ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


[[include KehmisTree]]


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


[[include Simp-Kem-Trm-Deskripshuhn]]


Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

[[include NucLeon]]

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


[[include IsoTope]]


[[include prohtonz-and-nuutronz-az-kuhmpozzit-pahrtikkulz]]


[[include Ion]]


[[include simp-kemz]]


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


[[include Simp-Kem-1]]


[[include Peereeoddik-TaeebuL]]


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

[[include Groop-Kemz]]

Gruup Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz

Groop Kemz Ahr Groops Uhv [[Simp Kemz]]].


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


[[include life-essential-nutrition]]


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


[[include byohmollekkeewulz-and-ohrgannik-kompowndz-lists]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


THuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "ChemicaL ELemenT" Iz Shruhngk


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…

[[[Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz]]

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


[[include VaeeLehnss]]


Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

[[include Simp-Kem-1-H-MaTh]]


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

Groop Kemz

Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)

Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


[[include Lyf-EesehnchuL-NuuTrishuhn]]


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Included page "tox-kemz" does not exist (create it now)


Kush Groop Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Daynjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Ded.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Uhv Lyf Groop Kemz

Table of Contents

Immaj Nrv Kom Kyndz STrukTs And Kemz

Nrv_Kom_Kyndz_STrukTs_And_Kemz.jpeg

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Synthesis and Storage of Neurotransmitters

The first steps in synaptic transmission is the synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters.

There are two broad categories of neurotransmitters.

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length,


[[include SmahL-MollehkeeuuL-NurrohTranzmiTrz]]


[[include Neuropeptides]]


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

synaptic vesicle noun

Medical Definition of synaptic vesicle


https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/a/neurotransmitters-their-receptors


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-neurotransmitters/


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Evree Wrd Uh Leengk And Wuhz Fruhm:

Major neurotransmitters:

Amino acids: glutamate,[6] aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine
Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Monoamines: dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (noradrenaline; NE, NA), epinephrine (adrenaline), histamine, serotonin (SER, 5-HT)
Trace amines: phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine, octopamine, tryptamine, etc.
Peptides: oxytocin, somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[11]
Purines: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine
Others: acetylcholine (ACh), anandamide, etc.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter#List_of_neurotransmitters,_peptides,_and_gaseous_signaling_molecules


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-receptors/


Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs

  • Uhv [[[Omnyon Izm

Table of Contents

[[include SykuhTrohpik-Izm]]


[[include Psychoactive]]


[[include Recreational-Drugs]]


[[include sykehdehlik-izm]]


Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


[[include Kush-Jem]]


[[include Recreational-Drug-Owners-Constitutional-Rights]]


[[include Sollid-Kush-Jemz]]


See: Kush Groop Kemz


[[include Kush-Vaypr]]


[[include Tohk]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jemz.


Included page "cacao-cocoa-powdr-fohr-prohteen-and-3-sychuhtrohpik-drugz" does not exist (create it now)


See Ahlsoh:

Kannuhbinnoeed

Phenylethylamine

Amphetamine

MeTh EesehnchuLz

Opioid Izm

Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh

Benzodiazenpine Izm

If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

[[include Vaypr]]


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


[[include leethul-drug-kombinnayshuhnz]]


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Groop Kemz.

Gruup Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz

Groop Kemz Ahr Groops Uhv [[Simp Kemz]]].


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

nature22379-f1.jpg

Included page "nuukleeoh-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

Nucleotide Mettabbohlyts In Foodz:

* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

protein-for-vegans-vegetarians

Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


THuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "ChemicaL ELemenT" Iz Shruhngk


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…

[[[Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz]]

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given Thuh TruhdishuhnuL Eeng-Glish Naeem Nohrm SpeLd "Hydrogen" Wich Iz Spohk AT


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Possibul Vrzhuhnz Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoV#0 Az 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoV#1 Az 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoV#2 Az 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoV# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonV#0 Az 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonV#1 Az 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.

When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

[Wee] can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of Hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the [ Simp Kem core nuhmbr ] of the isotopes of Hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the [ Simp Kem Proton ] number. We can see here that the [ Simp Kem Proton ] numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons] and [ Siop Kem core ] masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of Hydrogen: Protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the Nucleon Nuhmbr and the subscripts are the number of protons or the Kem Ehlehment number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of Hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What Is a Hydrogen Ion?

A hydrogen ion refers to the nucleus of a hydrogen ion isolated from its electron. The term is also commonly used to refer to the hydrogen ion in water solutions.

The nucleus of a hydrogen atom is made up of a positively charged particle called a proton. Therefore, the hydrogen ion, whose symbol is H+, represents a proton. Since the isolated nucleus of hydrogen can easily combine with other particles, the isolated hydrogen ion can only be present in an almost particle-free space or in gaseous state. Moreover, the amount of hydrogen ion in a water solution is used to calculate the level of acidity.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from [ Ion Vrzhuhn 1 Electron Uhv ] hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

** Iz Thuh ( Mohst Simp IsoTope 0 Neutrons )
** And ( Thuh Mohst Simp Ion Vrzhuhn 0 Electrons ) Uhv Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Cation Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

Groop Kemz

Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)

Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

nature22379-f1.jpg

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Nucleotide Mettabbohlyts In Foodz:

* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

protein-for-vegans-vegetarians

Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


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Kush Groop Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Daynjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Ded.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Uhv Lyf Groop Kemz

Table of Contents

Immaj Nrv Kom Kyndz STrukTs And Kemz

Nrv_Kom_Kyndz_STrukTs_And_Kemz.jpeg

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Synthesis and Storage of Neurotransmitters

The first steps in synaptic transmission is the synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters.

There are two broad categories of neurotransmitters.

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length,


Smahl Mollehkeeuul Nurrohtranzmitrz

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal. Some of the precursors necessary for the synthesis of these molecules are taken up by selective transporters on the membrane of the terminal. Others are byproducts of cellular processes that take place within the neuron itself and are thus readily available. The enzymes necessary to catalyze an interaction among these precursors are usually produced in the cell body and transported to the terminal by slow axonal transport.


SmahL_MollehkeeuuL_NurrohTranzmiTrz_Shruhnk.jpg

Neuropeptides

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

These messengers differ from small-molecule neurotransmitters in both size and in the way that they are synthesized. Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length, and are thus larger than small-molecule neurotransmitters. Also, neuropeptides must made in the cell body because their synthesis requires peptide bond formation. This process is a great deal more involved than the simple enzymatic reactions involved in making smaller neurotransmitters.

The synthesis of a neuropeptide is very much like the synthesis of any secretory protein made by the cell. First, within the cell nucleus, gene transcription takes place, during which a specific peptide-coding sequence of DNA is used as a template to construct a corresponding strand of messenger RNA. The mRNA then travels to a ribosome, where the process of translation begins. During translation, the sequence of nucleotides that make up the mRNA act as a code to string together a corresponding sequence of amino acids that will eventually become the neuropeptide needed at the terminal. Before this molecule can be transported to the terminal for release into the synaptic cleft, it must be processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), packaged in the golgi apparatus, and transported in storage vesicles down the axon to the terminal.

Once they are synthesized, neurotransmitters, both small molecules and neuropeptides, are stored in vesicles within the axon terminal until an action potential arrives and they are released. Most small-molecule neurotransmitters are stored in small vesicles that range from 40 to 60 nm in diameter and, in electron micrographs, appear to have clear centers. The vesicles that store neuropeptides are larger, ranging from 90 to 250 nm in diameter. These vesicles appear dark and electron-dense in electron micrographs.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides and their Classification

Mammalian Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Families

Due to the history of the discovery of neuropeptides and endocrine peptides, their location of synthesis and targets, the classification of these types of peptides is somewhat tricky. This has led to a few classification approaches. Some of them are listed below. The new fields of brain research and neuroscience will surly add more peptides to this list in the coming years.

Classification of bioactive peptides

Table of Contents

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A: Hypothalamic Hormones

The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that contains several types of neurons responsible for secreting different hormones. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus but just above the brainstem. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus and in humans it is roughly the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for some metabolic processes and similar activities of the autonomic nervous system and synthesizes and secretes neurohormones or neuropeptides. These types of peptides are often called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones which in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, and important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and the circadian clock. All of the secreted peptides are released into the blood in the capillaries and travel immediately in portal veins to a second capillary bed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, where they exert their effects. Neuropeptides are released in periodic spurts which is why replacement hormone therapy with these hormones does not work unless the replacements are also given in spurts.

Table 1: Peptide hormones and their physiological effects.


Table 2: Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

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B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

C: Tachykinins

Tachykinin peptides belong to a large neuropeptide family found in a wide range of species ranging from amphibians to mammals. The name of this peptide family originates from their ability to rapidly induce contraction of gut tissue. The tachykinin family is characterized by a common C-terminal sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or an aliphatic amino acid. All tachykinin peptides cause hypotension, contraction of gut and bladder smooth muscle, and secretion of saliva in mammals. The genes that encode precursor proteins called preprotachykinins are differentially spliced to produce different sets of peptides and the precursor proteins are posttranslational processed with the help of proteases to produce smaller peptides. Neurokinins are part of the tachykinin peptide family also includes Neurokinin B, Substance P, Physalaemin, and Eledoisin. Neurokinin A and B were originally isolated from porcine spinal cord. Neurokinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B) and the neurokinin receptors - NK1 and NK3 - are largely expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), where they are involved in the central regulation of visceral function. Neurokinin A is involved in hematopoietic regulation while Neurokinin B is known for its role as the mediator of pain transmission. Neurokinin A is also very similar in structure to Substance P and produces some of the same biological actions as Substance P. Neurokinin A is a potent bronchoconstrictor. In the gut, Neurokinin A is produced by the intrinsic enteric nervous system.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

[ Tachykinins ] Definition

Tachykinins are multifunctional brain/gut peptides. In mammals and insects, various isoforms play an important neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. They are involved in the processing of sensory information and in the control of motor activities. In addition, the peptides elicit stimulatory responses on a variety of visceral muscles.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Related Peptides

Among the numerous families of neuropeptides, which are evolutionarily the oldest neuro- transmitters, even older than acetylcholine and catecholamines, four tachykinin-like peptides seem to occupy a very important position: invertebrate tachykinin-like pnneptides, prevertebrate tachykinin-like peptides, submammalian vertebrate tachykinins, mammalian tachykinins…

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Structural Characteristics

Amphibian Skin Tachykinins:

  • The great majority of amphibian skin peptides have the classical C-terminal pentapeptide sequence: Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. However, important exceptions are represented by: 1) some tachykinins from the skin of the Australian frog Agalychnis callidryas, namely AC-AR1, AC-AR2, and AC-AR3 with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Met-NH2 and AC-AR4 with sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Val-Met-NH2; and 2) hylambatin from the skin of the South-African frog Hylambates maculatus with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Gly-Met-Met-NH2. It is evident that in the C-terminal pentapeptide only the Phe residue at position 5 from the C terminus and Met-NH2 are immutable

Brain and Gut Tachykinins:

  • All of these tachykinins, with the exception of ranatachynin D, show the classical C-terminal pentapeptide Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. Of considerable interest is the fact that in goldfish, cod, and trout NKA-like peptides, the usual acidic Asp residue at position 7 from the C terminus, crucial for receptor NK2/NK3 selectivity, is replaced by the neutral Asn residue. NKA is present in as many as six submammalian species also by its elongated form, the ?-neuropeptides.

Mammalian Tachykinins:

  • They are derived from two preprotachykinin genes: the PPT-A gene, which encodes the sequences of SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K and neuropeptide-?, and the PPT-B gene, which encodes the sequence of NKB. The precursor RNA from PPT-A is alternatively processed to yield three different mRNAs. The three precursor proteins from which the mRNA codes are designated a-, ß-, and ?-PPT; a-PPT, which generates SP; ß-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K; and ?-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide-?. The biological significance of the alternative splicing of PPT-A is unknown. The relative proportion of a-, ß-, and ?-PPT mRNAs is markedly species dependent. Tachykinins are liberated from their precursors by the action of specific processing proteases. Typical cleavage points are Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg, and Arg-Lys doublets and the cleavage is carried out by six groups of proteolytic enzymes called convertases. COOH-terminal amidation after cleavage is generated from the precursor sequence, Gly-Leu-Met-Gly-Lys-Arg, in which Gly acts as the amide donor
  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

*** [ Tachykinins ] Mode of Action
Structurally tachykinin-related peptides have been isolated from various invertebrate species and shown to exhibit their biological activities through a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for a tachykinin-related peptide. A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor, the urechistachykinin receptor (UTKR) from the echiuroid worm, Urechis unitinctus. The deduced UTKR precursor includes seven transmembrane domains and typical sites for mammalian tachykinin receptors and invertebrate tachykinin-related peptide receptors. A functional analysis of the UTKR expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that UTKR, like tachykinin receptors and tachykinin-related peptide receptors, activates calcium-dependent signal transduction upon binding to its endogenous ligands, urechistachykinins (Uru-TKs) I2013V and VII, which were isolated as Urechis tachykinin-related peptides from the nervous tissue of the Urechis unitinctus in our previous study. UTKR responded to all Uru-TKs equivalently, showing that UTKR possesses no selective affinity with Uru-TKs. In contrast, UTKR was not activated by substance P or an Uru-TK analog containing a C-terminal Met-NH2 instead of Arg-NH2.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Kawada T, Furukawa Y, Shimizu Y, Minakata H, Nomoto K, Satake H (2002). A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor. European Journal of Biochemistry, 269(17):4238-4246.

[ Tachykinins ] Functions

It is beyond doubt that neuronal tachykinins play an important role in neurotransmission/neuro- modulation both in the CNS and in periphery. This is demonstrated by the overall occurrence of tachykinins in the brain and other nervous structures from the lowest invertebrates to mammals. Although important, the tachykinin peptide family represents only one of the numerous peptide and nonpeptide families involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. Members of these families are expressed in a variety of tissues, and very frequently a tachykinin is costored and cosecreted by the nerve endings with other peptides or biogenic amines. Moreover, the tachykinins, like all other neuropeptides, may enter in competition, positive or negative, with a number of active extraneuronal compounds originating in blood (bradykinin and angiotensin) or in compact or diffuse endocrine organs. Tachykinins, with their variable primary structure seem to be adapted to display, in the better way, their function in the different invertebrate and vertebrate phyla. In all examined species, and especially in mammals (the phylum more thoroughly studied), tachykinins elicit a spectrum of biological activity (both in the CNS and in the periphery), which may vary conspicuously in the different species and even in the various strains of single species, again strongly supporting the concept of a general, important functional significance of these peptides.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 5: Tachykinin Releted Peptides


Thuh NexT Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 6: Neuropeptide Tyrosine NPY And Related Peptides


Thuh Nekst Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 7: VIP-Glucagon Family


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 8: Other Peptides


Novel Neuropeptides

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Table 9: ‘Novel’ Neuropeptides

Recent improvements in technologies used in genomics and proteomics allowing the discovery and study of neuropeptides has led to a multitude of newly discovered functional peptides present in the neurosystem of different species, including humans. In particularly, the use of nanoscale chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has allowed structural determination of neuropeptides in various species at lower levels than what was possible before. Since peptides synthesized in the nervous system serve as messengers and modulators of numerous biological processes it is important to understand how these peptides are produced and how they act. Since inaccurate neuropeptide synthesis or signal transduction can result in the dysfunction or death of an organism the knowledge of the structure of naturally occurring neuropeptides is required to decipher how neuropeptide precursors are processed and how they function. Below is a list of novel neuropeptides].


Table of Contents

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Table 10: Gene Families Of Classical Neuropeptides


Gene Fam NeuroPeptide Top Row


Opioid Gene Family


Vasopressin And Oxytocin Gene Family


CCK Gastrin Gene Family


Somastostatin Gene Family

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Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Paeej Naeemd Neuropeptides.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

synaptic vesicle noun

Medical Definition of synaptic vesicle


https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/a/neurotransmitters-their-receptors


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-neurotransmitters/


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Evree Wrd Uh Leengk And Wuhz Fruhm:

Major neurotransmitters:

Amino acids: glutamate,[6] aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine
Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Monoamines: dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (noradrenaline; NE, NA), epinephrine (adrenaline), histamine, serotonin (SER, 5-HT)
Trace amines: phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine, octopamine, tryptamine, etc.
Peptides: oxytocin, somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[11]
Purines: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine
Others: acetylcholine (ACh), anandamide, etc.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter#List_of_neurotransmitters,_peptides,_and_gaseous_signaling_molecules


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-receptors/


Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs

  • Uhv [[[Omnyon Izm

Table of Contents

Sykuhtrohpik Izm


SykuhTrohpik Drug Izm


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs

Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Psychotropic drugs are medications that affect your central nervous system, changing how your brain processes information, such as altering your mood, thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors. Most psychotropic drugs are prescribed by your therapist or health care provider to treat a diagnosed mental illness, such as bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder. Other psychotropics, such as marijuana or cocaine, are taken illegally for recreational purposes.

The different types of psychotropic drugs include antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-obsessive agents, antianxiety agents, mood stabilizers, stimulants, and anti-panic agents. They work in different ways to address symptoms and causes of various disorders.


Thuss Sykotroppik Drugz Inkluud Sykeeatrik Druhgz And Rekreeayshuhnul Druhgz.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum: https://www.verywellhealth.com/kristalyn-salters-pedneault-phd-425092

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD.

  • Associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University
  • Former research associate of the National Center for PTSD Behavioral Science Division

Thiss Iz Thuh Last lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".


Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.naturalnews.com/022610_cacao_chocolate_raw.html

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


[[include Cocoa-Powdr-SeLz-Groh-Uhnanduhmyd]]


[[include kaffeen-uhmownt-in-kohkoh-powdr]]


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.


Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz

Table of Contents