients, aged 18 to 64, who used opioids and benzodiazepines concurrently rose from 9 percent in 2001 to 17 percent in 2013, a relative increase of 80 percent. Not surprisingly, concurrent use of opioids and benzodiazepines for at least one day doubled the odds of an opioid overdose compared to taking just opioids.

Why Opioid-benzodiazepine Combination Is so Deadly

In 2014, Ohio ended up using an opioid/benzodiazepine mix in a death row execution when the conventionally used drugs were unobtainable.21 That just goes to show this drug combination has an assured lethality at the "right" dosage. The reason these two drugs are so hazardous in combination is because both are potent central nervous system (CNS) depressants.

Your CNS, which includes your brain and spinal cord, coordinates and regulates the activity of automatic functions such as breathing. Respiratory depression, meaning slow and erratic breathing, can occur on both drugs, which leads to a buildup of carbon dioxide. In a sufficiently large dose, breathing can cease altogether, leading to death.

Like opioids, benzodiazepines are not intended for long-term use, yet many chronic pain patients end up staying on them for years, and may even take them with opioids for long periods of time. As noted by Dr. Len Paulozzi, medical epidemiologist at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, benzodiazepines "are prominent fellow travelers with opioids. The problem is, people get on them and they stay on them …"


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Summary Uhv Kwohts:

[ San Diego County ] Med Egzamminr report tallies Opioids and Benzodiazepines account for most of accidental deaths.

"The annual study released Thursday details the 2,996 deaths the Medical Examiner investigated last year, including 1,225 that were evaluated by an external investigation, and the 1,771 autopsies that were conducted in order to better determine the cause of death…in San Diego County…

"While the report tallies all manners of deaths, [ opioid ] drugs account for the biggest portion of accidental deaths. Of those, many are related to Opioids including heroin and morphine, and Benzodiazepines, a class of psychoactive drugs. Oftentimes these substances are taken alongside other drugs, creating a lethal cocktail."


Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh

National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine

DeThs-Fruhm-Opioid_And_%20Cocaine-1999-Tu-2017.jpg
Thuh Uhbuhv Immaj And Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:
* https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates

Figure 7. National Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Cocaine, by Opioid Involvement–Number Among All Ages, 1999-2017. The figure above is a bar and line graph showing the total number of U.S. overdose deaths involving cocaine from 1999 to 2017. Drug overdose deaths involving cocaine rose from 3,822 in 1999 to 13,942 in 2017. The bars are overlaid by lines showing the number of deaths involving cocaine and any opioid, cocaine without any opioid, and cocaine and other synthetic narcotics. The number of deaths in combination with any opioid has been increasing steadily since 2014 and is mainly driven by deaths involving cocaine in combination with other synthetic narcotics (Source: CDC WONDER).

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Ohpeeoeed and Kohkaeen mikss kan koz deTh ".



See AhLsoh: Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz



Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Cocaine with Alcohol

Cocaine on its own can negatively impact your cardiovascular health, leading to dangerously elevated heart rate, vasospasm, and a spike in blood pressure. When you drink alcohol while using cocaine, the cardiovascular impact is compounded, and may hasten the onset of long-term cardiac disease such as cardiomyopathy, pathological arrhythmias, and even myocardial infarction (heart attack).

The National Institute on Drug Abuse explains that combining cocaine and alcohol causes your body to create a chemical called cocaethylene, which can build up over years of time or cause sudden death, and is more dangerous than either cocaine or alcohol on their own.

A 2009 Drug Abuse Warning Network report discovered that the numbers of those who mix alcohol and cocaine is high, reporting that more than 150,000 emergency department visits were associated with concurrent alcohol and cocaine use.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Mixing Heroin and Cocaine

When heroin and cocaine are abused concurrently, this comorbid use is called “speed balling.”4 And while cocaine can decrease the uncomfortable withdrawal symptoms associated with opioid addiction (one reason people mix these drugs),5 the combination greatly increases the odds of a fatal overdose [ deth ]. ( Sohrss: https://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/drugfacts/cocaine RehlehvanT Infoh KwohTed Beeloh )…

Heroin and cocaine cause many opposing effects in your body. Because of this, you might not realize you are overdosing on one of the drugs until it is too late.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Can a person overdose on cocaine?

Yes, a person can overdose on cocaine. An overdose occurs when a person uses enough of a drug to produce serious adverse effects, life-threatening symptoms, or death. An overdose can be intentional or unintentional…

Some of the most frequent and severe health consequences of overdose are irregular heart rhythm, heart attacks, seizures, and strokes. Other symptoms of cocaine overdose include difficulty breathing, high blood pressure, high body temperature, hallucinations, and extreme agitation or anxiety…

Death from overdose can occur on the first use of cocaine or unexpectedly thereafter. Many people who use cocaine also drink alcohol at the same time, which is particularly risky and can lead to overdose. Others mix cocaine with heroin, another dangerous—and deadly—combination.

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kohkayn mikschrz thaT sumtymz koz deTh ".



Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz ".


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd " Tohk ".


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " SykuhTrohpik Vaypr ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd SykuhTrohpik Gruup Kemz.


Sykeeatrik Druhgz


Syk Druhg Typss


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs: Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Updated September 25, 2019

Types

Depending on your mental health condition and symptoms, your doctor could prescribe one of the following types of psychotropics:

Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Anxiolytics
Hypnotics
Mood stabilizers
Stimulants


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Syk Druhg Typss ".


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Overview of Psychotropic Drugs and Mental Illness

Psychotropic drugs are prescribed to treat a variety of mental health problems when these problems cause significant impairment to healthy functioning. Psychotropic drugs typically work by changing the amounts of important chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. Some mental health issues show improvement when neurotransmitters in the brain are increased or decreased. Psychotropic drugs are usually prescribed by a psychiatrist, a psychiatric nurse practitioner (PMHNP), or a primary care physician, although in some areas clinical psychologists with prescriptive privileges may prescribe drugs to clients.

10 Most Frequently Prescribed Psychotropic Drugs

Based on 2009 data, below is a list of the ten most prescribed psychotropic drugs in the United States. The number following each drug name indicates how many prescriptions were written during the year 2009. Cymbalta (duloxetine) showed the strongest growth, with 200% more prescriptions written in 2009 than four years earlier.

!: Xanax (alprazolam), 44 million
2: Lexapro (escitalopram), 27.7 million
3: Ativan (lorazepam), 25.9 million
4: Zoloft (sertraline), 19.5 million
5: Prozac (fluoxetine), 19.5 million
6: Cymbalta (duloxetine), 16.6 million
7: Seroquel (quetiapine), 15.8 million
8: Valium (diazepam), 14 million
9: Adderall (amphetamine salts), 10.8 million
10: Abilify (aripiprazole), 8.2 million

Ther Iz Info UhbowT Eech Uhv Theez Psychotropic SykeeaTrik Drugs
AT: https://www.goodtherapy.org/drugs/list.html


Payj List In Thiss Catteggohree

Antipsychotic Drugs

* Aripiprazole Suhmtymz Kahld Abilify

* butyrophenone

* Haloperidol

* Lithium Carbonate


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Most Dangerous Psychiatric Drugs: Highest Risk Medications

If you’re taking a psychiatric drug, you probably hope that you’re taking the one with the lowest overall risk. Sure you want the drug to be therapeutic and alleviate your symptoms, but you also don’t want to take a drug with a rapid tolerance onset, debilitating side effects, and crazy withdrawal symptoms. Many dangerous psychiatric drugs are insidious in that they provide symptomatic relief, but end up resulting in disabling long-term effects; in some cases these effects are permanent.

Some of the most extreme dangers associated with psychiatric drugs include: drug-induced psychosis, tardive dyskinesia, brain volume loss, and dementia. Unfortunately, many patients taking these drugs are not well-informed of the long-term effects. In fact, some general practitioners remain unaware of the latest research suggesting that certain drugs may be risky long-term treatments from a holistic health perspective.

As an example, medicating a patient with a benzodiazepine may be helpful for reducing anxiety, but daily treatment may result in rapid tolerance onset. Eventually the patient will develop tolerance to the highest dose, and will likely experience side effects from ingestion of such a large dose. The individual may then need to discontinue the medication, experience debilitating protracted withdrawal symptoms and may even end up with early-onset dementia several years later – all as a result of one psychiatric drug that they thought was helpful.

Criteria to Determine the Most Dangerous Psychiatric Drugs

When attempting to distinguish the most dangerous psychiatric drugs from the less dangerous (lower risk) ones, it is important to have some criteria. Since most psychiatrists do not prescribe drugs based on “danger” and have no scale to determine potential dangers, it may be smart to do your own research. If I were to devise a rating scale, it would incorporate the following aspects of a drug: abuse potential, long-term effects, side effects, tolerance onset, and withdrawal.

Abuse potential / addiction / dependence

Dangerous or high-risk psychiatric drugs tend to be those with a high potential for abuse, addiction, and dependence. While not everyone will abuse them, the fact that there is potential for abuse alone should be considered problematic. Should someone with an addictive personality get prescribed any agents with a high abuse potential, chances are that they may get abused.

When drugs are abused or taken in excess, this could lead to impaired cognitive function, adverse reactions, and in some cases even death. Prescription drugs with high potential for abuse are commonly referenced as “controlled-substances.” The lower the number of the “schedule” such as “Schedule II” controlled-substance, the greater the potential for misuse and abuse.

Long-term effects

We live in an immediate-gratification oriented culture, where everyone is focused on getting immediate, fast-track results with no consideration of the future. The problem with an immediate-gratification treatment strategy is that you may get immediate relief from debilitating psychiatric symptoms, but long-term effects aren’t considered. This is best evidenced with drugs like barbiturates and benzodiazepines; they provide potent immediate relief, but may cause neurodegeneration when taken over a long-term.

When taking any drug, you should always calculate the likelihood of long-term effects or prognosis associated with a particular treatment. In some cases (depending on your condition) you may be forced to take a gamble on potential long-term effects (e.g. using antipsychotics for schizophrenia). That said, you should still make sure you’re working with your psychiatrist to minimize potential of these effects.

Side effects / adverse reactions

Many people review side effect profiles of drugs, but are so desperate for symptom relief that they’re willing to put up with some side effects. Several of the most common side effects associated with dangerous psychiatric drugs include: impaired cognitive function, drowsiness, weight gain, and sexual dysfunction. While the side effects may be bearable for awhile, frustration associated with weight gain or impaired cognition may continue to mount over time.

Imagine if you’re taking a drug that’s making you feel less depressed, but one of the side effects is drowsiness and cognitive impairment. This may lead to you making more errors at work and could get you fired from a good job. In other cases, people may find that their romantic partners even become dissatisfied with them due to sexual dysfunction and/or severe weight gain associated with treatment.

Tolerance onset

Whenever considering any psychiatric drug, tolerance onset should always be assessed. Even if you start with a low dose on an “as-needed” basis, certain drugs are associated with a rapid-tolerance onset. These are generally “Schedule IV” controlled-substances like psychostimulants and benzodiazepines.

The problem with a rapid-tolerance onset is that a person must keep taking greater doses to achieve the same initial therapeutic effect. Before the individual realizes it, they’ve hit the maximum daily dose or are taking supratherapeutic doses just to get symptomatic relief. At these high doses, side effects and adverse reactions often occur and discontinuation from the drug creates a neurophysiological fiasco.

Withdrawal symptoms

Many psychiatric drugs are associated with severe withdrawal symptoms, but certain drugs are tougher to discontinue than others. Safer drugs tend to be less potent, and withdrawal symptoms subside more quickly after discontinuation. Certain drugs are dangerous to the point that if you discontinue too quickly (e.g. cold turkey), you could end up experiencing seizures or even dying.

For this reason, it is important to consider the severity of withdrawal in advance. Most psychiatric drugs require a gradual titration to reduce the intensity of discontinuation symptoms. However, some drugs take much longer than others to titrate “off” of. Someone on high doses of benzodiazepines may take years before they successfully taper off of a high dose and an additional year before they recover.

The Most Dangerous Psychiatric Drugs

Based on the aforementioned criteria, below is a list of the most dangerous psychiatric drugs. Keep in mind that this is not a hierarchical list, meaning that what’s listed first isn’t necessarily more dangerous than the next item on the list. Also understand that some individuals may need to take certain drugs due to lack of other options for their particular illness.

1. Antipsychotics

Antipsychotics are commonly referenced as “neuroleptics” or “major tranquilizers.” There are two types of antipsychotics, namely: “typical” (older antipsychotics) and “atypical” (newer antipsychotics). These drugs function primarily as dopamine receptor antagonists, meaning they bind to the dopamine receptor to prevent excess stimulation from dopamine misfiring.

Abuse potential: These drugs have an extremely low potential for abuse. Most people that take them wish they had another option. These are easily among the most unpleasant psychiatric medications to ingest.
Long-term effects: The long-term effects associated with antipsychotic usage (especially at high doses) are downright scary. Over a long-term most people gain hundreds of pounds in weight, and there’s a chance they may develop Type 2 diabetes, and tardive dyskinesia (a permanent uncontrollable twitch). Plus there is substantial evidence to suggest that these cause brain volume loss (both white and grey matter).
Side effects: If you want to gain weight quickly, antipsychotics are the fastest track method. These drugs increase appetite significantly to the point that you’ll be raiding your fridge in the middle of the night. The medications also severely impair cognitive function and coordination as a result of anticholinergic-induced drowsiness.
Tolerance onset: The tolerance onset associated with these medications is relatively slow. Most users can tolerate the same dosage for a long-term before requiring an upward titration.
Withdrawal: Discontinuing antipsychotics is certainly no picnic. Withdrawal symptoms are just as severe (if not more severe) than any psychiatric medication. Various discontinuation symptoms include: insomnia, fatigue, agitation, anxiety, depression, and even psychosis. (Read: Can withdrawal from antipsychotics cause psychosis?).

Despite the heavy marketing of these drugs as antidepressant augmentation strategies, they really should be limited to being used by individuals with psychotic symptoms. Even if they provide relief, they will cause you to lose brain volume. The side effects are no fun, plus you could end up with permanent Type 2 diabetes, tardive dyskinesia, and even memory impairment as a result of the anticholinergic effects.

What’s horrible is that these drugs are being doled out like candy to people with relatively benign conditions like insomnia. (Read: Seroquel for insomnia). They are approved for schizophrenia and the treatment of bipolar disorder. That said, even people with bipolar disorder can likely find a safer medication that works than antipsychotics.

If you’re looking out for long-term brain health and overall physical health, this is a class of medication to avoid like the plague – unless you have schizophrenia and no other choice. Those diagnosed with depression, anxiety, and insomnia should seriously consider other options.

2. Benzodiazepines

Benzodiazepines are arguably the single most effective class of medications for alleviating anxiety. If you’re overly anxious or stressed, you can take a benzodiazepine and literally get immediate relief. They are very fast-acting drugs, but are associated with some serious problems. In fact, there is evidence that benzodiazepines cause dementia and possibly permanent memory impairment.

Abuse potential: Benzodiazepines have a high potential for abuse, and are thus regarded as a “Schedule II” controlled-substance. Many people end up becoming addicted to their effects and take more than necessary to “get high” or even just to feel calm. They are regarded as one of the most addictive drugs, sporting a 1.83 addiction rating.
Long-term effects: The most dangerous long-term effect associated with benzodiazepine usage is that of cognitive impairment. This impairment was considered “moderate” to “large” and appears across all measures of cognitive function, including memory. The GABAergic effects may also promote neurodegeneration.
Side effects: Some neuroscientists have argued that while a person takes benzodiazepines, they are unable to learn new information. It is well-documented that they impair cognition, but they may blunt learning abilities as well. Various side effects include drowsiness, cognitive impairment, confusion, and disorientation. This is certainly not a favorable side effect profile for those with cognitively demanding jobs, nor those operating heavy machinery.
Tolerance onset: Those taking benzodiazepines tend to notice rapid-tolerance onset. You may start out at a very low dose, but notice that within a month it’s ineffective. The next step is increasing the dose, which after another month, that’s no longer effective. Before you know it, you’re tolerant to the highest dose and side effects are unbearable.
Withdrawal: Going through benzodiazepine withdrawal is as severe as any, and can be fatal if high doses are discontinued “cold turkey.” Those that have developed tolerance to high doses usually require an extended tapering period, sometimes lasting well-over 1 year. Even after the tapering is done, a person will likely still experience post acute withdrawal syndrome (protracted symptoms) characterized by debilitating anxiety, hypersensitivity, etc. – months (or years) after the medication has been stopped.

The dangers associated with benzodiazepines can be minimized by taking extremely low doses on an “as-needed” basis. However, those with addictive personalities may not be able to resist taking more than their prescribed dosage. Not only do these drugs impair all measures of cognitive function, they inhibit learning ability and may speed up neurodegeneration.

Those taking benzodiazepines may find them effective for anxiety or insomnia, but the long-term effects outweigh the immediate relief for most people. If you aren’t sure what to take besides a benzodiazepine, you may want to consider a safer option like Clonidine for anxiety. I’d also recommend reading the following: “Hierarchy of Anxiety Treatments” and “Xanax Alternatives.”

3. Sleeping Pills (“Z-Drugs”)

The nonbenzodiazepine hypnotics a.k.a. “Z-drugs” (sleeping pills) are commonly prescribed, yet most consumers remain uneducated of the risks associated with treatment. Sure they’ll help bypass tough cases of insomnia for a good night’s sleep, but the long-term effects as well as side effects are alarming. According to a 2012 study, people taking sleeping pills increase their risk of early mortality and cancer.

Abuse potential: The abuse potential for Z-drugs is considered to be relatively low as “Schedule IV” controlled-substances. That said, many people find the effects of these drugs similar to benzodiazepines; both drugs influence GABAergic activity. Due to the effect on GABA, sleeping pills have a higher potential for abuse than often perceived.
Long-term effects: The risks associated with long-term usage of sleeping pills are considered similar to those associated with benzos. You may find that your memory has declined as well as your cognitive performance. Another problematic long-term outcome is an increased likelihood of early mortality and cancer – as evidenced by a 2012 study published in the British Medical Journal.
Side effects: These drugs carry risk of some serious side effects including: depression, impaired cognitive function, amnesia, and sometimes hallucinations. The side effects alone should steer most people away from these drugs. Plus they may increase your level of sedation after sleep, making it more likely that your motor skills will be impaired; your likelihood of getting into a car accident increases with Z-drugs.
Tolerance onset: While the tolerance onset may not be quite as quick with Z-drugs as it is with benzodiazepines, tolerance is quickly established. This means that you’ll constantly need to increase the dosage of your sleeping pill in order to get relief from your insomnia. Continuously increasing the dosage simultaneously increases risk of debilitating side effects.
Withdrawal: It is considered challenging to cope with the symptoms associated with sleeping pill discontinuation. If you want some evidence, just read what you’ll experience during Ambien withdrawal. Many people taking the drug are unable to discontinue due to the array of withdrawal symptoms that arise.

If you have insomnia, you should consider sleeping pills a last resort. While they may be slightly safer than benzodiazepines, they have a relatively similar mechanism of action – acting on the neurotransmission of GABA. Taking sleeping pills for a long-term is thought to impair cognitive performance and may lead to early onset dementia.

Individuals that consider sleeping pills a necessity may want to reevaluate their lifestyle as well as other habits. Insomnia can generally be corrected by making some habit changes and working with a sleep expert. Tolerance is quickly established on sleeping pills and withdrawal symptoms aren’t pleasant – just a couple more reasons you may want to avoid them.

4. Psychostimulants

Psychostimulants are drugs that function by increasing activity in the brain and nervous system. They stimulate activity, usually via reuptake inhibition of dopamine and/or norepinephrine. Increasing concentrations of stimulatory neurotransmitters leads to improved cognitive function, increases in physical energy, and relief from symptoms of ADHD (attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder). Despite the efficacy of psychostimulants, there are potential dangers to consider before taking one.

Abuse potential: There is significant potential for abuse associated with psychostimulants. These drugs increase concentrations of dopamine, a neurotransmitter associated with feelings of pleasure, reward, and euphoria. Individuals may like the initial dopaminergic “high” derived from these drugs, which may lead to drug abuse and ultimately “stimulant psychosis.”
Long-term effects: The long-term effects associated with psychostimulants are a bit difficult to analyze. Most professionals believe that when taken at therapeutic doses by individuals with legitimate ADHD, they may actually have beneficial long-term effects. Other researchers think that long-term usage may deplete dopamine stores and downregulate dopamine receptors. Evidence remains conflicting regarding long-term effects: one study reported nothing significant, a second reported slight benefit, and a third reported modest harm.
Side effects: The side effects associated with psychostimulants are generally favorable. Not only does cognitive performance improve, but a person has more physical energy as a result of these drugs. Unfavorable side effects include: hypertension, dizziness, headaches, anxiety, and insomnia. That said, many people find that these drugs increase libido, improve mood, and contribute to weight loss; all of which are considered favorable.
Tolerance onset: Tolerance is rapidly established on psychostimulants, which is why many people need to constantly increase their dosage for therapeutic effect. A person may quickly build up tolerance to a low dose, and find that they need to continuously increase their dosage to achieve the same initial therapeutic effect. In a relatively short timeframe, a person will have likely doubled their dosage. The problem is that when a person reaches high doses, the side effects may become severe and ultimately lead to discontinuation.
Withdrawal: It is extremely difficult for most people to deal with the symptoms that arise upon discontinuation from psychostimulant drugs. Many people have reported that following Adderall withdrawal, they experienced extreme fatigue, sleepiness, weight gain, and impaired cognitive function. Think of the withdrawal period from psychostimulants as being mostly the polar opposite of being on the drugs.

Compared to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, the psychostimulant drugs aren’t considered nearly as dangerous. They don’t appear to significantly impair cognitive function over the long-term. That said, people who abuse these drugs may end up developing physical health problems as well as problems with cognitive function such as low dopamine and downregulated receptors.

For individuals who use psychostimulants responsibly and/or on an intermittent (“as needed”) bases will likely minimize many of the potential risks associated with long-term use. Additionally, some evidence suggests that if you have legitimate ADHD, the long-term effects could actually be beneficial. It should also be noted that there are many effective “Adderall Alternatives” that you may want to consider prior to using a psychostimulant.

5. Mood Stabilizers (Anti-Manic Medications)

Various anti-manic medications include: depakote, lamictal, lithium, and tegretol. These medications are generally safe for most people with bipolar disorder over the long-term, assuming patients are carefully monitored. That said, these drugs may be more dangerous than antidepressants due to the fact that they can cause liver damage and thyroid dysfunction.

Abuse potential: Mood stabilizers have a low potential for abuse. They are commonly prescribed for bipolar disorder to help reduce manic symptoms. They will not produce an intoxicating high – all they do is “stabilize” a person’s mood.
Long-term effects: The long-term effects associated with mood stabilizers may be subject to both individual variation and the specific medication taken. Potential long-term concerns include liver problems, pancreatitis, and thyroid abnormalities. In some cases a person may experience cognitive impairment as well – depending on the drug taken.
Side effects: The side effects associated with mood stabilizers are generally subject to individual variation. Some side effects may include: hair loss, weight changes, depression, thirst, or itching. Some people may not be able to cope with hair loss and may feel as if the drugs are toxic to their body.
Tolerance: Most people find that they don’t develop tolerance to mood stabilizers. Many people are able to stay on the same dosage for years with sustained efficacy. Even if an increase in dosage is required to boost efficacy of the medication, tolerance onset is gradual.
Withdrawal: Those discontinuing mood stabilizers like Lithium may end up dealing with discontinuation symptoms. (Read: Lithium withdrawal). The withdrawal may be more severe with certain medications than others, and subject to individual variation. That said, the withdrawal from mood stabilizers is considered mild compared to most other psychiatric drugs.

Those with bipolar disorder benefit from taking mood stabilizers because they balance a person’s mood, preventing manic highs and depressive lows. These drugs are considerably safer than antipsychotics when used over a long-term from a holistic health perspective. They have a considerably milder withdrawal period as well.

Using a mood stabilizer could be justified among those with treatment-resistant depression, particularly Lithium – which has a favorable track record as an adjunct. That said, these drugs should generally be taken only by those with conditions that warrant their usage (e.g. bipolar disorder).

What about antidepressants, are they dangerous?

Most people know that antidepressants are associated with unwanted side effects and difficult withdrawal symptoms. That said, most newer antidepressants are considered relatively safe, even when taken over the long-term. By comparison to antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, taking an antidepressant won’t impede your cognitive function and memory; certain antidepressants may even improve your ability to focus.

Abuse potential: Most antidepressant medications have no significant abuse potential. This means they cannot be taken for a pleasurable, intoxicating effect. People aren’t buying Prozac on the streets to get high, whereas they may buy benzodiazepines and/or psychostimulants.
Long-term effects: A majority of antidepressant medications are considered safe when taken over the long-term. There is evidence that some medications may cause health conditions over a long-term such as: tinnitus, chronic fatigue, and idiopathic pulmonary hypertension. However, the effects of antidepressants (assuming they aren’t anticholinergic) over the long-term are of modest concern.
Side effects: Most antidepressant side effects are generally of moderate concern. They are not considered harmful, but may be problematic from a holistic perspective. Weight gain and sexual dysfunction happen to be among the two most common side effects. Should a person experience one or both of these side effects, they may end up becoming more depressed as a result.
Tolerance: It is well known that antidepressants stop working as a result of tolerance. Fortunately the tolerance is relatively slow in that it usually takes at least 6 months before an individual needs to increase their dosage to achieve the same therapeutic effect. Some people are able to remain on the same dose for years without tolerance, so there is some evidence that tolerance is subject to individual variation.
Withdrawal: The absolute worst aspect of antidepressant treatment is the discontinuation period. For years it was speculated that there were no significant withdrawal symptoms associated with stopping antidepressants. Now it is well-known that people experience things like: brain zaps, dizziness, headaches, increased depression, anxiety, and even suicidal thoughts when they stop their medication. Unfortunately, many of these symptoms can persist for months after the drug has been fully cleared from the body.

It should be noted that antidepressants are far safer than antipsychotics and tend to improve long-term outcomes for individuals with major depression. Based on the type of antidepressant and mechanisms of action, some drugs are safer than others. The SSRIs, SNRIs, and various atypicals are considered safe. The certain tricyclics may be geneotoxic and/or anticholinergic – potentially causing detriment to long-term health.

Various MAOIs are also known to have a dangerous interaction with tyramine, meaning if you eat too many foods with tyramine while taking an MAOI, you could end up in the hospital. Most psychiatrists explain this, but it is a risk that should be considered if you aren’t disciplined enough to monitor your dietary intake.

Which of these psychiatric drug classes is the most dangerous?

The argument could be made that antipsychotics and benzodiazepines are both the most dangerous. Though they have different mechanisms of action, they are both risky long-term treatments. Benzodiazepines have a greater potential for abuse and may disrupt cognitive function more significantly than antipsychotics depending on the dosage administered.

Despite the fact that your brain may function slightly better on an antipsychotic than a benzodiazepine, the physical side effects associated with antipsychotics are worse than those associated with benzodiazepines. You may be unable to stop eating, and become clinically obese – leading to a cascade of other health problems including hypertension and Type 2 diabetes as a result.

This leads you to end up on even more pills just because you’ve been taking an antipsychotic. Many of the physical health effects also influence the health of your brain; it’s a symbiotic relationship. The withdrawal is perhaps more dangerous from benzodiazepines, but discontinuation of antipsychotics may be equally as debilitating.

Individuals taking benzodiazepines intermittently at very low doses likely won’t experience the same dangers as someone taking an extended-release version every day. The frequency of administration and the respective dosing of each drugs dictates the harm potential, but both drug classes should be avoided unless all practical options have been pursued without therapeutic benefit.

Conducting a risk-benefit analysis: Do benefits outweigh risks?

If you are taking any of the drugs listed above, it is important to consider whether the risks outweigh the benefits you’re getting from the drug. If you’re getting great symptomatic relief from a “risky” psychiatric drug, you may be willing to endure any potential dangers associated with treatment. On the other hand, if you’re not getting any relief and are experiencing debilitating side effects – you may want to consider switching to a different medication.

It may be a tougher situation for someone who finds an antipsychotic working well to treat their depression, but is gaining significant weight and is concerned about long-term brain volume loss. Assuming they’ve explored all other options and they feel as if nothing else will work, the usage of an antipsychotic may be justified. Similarly, someone with refractory anxiety may decide that the short-term boost in quality of life from benzodiazepines is worth the risk of dementia.

What can be done to minimize risks of these drugs?

To minimize the risk associated with the most dangerous psychiatric drugs, it is recommended to only take them when necessary (e.g. benzodiazepines on an “as-needed” basis). In addition to reducing the frequency of usage, you should also be taking the minimal effective dose. In other words, you should slowly titrate your dosage up from the lowest possible dose until you get therapeutic benefit.

Take a low (yet effective) dose: If you need to take one of these drugs, it is recommended to take the minimal amount that provides symptomatic relief. By taking the minimal dosage, you decrease your risk for side effects and long-term effects.
Reduce frequency: Certain drugs like benzodiazepines and sleeping pills can be taken on an “as-needed” basis rather than daily. With these drugs, you should be taking them only when absolutely necessary; reduce your frequency of usage as much as possible.

If you are taking more than the minimally effective amount, you’ll develop quicker tolerance to the drug and the exogenous chemicals will make more significant changes to your physiology. The combination of quicker tolerance and greater physiological change equals an increased risk of adverse effects, severe side effects, and/or debilitating long-term effects.
Considering individual variation vs. potential dangers

Understand that not everyone taking psychiatric medications associated with dangers will experience them. Many people take medications such as benzodiazepines for a long-term and end up with no cognitive impairment and/or end up fully restoring their cognitive function. Others may take mood stabilizers for decades with no adverse reactions as evidenced by their consistent blood tests.

That said, many people do end up experiencing adverse reactions (e.g. tardive dyskinesia from antipsychotics) and wish they had known of these potential dangers prior to taking their medication. Understand that the potential dangers shouldn’t scare you away from taking a drug if you need it, but they maybe should scare you away if there are safer options. In other words, “off-label” use of these drugs shouldn’t be considered until all other options have been explored.

To get a better idea of whether you’re more prone to these adverse reactions, you may want to consider getting some genetic testing (e.g. GeneSight). Genetic tests will help you determine how likely you are to respond to a certain drug and tolerate it with minimal side effects. The more knowledge you have regarding how you’re likely to react, the better.

The Catch-22: Necessity of Drugs vs. Potential Dangers

If you have schizophrenia, you’ll probably need to take an antipsychotic to alleviate your symptoms. If you struggle with incessant delusions and are hearing voices, the most effective treatment is likely to be an antipsychotic that acts as a dopamine receptor antagonist. This helps reduce dopaminergic activity and provides symptomatic relief. Unfortunately, most natural remedies for schizophrenia are not nearly as effective as pharmaceutical options.

The major catch-22 is that despite getting symptomatic relief, a person may gain a significant amount of weight, experience high blood pressure, and even develop permanent Type 2 diabetes – all because of their medication. This means that you’re left to choose between: symptomatic relief and medication-induced adverse effects.

For some individuals, the adverse effects are a serious concern. Despite the fact that illnesses like schizophrenia are severely debilitating, so are conditions like Type 2 diabetes, obesity, and brain volume loss associated with the medication. In regards to schizophrenia, most evidence suggests that long-term health outcomes are superior among those adhering to treatment compared to those who discontinue.

The goal for most people with severe mental illness should be to get it under control, which will increase their ability to function in society and improve their quality of life. At a certain point, medication adjustments may be warranted as a result of side effects and adverse reactions. That said, when faced with a Catch-22, it is usually better to err on the side of symptom control.

Determining whether you could be using a safer drug…

Always work with your psychiatrist to determine whether there is a safer treatment option than the drug you’re currently taking (for whatever condition you have). Many people fail to investigate the array of low risk treatment options that exist. If you are concerned about the drug that you’re currently taking, do a bit of research and read up on the safest psychiatric drugs.

If you have an up-to-date psychiatrist, chances are that he or she will know the safest possible options for your condition; even if they are considered “off-label.” Explain that you are concerned about the long-term effects and/or side effects of your current treatment and determine the other possible options. While some people may be limited in their treatment options, others may find a drug with considerably lower risk compared to their current medication.


Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz

Table of Contents

Recreational Drugs Fraeez Deskripshuhns

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Recreational Drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons.

Authored by Dr Roger Henderson,

  • Reviewed by Dr Laurence Knott
  • Last edited 15 Feb 2017
  • Certified by The Information Standard

Recreational drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons. Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine can be classed as recreational drugs but are not covered in this leaflet. Recreational drugs are usually started to provide pleasure, or improve life in some way…

What are recreational drugs and why are they used?

Recreational drugs are chemical substances which are used for pleasure. There are many reasons people try recreational drugs. These include:

Their friends are doing it, and they don't want to feel left out, or not cool.
They get pressurised into trying it.
They are interested in experimenting with the effects, and seeing what happens when they take drugs.
They may feel drugs give them new experiences or perspectives.
They make them feel more relaxed, or more confident when relating to others.
They may feel drugs help them forget their worries or problems.
They may feel drugs make them feel happier.
They want to be rebellious.
They enjoy the effects.


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A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs: Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Updated September 25, 2019

Types

Depending on your mental health condition and symptoms, your doctor could prescribe one of the following types of psychotropics:

Antidepressants
Antipsychotics
Anxiolytics
Hypnotics
Mood stabilizers
Stimulants


Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv TeksT In Thuh Payj Naymd " Syk Druhg Typss ".



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Recreational Drugs Ranked: Listing Common Substances According to Their Danger

Wednesday August 30, 2017

By Abby Hutmacher

Have you ever wondered which recreational drugs are the most harmful? Or if one drug is more dangerous than another? It’s always a good idea to fully understand a drug before consuming it, which is why we wanted to break it down for you so you can be safe and responsible!

There’s a lot to consider when looking at the impact of a drug including benefits versus health risks; individual, social and economic influence; and the damage the drug causes the environment. Below is a list of 10 commonly used recreational drugs in order of their danger. Each drug has been assigned a danger rating based off of research conducted by Pro/Con.Org and are listed in order of safest (10) to most harmful (1).


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Ranking Drugs and Alcohol by Overall Harm

The British peer-reviewed journal Lancet published a study titled “Drug Harms in the UK: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis” on Nov. 1, 2010 which ranked 20 drugs from alcohol to marijuana to tobacco based on harm factors.

Individual harm (such as dependence, mortality, and impairment of mental functioning) was considered under “harm to users,” while “harm to others” (such as crime, environmental damage, and international damage) took into account the number and extent of others harmed by individual drug use. The two charts below illustrate the study’s conclusions using a 100 point scale where 100 is the maximum harm and zero indicates no harm. The first chart broadly illustrates all 20 drugs by “harm to users” and harm to others” while the second chart illustrates those drugs on 16 criteria from drug-specific mortality to dependence to family adversities.

The study concluded that alcohol was the most harmful drug overall (72 out of 100), followed by heroin (55 out of 100), and crack cocaine (54 out of 100). The most harmful drugs to users were crack cocaine, heroin, and methamphetamine (scores 37, 34, and 32, respectively), whereas alcohol, heroin, and crack cocaine were the most harmful to others (46, 21, and 17, respectively). Cannabis (aka marijuana) had an overall harm score of 20, putting it in eighth place behind amphetamine (aka speed) and before GHB (aka liquid ecstasy).

I. 20 Drugs Ranked by “Harm to Users” and “Harm to Others”

ranking-20-drugs-and-alcohol-by-overall-harm-2.png

II. 20 Drugs Ranked by Overall Harm along 16 Criteria

ranking-20-drugs-and-alcohol-by-overall-harm.png

Source: David Nutt, Leslie King, Lawrence Phillips, “Drug Harms in the UK: A Multicriteria Decision Analysis,” The Lancet, Nov. 1, 2010


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Below is a list of 10 commonly used recreational drugs in order of their danger.

Each drug has been assigned a danger rating based off of research conducted by Pro/Con.Org and are listed in order of safest (10) to most harmful (1).

Taking this into account, let’s take a look at which drugs are the safest and most dangerous drugs on the market today.

10. Cannabis

Cannabis (a.k.a. “weed”, “bud”, “marijuana”, “Mary Jane” or any of these other cool slang terms for pot) is a plant that has been used medicinally for centuries helping people heal and connect thanks to both its powerful chemical composition and the social nature of its consumption. Cannabis is listed as a Schedule I substance due to a lack of medical research, and has a danger rating of 20/100, largely due to its impact on crime and economic cost (because it is both popular and illegal).

Even though the danger rating is higher for cannabis, once legal and social repercussions are removed from the equation, cannabis’ harm drops significantly. For example, though “magic mushrooms” are considered the safest drug available based on Pro/Con’s research, when we remove things like crime, international damage and family problems, marijuana’s harm rating drops considerably, making it the safest drug for consumers. When you factor in the economic benefits of cannabis its harm rate is reduced even farther, making the case for a de-scheduling of cannabis altogether and its removal from the Controlled Substance Act.

There are no recorded deaths resulting from cannabis consumption, and its many medical applications make it undoubtedly the safest recreational drug around.

9. Psychedelic Mushrooms

Magic Mushrooms (a.k.a. “shrooms” or “boomers”) include more than 180 species of mushrooms containing psilocybin or a derivative. This naturally-occurring psychedelic chemical can cause consumers to feel a heightened sense of emotion, an increased level of introspection, and visual abnormalities like halos around lights and geometric patterns behind eyelids. Magic mushrooms are listed as a Schedule I substance despite their long history of medicinal use, and are considered a very safe drug with a danger rating of only 6/100.

8. LSD

Lysergic Acid Diethylamide, or LSD, is a chemical derived from the fungus, ergot. It was first developed in the 1930s then tested in the 1950’s on young service men and students, then outlawed in the 1960s as the drugs popularity began to take off. With a danger rating of only 7/100, LSD is one of the safest recreational drugs available, though remains a Schedule I drug due to its lack of medical value.

7. MDMA

MDMA, also known as “Ecstasy”, “E”, or “Molly”, is a psychoactive substance primarily used as a recreational drug to enhance sensations, promote euphoria, and increase empathy. It may also increase heartrate, cause memory problems or result in teeth-grinding, and may increase risk of death related to dehydration or heat exhaustion. MDMA has a danger rating of 9/100 and is currently listed as a Schedule I substance, though research is underway to see if it may be used therapeutically.

6. Tobacco

Much like cannabis, tobacco is a plant cultivated with the intention of smoking it, chewing it, or vaping it.
Consuming tobacco may result in an increased heartrate, diminished senses of taste and odor, and an increased likelihood of addiction due to the nicotine found within.

Prolonged tobacco consumption can cause many health conditions including heart diseases, chronic bronchitis and multiple types of cancers bringing tobacco’s danger rating to 26/100. Despite this, tobacco remains unscheduled and is currently sold over-the-counter. State-mandated restrictions do apply, however.

5. Cocaine

Cocaine, or more specifically, cocaine hydrochloride, is a chemical derived from the coca tree originating in South America. It was first isolated more than 100 years ago and has since been used in tonics, medications, and even early versions of the popular soda drink, Coca-Cola.

However, due to research outlining its highly addictive nature, its legal use has been severely limited, though its Schedule II status means it can still be used by doctors in controlled situations. Cocaine has a danger rating of 27/100 due in large part to the international drug war and the havoc it creates.

4. Methamphetamine

Methamphetamine (“meth”, “chalk”, “ice”, or “crystal”) is a highly addictive stimulant created from the nasal decongestant, amphetamine. It can be smoked, snorted, eaten or injected intravenously to create powerful euphoric sensations and hyperactivity while diminishing appetite. Methamphetamines are listed as Schedule II drugs meaning doctors can offer non-refillable prescriptions as an ADHD or temporary weightless treatment. Meth has a danger rating of 33/100.

3. Crack Cocaine

Crack cocaine is simply cocaine that’s still in its crystal form; it is riskier than coke due to its high level of potency compared to powered cocaine. Crack has become a popular alternative to cocaine because of its relatively low price and quick, powerful high which increases the risk of tolerance, dependency and abuse. Crack is also listed as a Schedule II substance despite its high risk of addiction and has a danger rating of 54/100.

2. Heroin

Heroin comes from morphine and is often used by those looking to feed an opioid addiction or just embark on an extremely powerful high. Heroin is typically injected directly into the veins, increasing the risk of infection and overdose, though more pure heroin can be snorted or smoked, as well. Heroin is a Schedule I drug with a high potential for abuse and minimal medical value, and has a danger rating of 55/100.

1. Alcohol

More than half of all adults have consumed an alcoholic beverage sometime within the last month. In fact, almost 27 percent of surveyed adults admitted to binge drinking within the month. Yes, adults love their booze which is one reason more than 15 million adults over the age of 18 reportedly have an alcohol use disorder.

Alcohol has been shown to cause huge economic, social and personal burdens and is the 4th leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. Alcohol’s danger rating, which accounts for things like the cost to the economy, society, the family and individual, comes to a whopping 72/100 and yet remains unscheduled and highly promoted.


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Scientists Rank 9 Recreational Drugs From Safest to Most Dangerous

A 2017 Global Drug Survey (GDS) covering hundreds of thousands of people around the world has ranked recreational drugs from the safest to the most dangerous, based on how many hospital admissions they lead to…

The survey took in responses from 115,523 people across more than 50 countries….

Turns out, 'magic' mushrooms are responsible for the lowest percentage of emergency ward visits,

At the other end of the chart, methamphetamine, synthetic cannabis, and alcohol carried the most risk of a trip to the local emergency ward, leaving MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamines in the middle of the drug safety table.

Overall, the hospital visit score card looks like this:

Mushrooms: 0.2% uhv 115,523 people

Cannabis: 0.6% uhv 115,523 people

LSD: 1.0% uhv 115,523 people

Cocaine: 1.0% uhv 115,523 people

Amphetamine: 1.1% uhv 115,523 people

MDMA: 1.2% uhv 115,523 people

Alcohol: 1.3% uhv 115,523 people

Synthetic cannabis: 3.2% uhv 115,523 people

Methamphetamine: 4.8% uhv 115,523 people

magic-mushrooms-chart.jpg

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6 Party Drugs That May Have Health Benefits

By Marc Lallanilla - Live Science Contributor

November 18, 2013

The use of illegal drugs for medicinal reasons is a controversial topic, even as more states and jurisdictions allow the use of medical marijuana and other substances every year.

And self-medicating — using drugs without the assistance of a doctor or other medical professional — can be dangerous. "Potential risks of self-medication practices include incorrect self-diagnosis, delays in seeking medical advice … incorrect dosage, incorrect choice of therapy, masking of a severe disease, and risk of dependence and abuse," wrote the authors of a 2010 article published in the journal Current Drug Safety.

Because of these risks, doctors strongly advise against the unregulated use of illicit drugs, which can do more harm than good. Nonetheless, medical researchers continue to find a surprising number of health benefits in drugs widely used for recreational purposes. [Image Gallery: 7 Potent Medicinal Plants]

1: Magic Mushrooms:

Mushrooms containing psilocybin produce colorful hallucinations, even when consumed in small quantities. There's also some evidence that small amounts of psilocybin can relieve the symptoms of cluster headaches, obsessive-compulsive disorder and depression.

Research published in the British Journal of Psychiatry in 2012 found that volunteers taking psilocybin had enhanced recall, making the substance an effective adjunct to psychotherapy. Another 2012 study, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, found that the drug slowed activity in the centers of the brain that are hyperactive in people with depression.

"We're not saying go out there and eat magic mushrooms," Robin Carhart Harris, lead author of both studies, told Reuters. "But … this drug has such a fundamental impact on the brain that it's got to be meaningful. It's got to be telling us something about how the brain works. So we should be studying it and optimizing it if there's a therapeutic benefit."

2: Ecstasy:

Also known as MDMA, ecstasy is a synthetic compound that produces hallucinations, feelings of emotional warmth and high levels of energy. The same psychoactive properties that make ecstasy so popular with partygoers may also make it useful in treating post-traumatic stress disorder, or PTSD.

Other research has found that ecstasy has robust anticancer properties, particularly for leukemia, lymphoma and myeloma. In 2011, researchers from the University of Birmingham found that a slightly modified form of ecstasy was 100 times more potent at destroying cancer cells than the original form of MDMA. "Further work is required, but this research is a significant step forward in developing a potential new cancer drug," the researchers said in a statement.

3: Cocaine:

Leaves of the coca plant (Erythroxylum coca) have been used as a stimulant in South America for thousands of years. The drug derived from coca, cocaine — popularly known as coke, blow or Bolivian marching powder — has been credited with a range of health benefits.

Cocaine can be used as a topical anesthetic for surgical procedures due to its rapid-acting numbing properties. When combined with other compounds into a preparation called TAC, cocaine can also treat minor skin lacerations, since the drug is an effective vasoconstrictor (narrows blood vessels).

Dr. Andrew Weil, founder and director of the Arizona Center for Integrative Medicine, has studied coca's gastrointestinal effects among South American communities. "If you look carefully at the coca leaf's molecular array, you find 14 bioactive alkaloids … while cocaine acts as a gut stimulant, other coca alkaloids can have precisely the opposite action. They inhibit gut activity," Weil wrote in the Huffington Post.

"During my time in Andean Indian communities, I collected many reports about whole coca's paradoxical, normalizing effect on bowel function, and experienced it firsthand, as well," he wrote.

4: LSD:

Lysergic acid diethylamide, usually known as LSD or acid, is a hallucinogen that's been widely used for decades, but recent research finds it has some potential for treating alcoholism. A study from Norway, published in 2012 in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, suggests that LSD prevented alcoholics from relapsing during treatment.

"LSD worked in an entirely different way than any current psychiatric drugs," said study author Teri Krebs of the Norwegian University of Science and Technology. "Many patients said they had gained a new appreciation for their alcohol problem and new motivation to address it." [Slideshow: Scientists Analyze Drawings by an Acid-Tripping Artist]

5: Ketamine:

Also called "Special K," this animal tranquilizer is sometimes used as a recreational drug by attendees at dance raves and other events. The drug may also effectively combat the symptoms of depression.

A 2012 study from the journal Science found that ketamine may help stimulate the growth of synapses in the brain, and beneficial effects of the drug on people with chronic depression can occur within hours. "The rapid therapeutic response of ketamine in treatment-resistant patients is the biggest breakthrough in depression research in a half century," Ronald Duman, professor of psychiatry and neurobiology at Yale University, said in a statement.

6: Marijuana:

Pot, in addition to being the most widely used illicit drug in the United States, has a raft of medical benefits. According to NORML (a marijuana advocacy group), 21 states and the District of Columbia allow some use of medical marijuana.

The drug has been shown through years of scientific research to relieve chronic pain, prevent PTSD, stimulate appetite for people with AIDS wasting syndrome, control nausea, relieve intra-ocular pressure associated with glaucoma, treat opioid dependence and improve the symptoms of Crohn's disease.


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Top 10 Most Popular Recreational Drugs

Listverse Staff: August 12, 2009

Recreational drug use is incredibly common around the world and it very often leads to disaster and crime. To resolve this, some people advocate a liberal approach to legalization, while others support a strong government police drive “war” on the sale and use of drugs. This list looks at ten of the most popular recreational drugs in use today.

1: Cannabis

The most popular of all recreational drugs, Cannabis, or Marijuana, Grass, Hemp, Weed, Pot, Hash, Dope or a variety of regional names has been cultivated for thousands of years. Derived in various forms from the Cannabis plants Cannabis Indica or Cannabis Sativa, it is native to central Asia but its cultivation and use is global. It is a Psychoactive and a Psychedelic. It can be smoked as leaves or flower buds, it can be ground down to isolate the crystallized sap and then pressed into a solid, or the resin extracted by collection via contact with the sticky plant parts.

The effects are fairly immediate, a slightly drunken but euphoric sensation, it can be mild or strong according to the method of delivery and the strength and quantity of the dose. It is not generally debilitating unless as with anything else it is taken to excess, and it can cause some mental confusion that is mostly temporary.

2: Heroin

Perhaps the most insidious of all drugs, Heroin, or Diamorphine is a derivative of Morphine, an opiate, first used as an alternative to Morphine as it was thought to be less addictive. The name Heroin, is a Trade name for Diamorphine and was used by the Bayer pharmaceutical company in the mid 1800’s. It is an extremely powerful painkiller and users experience exhilaration, euphoria and a sense of well being. It can be smoked, sniffed or injected.

The withdrawal effects of Heroin are pretty dreadful, and it is virtually impossible to impart to a non-user how bad it really is. The symptoms of withdrawal are physical pain, nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea, shaking twitching and a very strong craving for the soothing effects of the drug. Very few people can cope with withdrawal and this drives people to commit crimes to fund their next drug purchase.

3: Cocaine

Cocaine, derived from the Coca plant, has been used in one form or another for over a thousand years. Originating from South America, it has been chewed as a leaf by the Peruvian Indians for centuries. It is a powerful stimulant, appetite suppressant and anesthetic. In the Victorian era, many freely available medicines contained Cocaine for use with babies and children particularly when they were teething.

For the first twenty years of its production Coca Cola contained Cocaine but the laws controlling it in the early 1900’s prohibited its inclusion. It has generally through its social usage been a rich mans drug, although the use of Crack Cocaine, a modified version of the original powdered form is prepared as a “Rock” or “Stone” and smoked in pipes, has brought its usage down to street level.

4: Ecstasy

Closely linked to the use of Amphetamines (from which it is derived), Ecstasy, or MDMA, was originally used as a Psycho therapeutic drug. It is a Psychedelic drug that produces euphoria and a feeling of well being, decreased levels of fear and anxiety and a physical stimulant and sensational effect in users. It is illegal in most countries and is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world.

It is taken orally or sniffed as a powder. Users can have bad reactions to the drug and in the early years of its use as a recreational drug there were many instances of first time users dying without having administered an overdose. When users are exerting themselves heavily, there is a real risk of dehydration and death or illness resulting from it. Many of the “back street” MDMA factories use unclean processes and poor pharmacological techniques, and are a great danger to the people that make the drug as well as to the users.

5: Amphetamines [ Lyk Amphetamine And Meth ]

Amphetamines are a group of stimulant drugs that work by affecting the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. They generally create a feeling of euphoria, mental focus and resilience against physical fatigue. They have been used medically as an appetite suppressant, to treat ADHD in adults and children, and by the military in the Second World War. The most common street name for Amphetamines is “speed” because of the increased energy that users display. This made it extremely popular amongst young people in the 1970s at discos and then again in the 90s in the subsequent rave music culture.

It was originally widely available in America as Benzedrine, an inhalant medicine available without prescription, until its use was controlled by the FDA in 1965. Previous to this, the German military during WW2 used it recreationally and strategically, Adolph Hitler was daily injected with a compound of Amphetamines and vitamins.

6: Barbiturates / Benzodiazepines

This is the first item on our list that is a prescription medicine. There is a vast range of medicines that fall in to the category of “downers” This being the street name which has passed into general usage. Barbiturates have been around since the 19th century, derived from Barbituric acid, there have been hundreds of derivatives over the years. In psychiatry and psychiatric hospitals it was frequently used to sedate violent or disturbed patients. They are a Hypnotic, and Anxiolytic, which is often used to make a patient unconscious before the true anesthesia is administered. They engender, in the abuser, feelings of calm and relaxation, physically and mentally, which creates a high level of dependency.

Barbiturates have largely been replaced by Benzodiazepines. A newer range of sedatives that was first introduced in the 1950’s as Librium. Valium soon followed with Mogadon Ativan, Frisium, and Temazepam. Safer than Barbiturates, Benzo’s soon gained popularity and the sedative culture as it was known was born. The withdrawal from Benzo dependency is extremely disturbing for the patient and recognizably bad for the doctor to witness. It has been said that it is worse than withdrawal from Opiates.

7: LSD

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) is possibly the most powerful hallucinogenic drug known. It was discovered in 1938 by Albert Hoffman a Swiss chemist, whose actual purpose was to find a cure for the common cold. It has had a checkered history to say the least. Iconic public figures have, in the past, advocated its use: Hunter S Thompson, The Beatles, and Timothy Leary being notable advocates.

After 1-2 hours of ingesting the drug, visual awareness is heightened, sounds become enhanced, emotions and physical sensations are altered. The user’s sense of self and its interaction with people or objects, their concept of reality is generally brought to question. Strange visual stimuli, that may or may not be comforting or frightening overwhelm the user, there is a real risk of irrational fear taking over, paranoia, confusion or panic. Equally, some people have apparently wonderful experiences with none of these symptoms.

8: Opium

Opium

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

9: Psychedelic Mushrooms

For millennia, Psychedelic or hallucinogenic mushrooms have figured in society, culture and religion. There are more than 180 species of mushrooms which contain the psychedelics Psilocybin or Psilocin. They have a long history of use in Mexico and tribal societies and are currently one of the most popular and commonly available natural psychedelics. Psilocybin and Psilocin are the psychoactive ingredients responsible for the hallucinatory state or “trip” the user experiences some twenty minutes after consuming the mushrooms. The effect of which is similar to that of LSD but shorter lived and will be outlined in the LSD section.

Some of these “Magic Mushrooms”, are actually more poisonous than they are hallucinogenic, great care must be taken to pick the correct types. In fact it is a rule of thumb with users that you should never pick them without being accompanied by someone who has picked them before. In the United Kingdom, taking or possessing ‘shrooms, is legal, but preparing them including drying them or selling them is an offense under the misuse of drugs act. The Netherlands, in recent years, has made the possession of Magic Mushrooms totally illegal, which may surprise people who are aware of its relaxed laws on Cannabis. Magic Mushrooms can be dried, eaten fresh, cooked or boiled into a “tea”.


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Thohyz Ahr Deskrybd WiTh LoTs Uhv DeeTayl In Thuh Payj Naymd " Tobbacco Cigarrettes Smoke Nicotine ".


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Cocoa versus Cacao: Wait, there’s a difference?!

written by A. Gregory Luna June 11, 2017

We have been told ad nauseam the health benefits of chocolate. How it is great for your cardiovascular health, mental health, insulin sensitivity (diabetes), weight maintenance, et al. This begs the question. “Does this apply to both cacao and cocoa?” So let’s cover the fundamental differences between cocoa and cacao. In the cocoa versus cacao debate, which is better?

The Origin Is the Same…

Both cocoa and cacao originate from the same tree: the Theobroma Cacao tree. Indigenous to South America, much of cacao is now grown in West Africa (and unfortunately harvested by young children at gunpoint by warlord mercenaries. Forget Blood Diamond. It is Blood Chocolate!). Cacao comes from pods on the tree which are then cracked open to extract the cacao beans. These beans look very similar to the Arabica coffee bean. (Not a surprise perhaps since both coffee & cacao are full of phytonutrients, polyphenols, catechins, and other “big word” goodness which bring the aforementioned health benefits.)

The cacao beans are dried and fermented. If you have ever eaten pure cacao beans, they are bitter to the point of being almost unpalatable. Think of unsweetened Baker’s Chocolate, but worse. Incidentally, if you have ever heard of Cacao Nibs, they are simply cacao beans chopped up. Pure, unadulterated goodness. Nevertheless, at this point, the cocoa versus cacao debate begins, for the division between cocoa and cacao occurs.
Cacao

After being dried and fermented, cacao manufacturers heat the bean at low temperatures. This separates the fatty outer layer of the bean from the rest of it. The fatty part becomes Cacao Butter. It looks a lot like white chocolate (which incidentally doesn’t contain any cacao at all). Cacao Butter is the part of the cacao that brings the high amount of fat to dark chocolate bars. Cacao butter may be used for baking, cooking, and even as a skin moisturizer.

The remainder of the cacao bean is milled down to produce Cacao Powder. Similar to Cacao Butter, Cacao Powder boasts high amounts of macronutrient & antioxidant goodness. As a result, it is used in a myriad of baking recipes. The major disadvantage to Cacao Powder is its bitterness. Again think of eating pure Baker’s Chocolate (which incidentally is normally made from cocoa not cacao).
Cocoa

Cocoa stems from heating the cacao beans at a higher temperature than when heating the beans to garner the cacao by-products. This higher heating results in cocoa being a tad sweeter than cacao. Cocoa is found in tons of food items (however not always in hot chocolate cocoa mix).

On occasion you might see cocoa called Dutch-Processed Cocoa Powder. The Dutch Process blends it with an alkaline-based chemical in an attempt to mellow the bitter taste of the cocoa. Alas, in this additional processing, we lose more of the health benefits of the original cacao bean. On the plus side, pure Cocoa Powder does tend to be cheaper (and sweeter) than Cacao Powder. Incidentally, you won’t find Cocoa Nibs since these are known by another name: chocolate chips!
Takeaway

In the cocoa versus cacao debate the winner is cacao. It is the purest, less-processed form of the cacao bean (as the name would suggest) and boasts the highest amount of antioxidant, diabetes-fighting, heart-healthy polyphenols and other goodness. Not surprisingly in the paleo/clean eating world, the less processed a food item is the closer it is to its natural state and therefore, the better for your health so this all makes sense.

Cocoa is more refined, and many times, adulterated with sugar and other chemicals for the sake of sweetening it and increasing the profit of chocolatiers since they are using less true cacao. (Think of bartenders who “water-down” their drinks.)

However, cocoa still boasts the antioxidant benefits of its father cacao bean but not as much. For example, simply perusing the ORAC scale, which is used to measure the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory effect of fruits, vegetables, spices, etc will prove my point. 100 grams of pure Cacao Powder boasts an approx. ORAC score of 95,000; Cocoa Powder, 26,000 so you witness a whopping 75% degradation…

So if you can tolerate the taste, here is the scale of best-to-eat to not-as-great.

1: Pure Cacao Beans (good luck on that!)
2: Pure Cacao Powder
3: Cacao Butter
4: Cacao Nibs (great on yogurt bowls, desserts, cereals and much more)
5: Pure Cocoa Powder
6: Unalkalized Cocoa Powder (not Dutch Processed)
7: Dutch-Processed Cocoa Powder

These definitions are important when we talk about dark chocolate. In the Review of Popular Dark Chocolate Brands, we urge all people to look at the ingredients because not all dark chocolate bars are created alike. We know the best bars will have high cacao bean to low-sugar ratio (with perhaps a pinch of vanilla). The lower the cacao and higher the sugar (and dairy) veers us toward milk chocolate on the chocolate gamut. And honestly, we ideally don’t want to go down that road since the “benefits of chocolate” stem largely from cacao, not the inordinate amount of sugar and dairy. Remember that in a typical milk chocolate bar, “chocolate” is the 3rd ingredient. The 3rd!

Either way, if money is no object opt for anything Cacao over anything Cocoa. If anything, you get to say Cacao (pronounced “ka-KOW”), which is fun to roll off the tongue. If all else fails, remember this beautiful verse, “Eat the Cacao for it comes with a nutrient Pow!” Okay, okay…


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Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


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Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


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Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


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** 10 Incredible Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder
June 05, 2017

Who doesn’t like a healthy helping of cocoa? Cocoa is one of the most loved flavors on the planet. So much so that it can almost become addictive. The rich intense flavor of cocoa powder is delicious with anything including smoothies, coffee, or oatmeal. Many people even make savory cocoa sauces to put on their meat. Other than its incredible flavor, there are many other benefits for cocoa powder. Cocoa has been found to have truly impressive health benefits.

10 Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall.

1.Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.

2.Boost Your Sex Appeal

We all know that anything made with cocoa is straight up sexy. This is because cocoa is an aphrodisiac *wink wink*. If you want to find you way into anyone’s heart, you give him or her something with cocoa powder’s rich, deep, seductive flavor (these Cassava Flour Brownies with Caramel might do the trick). Another mood-enhancing chemical found in cocoa is phenylethylamine, this chemical releases the same endorphins that are released when we fall in love, and so it can help improve your sex life.

3.Feel the Power

Cocoa contains a healthy amount of caffeine. This helps to boost energy and fight fatigue. Not only does it have a good amount of caffeine, but it contains magnesium as well. Two tablespoons of cocoa powder has about 14% of your body’s daily value of Magnesium. Magnesium has been found to keep your body energized naturally. Magnesium has been found to protect your body against other issues such as high blood pressure, type II diabetes, and osteoporosis. Cocoa is known to be one of the healthiest ways to keep your body energized and awake.

4.Protect Your Heart

Cocoa is choc-full of the anti-inflammatory antioxidants flavanols. These antioxidants have been found to help your heart and your entire cardiovascular system. Flavanols may protect your body against cardiovascular disease, improves your blood circulation and lowers the risk of stroke. Other antioxidants, called polyphenols, in cocoa are known to help reduce HDL is (bad cholesterol) levels and prevent atherosclerosis, also known as hardening of the arteries. It is impressive what cocoa can do for your heart.

5.Keep the Wrinkles Away

For beautiful flawless skin, you simply need to get your daily serving of cocoa. Polyphenols have been found to help your protect your cells from premature oxidation this will keep your skin from looking aged or becoming wrinkled. It can also improve your skin texture and give it a glowing look. In one study, researchers found that cocoa helped improve skin microcirculation and skin hydration. You will look more youthful and bright with just a little more cocoa in your diet.

Not only does eating cocoa powder help your skin, but using cocoa butter as a moisturizer has also been found to keep skin soft and smooth.

You can try making your own moisturizer at home with this simple recipe.

Cocoa Butter Moisturizer

½ cup of Organic Cocoa Butter

½ cup of Organic Coconut Oil

Directions

Slowly heat ingredients up in a double boiler
Once ingredients have melted together, transfer into a larger mixing bowl and place in freezer until the mixture is firm but still has some give, about 20 minutes
Using an electric beater, beat the mixture for about 3-5 minutes until white peaks form and it looks like a very thick whipped cream.
Scoop into a jar and cover
Place the moisturizer in the fridge for at least an hour

This all natural, organic moisturizer will not only make your skin look amazing, but it will smell amazing as well. You don’t need to worry about any harsh, damaging chemicals being absorbed into your skin. Once you try this wonderful moisturizer, you won’t want any other moisturizer.

6.Keeps Your Brain Sharper

Cocoa has been found to improve your cognitive function and memory. Cocoa has been found to increase blood flow to the brain. Cocoa could possibly prevent age‐related cognitive impairment and forgetfulness. Certain studies have said that cocoa could possibly prevent Alzheimer’s disease and other neurological diseases. Just a little bit more cocoa can help keep your brain at its best for longer and keep your memory at its best.

7.Helps your Gut

Your digestive health can be greatly improved by a diet rich in cocoa. The flavanols in cocoa have been found to become a prebiotic when they are digested. Prebiotics have been found to work with probiotics to help promote digestive health. They balance the bacteria in your gut and ensure that the “good” bacteria in your stomach flourish and this helps to improve the health of your entire digestive system.

8. Protects Your Teeth

Researchers have found that more cocoa powder in your diet can actually prevent tooth decay. Certain compounds in the cocoa bean husk have antibacterial properties and have been found to fight against plaque. It could even be more effective than fluoride to fight cavities. Also, the compound, CBH, which is found in cocoa powder, has been found to help harden your enamel. If you want to keep those pearly whites as beautiful as possible, add some more cocoa to your diet.

9. Boosts Your Metabolism to Keep You Thin

The polyphenols in cocoa have been found to help boost your metabolism and this will encourage you to lose weight faster. Cocoa improves your body’s ability to metabolize the dietary fat that you consume from becoming fatty tissue in your body. Since cocoa helps your digestive health, this also keeps you from gaining weight. The least processed cocoa extracts seemed to have the largest impact on your metabolism.

10. Balances Hormonal Mood Swings

There’s a reason why women crave cocoa during their *ahem* “lady time”. Cocoa has been found to balance brain neurotransmitter levels, and this is especially helpful during PMS when serotonin levels tend to drop. Cocoa can calm changes in hormone levels as well and it also restores feelings of well being. The mood enhancing aspects of cocoa that we already discussed is helpful here as well.

Improving Your Health with Cocoa

Simply finding healthful ways of adding cocoa to your diet can make a huge impact on your health. Eating cocoa with a bunch of processed sugar will negate any of the benefits that cocoa offers. Also, some scientists say that eating cocoa with dairy milk can make the antioxidants in cocoa not as effective. Just adding a tablespoon of pure cocoa powder to your favorite smoothie or your favorite recipe of overnight oats can be the additional bit of cocoa that you need to truly improve your health. Try some new recipes that use this ingredient in its raw form so that it can have the largest impact on your body.


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NUTRITION INFORMATION
Amounts per 1 cup (86g)

Calorie Information
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Calories
196
(821 kJ)
10%
From Carbohydrate
66.6
(279 kJ)

From Fat
98.6
(413 kJ)

From Protein
30.8
(129 kJ)

From Alcohol
0.0
(0.0 kJ)

Carbohydrates
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Total Carbohydrate
49.8
g
17%
Dietary Fiber
28.5
g
114%
Starch
~

Sugars
1.5
g

Sucrose
~

Glucose
~

Fructose
~

Lactose
~

Maltose
~

Galactose
~

Fats & Fatty Acids
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Total Fat
11.8
g
18%
Saturated Fat
6.9
g
35%
4:00
0.0
mg

6:00
0.0
mg

8:00
0.0
mg

10:00
0.0
mg

12:00
0.0
mg

13:00
~

14:00
17.2
mg

15:00
~

16:00
3173
mg

17:00
~

18:00
3655
mg

19:00
~

20:00
~

22:00
~

24:00:00
~

Monounsaturated Fat
3.9
g

14:01
~

15:01
~

16:1 undifferentiated
0.0
mg

16:1 c
~

16:1 t
~

17:01
~

18:1 undifferentiated
3930
mg

18:1 c
~

18:1 t
~

20:01
0.0
mg

22:1 undifferentiated
0.0
mg

22:1 c
~

22:1 t
~

24:1 c
~

Polyunsaturated Fat
0.4
g

16:2 undifferentiated
~

18:2 undifferentiated
378
mg

18:2 n-6 c,c
~

18:2 c,t
~

18:2 t,c
~

18:2 t,t
~

18:2 i
~

18:2 t not further defined
~

18:03
0.0
mg

18:3 n-3, c,c,c
~

18:3 n-6, c,c,c
~

18:4 undifferentiated
0.0
mg

20:2 n-6 c,c
~

20:3 undifferentiated
~

20:3 n-3
~

20:3 n-6
~

20:4 undifferentiated
0.0
mg

20:4 n-3
~

20:4 n-6
~

20:5 n-3
0.0
mg

22:02
~

22:5 n-3
0.0
mg

22:6 n-3
0.0
mg

Total trans fatty acids
~

Total trans-monoenoic fatty acids
~

Total trans-polyenoic fatty acids
~

Total Omega-3 fatty acids
~

Total Omega-6 fatty acids
378
mg

Learn more about these fatty acids
and their equivalent names

Protein & Amino Acids
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Protein
16.9
g
34%
Tryptophan
252
mg

Threonine
667
mg

Isoleucine
654
mg

Leucine
1023
mg

Lysine
845
mg

Methionine
174
mg

Cystine
206
mg

Phenylalanine
809
mg

Tyrosine
632
mg

Valine
1012
mg

Arginine
955
mg

Histidine
292
mg

Alanine
778
mg

Aspartic acid
1679
mg

Glutamic acid
2535
mg

Glycine
756
mg

Proline
721
mg

Serine
728
mg

Hydroxyproline
~

Vitamins
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV

Vitamin A
0.0
IU
0%

Retinol
0.0
mcg

Retinol Activity Equivalent
0.0
mcg

Alpha Carotene
0.0
mcg

Beta Carotene
0.0
mcg

Beta Cryptoxanthin
0.0
mcg

Lycopene
0.0
mcg

Lutein+Zeaxanthin
32.7
mcg

Vitamin C
0.0
mg
0%
Vitamin D
~

~
Vitamin E (Alpha Tocopherol)
0.1
mg
0%

Beta Tocopherol
~

Gamma Tocopherol
~

Delta Tocopherol
~

Vitamin K
2.2
mcg
3%

Thiamin
0.1
mg
4%

Riboflavin
0.2
mg
12%

Niacin
1.9
mg
9%

Vitamin B6
0.1
mg
5%

Folate
27.5
mcg
7%

Food Folate
27.5
mcg

Folic Acid
0.0
mcg

Dietary Folate Equivalents
27.5
mcg

Vitamin B12
0.0
mcg
0%

Pantothenic Acid
0.2
mg
2%

Choline
10.3
mg

Betaine
~

Minerals
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV

Calcium
110
mg
11%

Iron
11.9
mg
66%

Magnesium
429
mg
107%

Phosphorus
631
mg
63%

Potassium
1311
mg
37%

Sodium
18.1
mg
1%

Zinc
5.9
mg
39%

Copper
3.3
mg
163%

Manganese
3.3
mg
165%

Selenium
12.3
mcg
18%

Fluoride
~

Sterols
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Cholesterol
0.0
mg
0%

Phytosterols
~

Campesterol
~

Stigmasterol
~

Beta-sitosterol
~

Other
Amounts Per Selected Serving
%DV
Alcohol
0.0
g

Water
2.6
g

Ash
5.0
g

Caffeine
198
mg

Theobromine
1769
mg

Footnotes for Cocoa, dry powder, unsweetened
Source: Nutrient data for this listing was provided by USDA SR-21. Each "~" indicates a missing or incomplete value.

Percent Daily Values (%DV) are for adults or children aged 4 or older, and are based on a 2,000 calorie reference diet. Your daily values may be higher or lower based on your individual needs.

Nutrition Data's Opinion, Completeness Score™, Fullness Factor™, Rating, Estimated Glycemic Load (eGL), and Better Choices Substitutions™ are editorial opinions of NutritionData.com, given without warranty, and are not intended to replace the advice of a nutritionist or health-care professional. Nutrition Data's opinions and ratings are based on weighted averages of the nutrient densities of those nutrients for which the FDA has established Daily Values, and do not consider other nutrients that may be important to your health or take into account your individual needs. Consequently, Nutrition Data's higher-rated foods may not necessarily be healthier for you than lower-rated ones. All foods, regardless of their rating, have the potential to play an important role in your diet.

The Amino Acid Score has not been corrected for digestibility, which could reduce its value

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