Kannuhbiss

Cannabis (/ˈkænəbɪs/) is a genus of flowering plant that includes three species (and [LoTs uv Taxa) or subspecies, sativa, ruderalis, and indica. The plant is indigenous to central Asia and the India subcontinent.


SaTiva In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz SuhTeevuh

marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-BEC2T4.jpg
Frum: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-26081220.html

See:


Marijuana Indica iz thuh SanskriT Simp Lang Bhang

Bhang Pronunciation
(US) IPA: /bæŋ/

Etimolluhjee bhang (n.)

"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
Sum Incica Bud Haz Noh CBDz

Fruhm: https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/the-difference-between-indica-and-sativa-marijuana
3744_Oos4_indica_vs_sativa.png

Included page "ruderalis" does not exist (create it now)


See:


Kannuhbiss Grows Bud KahLd (Marijuana=Mehrihwahnuh), Heer A.K.A. Kush Bud.

Medical Marijuana In FuhnehTik Inglish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Kannuhbinnoeedz



Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".



Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

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TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."



Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

WemMD Medical Marijuana FAQ

How does it help?

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

Reduce anxiety
Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
Control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy
Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
Relax tight muscles in people with MS
Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. So far, research hasn't proved it works. But some epilepsy centers are testing a drug called Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.


THC Vrsuhs CBD

Fruhm: CBD vs. THC: Medical benefits

CBD and THC have many of the same medical benefits. They can provide relief from several of the same conditions. However, CBD doesn’t cause the euphoric effects that occur with THC. Some people may prefer to use CBD because of the lack of this side effect.

In June 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration approved Epidiolex, the first prescription medication to contain CBD. It’s used to treat rare, difficult-to-control forms of epilepsy.

CBD is used to help with other various conditions, such as:

seizures
inflammation
pain
psychosis or mental disorders
inflammatory bowel disease
nausea
migraines
depression
anxiety
THC is used to help with conditions such as:

pain
muscle spasticity
glaucoma
insomnia
low appetite
nausea
anxiety


Kannuhbinnoeedz

Frum: WemMD Medical Marijuana FAQ

How does it help?

Cannabinoids — the active chemicals in medical marijuana — are similar to chemicals the body makes that are involved in appetite, memory, movement, and pain.

Research suggests cannabinoids might:

Reduce anxiety
Reduce inflammation and relieve pain
Control nausea and vomiting caused by cancer chemotherapy
Kill cancer cells and slow tumor growth
Relax tight muscles in people with MS
Stimulate appetite and improve weight gain in people with cancer and AIDS

Can medical marijuana help with seizure disorders?

Medical marijuana received a lot of attention a few years ago when parents said that a special form of the drug helped control seizures in their children. So far, research hasn't proved it works. But some epilepsy centers are testing a drug called Epidiolex, which is made from CBD, as a therapy for people with very severe or hard-to-treat seizures. In studies, some people had a dramatic drop in seizures after taking this drug.


Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



RecreaTional Drug SafeTy Uhv RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

{ Lrning And Teecheeng } KumpleeT ImporTanT ( Med FacTs And Mohr Saeef Use OpTs And Their EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion ) ReeGahrdeeng ( Eech RecreaTional Drug Wich ( SeLf Ohr Sum Wun Known ) Iz InTresTed In Eewzeeng ) Ahr Needed Tu Inform ( Now And Possibbul New ) RecreaTional Drug Eewzrz UhbowT Thuh PoTenchuL ( Risks And BenneffiTs ) Uhv Eewzeeng ThaT RecreaTional Drug.

RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Table of Contents

Drug DeTox NooTrishuhn

EnhansT NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.heretohelp.bc.ca/vision-alcohol-vol2/role-nutrition-recovery-alcohol-and-drug-addiction

A diet for recovery should include:

Complex carbohydrates (50% to 55% of the calories you consume),

  • which means plenty of grains, fruits and vegetable

Dairy products or other foods rich in calcium

Moderate protein (15% to 20% of calories):

  • two to four ounces twice a day of meat or fish (or another high-protein food such as tofu [ Or Milk ])

Fat choices (30% of calories), preferably good oils (EssenTial Fatty Acids)


NachruL DeTox

NexT TexT Frum: https://www.leaf.tv/articles/how-to-naturally-detox-from-drugs-at-home/

Drink lots of fluids

A daily intake of eight to 12 glasses of fluids each day flushes out the toxins and chemicals. All healthy fluids water, fruit juices, vegetable juices and herbal teas are a good way to clean the body internally. The wastes, impurities and drug residues are washed out of the cells, tissues and organs.

Lose fat by exercising.

Even if you aren't overweight, losing fat will help with detoxification from drugs. Most chemicals and toxins that enter the body are stored in the fat cell. By losing excess fat, a person also loses toxins. To lose the fat, do aerobic exercise. Swimming, running, dancing and cycling are good cardiovascular exercises that help to burn calories and fat. During a high-impact workout, a person also builds up a sweat. Toxins are released through the sweat glands. Building muscle with weights or resistance training also burns fat. In time, the muscles replace the fat deposits. Breathing deeply during any type of exercise helps to expel toxic carbon dioxide from the lungs. On inhalation, more oxygen enters the body.

Have a healthy diet.

Eating fruits and vegetables gives the body the nutrients it needs to repair itself

  • and carry out its many functions.

Organic foods are more expensive, but they are better for the body,

  • because they contain fewer chemicals like preservatives and pesticides.

Adding fiber to the diet helps in moving wastes & debris through the intestines & out the body.

DeTox NooTrishuhn

See:

ReComMendEd, Common, NuTrishuhnuL Drinks DeTox, Eezee Tu GeT AT A Corner STore Drinks Include:

ION4 Advanced ELECTROLYTE SysTem POWERADE MounTain Berry BlasT

* SporTs Drink WiTh VITAMINS B3, B6, & B12
* MounTain Berry BlasT With Mixed Berry Flavored + OThr NaTural Flavors

GLACEAU ViTamin WaTer Energy Tropical Citrus Flavored

* WiTh ViTamins: C ViTamin, b5, B6, B12
* With Electrolytes And 50 mg Caffein
* NuTrienT enhanced WaTer beverage

V8 Energy Protein

V8 Original 100% VegeTable Juice WiTh 2g Uhv [ProTein

SOBE ELIXIR GREEN TEA WiTh AddEd Green Tea Spice

See ALso:



Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz

Table of Contents

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Cannabis and Naturopathy

By Qingping Zheng, M.Sc, ND, Clinic Supervisor & Research Faculty,

  • Canadian College of Naturopathic Medicine on October 16, 2018

The genus Cannabis, commonly known as marihuana or marijuana, refers to a flowering plant of which

there are 3 main species, Cannabis sativa, Cannabis indica and Cannabis ruderalis.

It has received a lot of public and media attention since the announcement of legalization for recreational use in Canada.

Medical cannabis refers to using cannabis or cannabinoids as a medical therapy to treat disease or alleviate symptoms.

In addition to requiring prescription and oversight from a healthcare provider with knowledge, skills, scope and competency, this may also differ from recreational use due to differences in product quality and consistituents.

Despite the fact that the

herb Cannabis has been used for more than 3,000 years for the treatment and management of pain, digestive issues and psychological disorders

  • by various cultures, many healthcare providers are somewhat familiar or experience discomfort with appropriate medicinal usage. A recent survey (1) of Canadian physicians revealed that dosing and the need for safe, effective treatment monitoring places were at the forefront of educational needs. This may be in part due to stigma, as well as significant changes in the volume and quality of both evidence and high quality products as well as the regulatory and legal policies surrounding its use (2). Although the list of conditions for approved medical use has been growing, the research to support many of these treatments is limited. To help further understand this plant, a brief review of the available evidence on its pharmacology and medical uses, along with the safety issue from the perspective of naturopathic medicine, is provided to help address gaps in knowledge or understanding.

Chemical Composition Uhv Hemp

Hemp grows throughout temperate and tropical climates but originated from central Asia or in the foothills of the Himalayas (3).

++The leaves and flowering tops of cannabis plants
+++contain at least 489 distinct compounds known as cannabinoids distributed among 18 different chemical classes,
+++and harbor more than 70 different phytocannabinoids (4).

Many of these compounds interact with our bodies via the endocannabinoid system (5),

where their actions are mainly

mediated by their interaction with two closely related receptors, CB1 and CB2,

  • first chemically identified in the 1940s (6,7). Potential for these receptor-mediated interactions are high, particularly throughout the central nervous system (CNS), with

CB1 receptor being expressed in neurons and

CB2 receptors being localized primarily on cells of the immune system.

Δ9-THC is by far the best studied phytocannabinoid, and is responsible for the psychoactive effects of cannabis through its actions at the CB1 receptor (8). It is the major psychoactive constituent and also has the largest association with tolerance and withdrawal effects. THC is regularly used to measure the herb’s potency. Typical concentrations of THC are less than 0.5% for inactive hemp, 2% to 3% for marijuana leaf, and up to 4-8% for higher-grade seedless, or sinsemilla buds. Higher concentrations can be found in extracts, tonics, and hashish (concentrated cannabisresin).

THC displays complex psychoactive effects, analgesic, cognitive, muscle relaxant, anti-inflammatory, appetite stimulant and antiemetic activity (9).

Cannabidiol (CBD) is the main non-psychoactive phytocannabinoid in the cannabis plant

  • that has drawn more attention in recent years. It does not have the intoxicating effects of THC, and
  • [ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] does not develop tolerance and withdrawal effects (10).

Despite its weak affinity for the CB1 and CB2 receptors, CBD seems to antagonize CB1/CB2 receptor agonists in CB1 and CB2 expressing cells and tissues (11).

Animal studies have demonstrated
[ Cannabidiol (CBD) ] has neuroprotective (12,13), anti-inflammatory, antioxidant properties (14), anticonvulsant, analgesic, anti-anxiety, antiemetic, immune-modulating and anti-tumorigenic properties.

Preliminary clinical trials suggest that

high-dose oral CBD (150–600 mg/d) may exert a therapeutic effect for social anxiety disorder, insomnia and epilepsy,

  • but it may also cause mental sedation (15).

There is considerable variation in the consistency of constituents amongst Cannabis plants and species. In general, cannabis products (recreational and medicinal) derived from

Cannabis sativa exhibit a higher CBD/THC ratio than products derived from Cannabis indica.

Administering different ratios of THC and CBD leads to diverse outcomes. Experimental studies indicate CBD attenuates effects of ∆9-THC requiring at least 8 : 1 (±11.1) ratio of CBD to THC; whereas CBD appears to potentiate some of the effects associated with THC when the CBD to THC ratio is around 2 : 1 (±1.4) (16).

** Use of Medical Cannabis:

Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with…Cancer chemotherapy:

Nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy is one of the most familiar and well-established uses of cannabis in modern medicine. Cannabis is a potent antiemetic with therapeutic potential in cancer care(17). A systematic review and meta analysis of medicinal cannabis (18) found all studies suggested a greater benefit of cannabinoids compared to both active comparators and placebo, however no single study reached statistical significance. It is also important to note that paradoxically at excessive doses, Cannabis can precipitate cannabis hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) (19). This is relatively infrequent, but significant adverse reaction is characterized by severe nausea and vomiting followed by a period of deep sleep. For patients undergoing chemotherapy and radiation, THC is known to increase appetite, and subsequently weight, as an additional benefit.

effectiveness of cannabis in treating Chronic pain:

The systematic reviews on the efficacy and safety of cannabis-based medicine for chronic pain conditions have yielded diverse conclusions. A recent systematic review (20) supported the effectiveness of cannabis in treating chronic pain, primarily for neuropathic pain patients. However, Häuser W et al (21), didn’t come to a conclusion of the effectiveness of cannabis based on the quality of the clinical trial, most critical challenge being the small size and short term of research design. A 2014 statement issued by The Canadian Pain Society (22) recommended cannabis-based medicines as a potential third-line treatment for chronic neuropathic pain; while the Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (23) (2016) reviewed clinical safety and effectiveness of cannabinoid buccal spray for chronic non-cancer or neuropathic pain and suggested there was insufficient evidence to make well-founded conclusions about the clinical advantage and use of cannabis-based medicines for the management of cancer and non-cancer pain.

Cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% [ with ] Glaucoma:

Ocular (as well as systemic) administration of cannabinoids typically lowers intraocular pressure (IOP) by up to 30% although the mechanism is not well elucidated (24). A small but well-controlled pilot study of 6 patients with ocular hypertension or early primary open-angle glaucoma reported that two hours after sublingual administration of a single 5 mg Δ9-THC reduced the IOP significantly and was well tolerated by most patients. Sublingual 20 mg of CBD did not reduce IOP ( intraocular pressure ), while 40 mg of CBD increased IOP at four hours after administration (25).

clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in Multiple sclerosis:

The various needs and symptom profiles of patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) present with make it difficult to assess the observed and potential effectiveness of cannabis. Pharmaceutical CBD have been investigated for its effectiveness and safety in treating MS. A recent systematic review (26)supports the clinical use of CBD for spasticity and pain in multiple sclerosis, while it is not inconclusive on use to treat other common symptoms like bladder control, ataxia and tremor. Adverse effects including dizziness, dry mouth, euphoria, diarrhea, and difficulty concentrating were most frequently described as “mild” to “moderate”. Some researchers argued that a risk/benefit decision may be needed in the management of CBD used by MS patients. According to another study (27), the benefitsof CBD were generally observed within the first 4 weeks; thus a trial of 4-6 weeks is recommended to determined whether patients will receive clinical benefit.

CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of Anxiety disorder:

Compared with THC, that has been found to induce anxiety in healthy subjects (28), CBD has been drawing more attention in treating most of anxiety due to its anxiolytic property (29) without impairing cognitive performance (30). Increasing doses of CBD leads to a linear reduction in anxiety, compared with the biphasic anxiolytic/anxiogenic effect of THC use (31). A double-blind randomized design study (32) on 24 patients with generalized social anxiety disorder (SAD) demonstrated that 600mg orally pretreatment with CBD significantly reduced anxiety, cognitive impairment and discomfort in their speech performance, compared with the placebo group. A fMRI study on fifteen healthy men found that oral administration of 600mg CBD and 10mg D-9-THC presented opposite neurophysiological effects when performing different cognitive task; while the following behavioral experiment on six healthy volunteers, after pretreatments of 5mg CBD intravenously (IV) followed by 1.25 mg IV D-9-THC prevented the acute induction of psychotic symptoms, thus might lessen the anxiogenic effects of THC (33).

CBD…shows a promising anticonvulsant profile [ for ] Epilepsy:

Cannabis preparations have reported to be beneficial in treatment of epilepsy and other seizure disorders, particularly drug refractory childhood epilepsies. Cannabis products with moderate to high THC content are generally unsuitable for this condition, considering the potential risk of seizure aggravation (34) and undesired side effects such as psychiatric disorders, addiction liability, cognitive and motor impairment in the childhood population. CBD, on the other hand, shows a promising anticonvulsant profile in the recent high quality RCT trials. The efficacy of CBD as add-on therapy for patients with Dravet syndrome (35) and drop seizure in patients with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (36) were investigated. The results of these studies demonstrate that, at a dosage of 20 mg/kg/day, add-on CBD was efficacious in reducing the frequency of convulsive seizures. The CBD group was had higher adverse events such as diarrhoea, somnolence, pyrexia, decreased appetite, and vomiting, but generally well tolerant. As seen in other disorders, this case illustrates that the risk: benefit profile of cannabinoids needs to be weighed and discussed with patients prior to initiating therapy. Current best practices do not suggest CBD as stand-alone monotherapy in seizure disorders.
Sleep disorder:

According to the studies, different doses of THC yields mixed results.

A low dose of THC (less than 5 mg) seems to increase the quality of sleep

  • and reduce the frequency of nightmares (37) while administration of

larger dose [ of THC ] (15mg) decreased sleep latency on the following morning,

  • and disturbed both mood and memory on the next day. Novel studies investigating cannabinoids and obstructive sleep apnea suggest that synthetic cannabinoids such as nabilone and dronabinol may have short-term benefit for sleep apnea due to their modulatory effects on serotonin-mediated apneas. CBD may hold promise for REM sleep behavior disorder and excessive daytime sleepiness, while nabilone may reduce nightmares associated with Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and may improve sleep among patients with chronic pain.

Chronic cannabis use is associated with negative subjective effects on sleep that are manifested most prominently during withdrawal. Symptoms reported include sleep difficulties such as strange dreams, insomnia, and poor sleep quality.

These results are consistent with one interpretation that cannabis is typically not beneficial to sleep except among medicinal cannabis users who are identified by the presence of pre-existing sleep interrupting symptoms such as pain. As such, cannabis may be thought to improve sleep via the mediating improvement of these confounding symptoms.

Methods for using Cannabis:

Cannabis can typically be administered by inhalation, oral ingestion, and topical application.

Each delivery method has its advantages and disadvantages. The effects of cannabis are felt fastest when it is inhaled (i.e. liquid aerosol, nebulized or ‘smoked’). Inhalation is the most common way with the advantages of quick action, ease of monitoring the amount ingested, convenience, and short-term duration of effect. Side effects often include increasing risk of bronchitis and potential link to cancers of the respiratory tract, particularly when smoked.

Vaporizing (liquid aerosol) has been considered safer than smoking

  • because there are less by products since a lower temperature is used in the vaporizer and is thus a healthy alternative to smoking, however these statements deserve further investigation and evaluation.

Cannabis oils and tinctures are examples of concentrates of cannabis taken orally.

Compared to smoking, oral administration results in slower onset of action, lower blood levels of cannabinoids, and a longer duration of pharmacodynamic effects (38), though there is some indication that different oral forms (sublingual, food-product, ‘extended-release’) will have differing pharmacokinetic profiles.

Topicals are one of the lesser known forms of medicinal cannabison the market,

  • but they have significant potential to benefit people with inflammation and pain. The low THC content make them particularly attractive to consider for cannabis-naïve or cannabis-hesitant users. The other topical application is suppositories which can sometimes have some psychoactive effect depending on the product constituents.

Prescribed cannabis or cannabidiol approved by Health Canada

  • includes Nabilone (commercial name of Cesamet®) and Dronabinol (commercial name of Marinol®) which are the orally administered synthetic structural analogues of Δ9-THC. The latter was discontinued in the Canadian market in 2012. Cesamet® is sold as capsules (0.25, 0.5, 1 mg) and is indicated for the treatment of the nausea and vomiting associated with cancer chemotherapy (39). Nabiximols (commercial name of Sativex®) is from a whole-plant extract of two different, but standardized, strains of Cannabis sativa containing approximately equivalent amounts of Δ9-THC (27 mg/mL) and CBD (25 mg/mL), and other cannabinoids. It is marketed as an adjunctive treatment for the symptomatic relief of spasticity and neuropathic pain in adults with multiple sclerosis and as an adjunctive analgesic in adult patients with advanced cancer who experience moderate to severe pain (40).

[ Cannabis ] Safety

1: [ Cannabis ] Toxicity:

* To date there has been no documented fatal overdose from isolated Cannabis use.**

These statistics are impressive if compared with other commonly used recreational drugs. Globally, alcohol was linked to over 3 million deaths per year in 2012, and tobacco is reportedly linked to the deaths of more than 6 million people each year (41). Although several toxicology studies (42,43) with THC in animals suggested that THC was considered a safe drug both in acute and long-term exposure, toxicity of the commercial synthetic cannabinoids was found to be increased compared with Cannabis itself (44).

[ Cannabis use ] side effects typically include:

dizziness/light-headedness, sedation, confusion, ataxia, a feeling of intoxication, euphoria (“high”), xerostomia, dysgeusia, and hunger (20).

2: [ Cannabis ] Tolerance:

Ina residential laboratory study (45,46) on twelve daily marijuana smokers, the development of tolerance was evaluated after four-day period administration in two different groups including the oral THC pills group and the smoked marijuana group. Each pills contained 30 mg of THC and smoked marijuana dose consisted of 3.1% THC, and they were administrated four times a day in each group. Both groups became tolerant to subjective effects of THC such as feeling “high” and “good drug effect” but not to its effects on food intake or social behavior. The tolerance was disappears rapidly following cessation of administration (47). In addition, the dynamics of tolerance vary with respect to the different constituents and effects (48). However, some long-term studies reported the absence of pharmacological tolerance (49, 50)– this suggests that dosing straetgies may help alleviate or prevent issues of tolerance.

3: [ Cannabis ] Addiction: Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive

There is evidence that cannabis dependence (physical and psychological) occurs especially with chronic, heavy use (51). However, Cannabis is considered to be also far less addictive than alcohol, nicotine, cocaine, opiates and other psychoactive drugs. In the 1970’s, recreational cannabis became known as “the gateway drug,” but facts do not support this statement. In fact, studies suggest medical cannabis is a safer alternative rather than prescriptions of some pharmaceuticals with well-known potential for addiction (52).

4: [ Cannabis ] Exacerbations: smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency

Cannabis does have the potential to exacerbate symptoms of underlying conditions, such as severe cardiopulmonary disease because of occasional hypotension, possible hypertension, syncope, or tachycardia (53); Studies showed that although Cannabis smokers have minimal changes in pulmonary function studies as compared to tobacco smokers, they may develop bullous disease and spontaneous pneumothorax. The relationship between Cannabis smoking and lung cancer remains unclear due to design limitations of the studies published so far. Therefore, Health Canada stated in 2013, “smoked Cannabis is not recommended in patients with respiratory insufficiency__ such as asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)__” (54).

5: [ THC impairs Tho CBD Improves ] Cognitive function:

Evidence has demonstrated that high THC/low CBD Cannabis (55) lead to greater cognitive impairments, in particular memory function, attention and emotional processing in individuals. On the other hand, research showed CBD seems to antagonize THC-induced impairments and improve cognition in multiple preclinical models of cognitive impairment, including models of neuropsychiatric (schizophrenia), neurodegenerative (Alzheimer’s disease), neuro-inflammatory (meningitis, sepsis and cerebral malaria) and neurological disorders (hepatic encephalopathy and brain ischemia) (56). However it is unclear whether at specific concentrations CBD might outweigh any harmful effects of THC on cognition.

6: Uncertainty of risks [in] mental health…during…Brain development:

The regular (mis)use of cannabis during developing childhood and adolescence is of particular concern and the question of whether Cannabis is harmful remains the subject of heated debate. Although multiple studies have reported the adverse effects of Cannabis use on mental health are greater during development, particularly during adolescence, than in adulthood (57), others studies (58) have not made definite conclusions as to whether cannabis use alone has a negative impact on the human adolescent brain (59). Given the uncertainty of potentially risks, “Cannabis should not be used in any person under the age of 18, and physicians in Ontario “are not allowed to prescribe Cannabis to patients under the age of 25 unless all other conventional therapeutic options have been attempted and have failed to alleviate the patient’s symptoms” (60).

7: Mental health: cannabis should not be used in patients with schizophrenia

Whether the use of Cannabis might precipitate mental illness in some patients is a long standing concern. Cannabis has been linked to episodes of acute psychosis (61) and can exacerbate the symptoms of existing psychotic illness like schizophrenia (62, 63). However, some studies report the opposite results—CBD seems to represent a mechanistically different and less side-effect prone antipsychotic compound for the treatment of schizophrenia, even though the underlying pharmacological mechanisms are still debated (64). Given the uncertainty of results, Health Canada suggests “medicinal cannabis should not be used in patients with a personal history of psychiatric disorders (especially schizophrenia)” (65). In other conditions like anxiety disorders, the anxiolytic effects of Cannabis in clinical populations are inconsistent (65).


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Perceived benefits of medical cannabis

Regardless of the legal status of cannabis, many patients with psychiatric disorders use cannabis and report improvement in their symptoms. Patients use cannabis for symptoms of PTSD, anxiety disorders, depression, ADHD, bipolar disorder, chronic pain, insomnia, opiate dependence, and even schizophrenia. In addition, patients use cannabis for neurological conditions such as the spasticity of multiple sclerosis, agitation in dementia, and specific seizure disorders that are unresponsive to standard therapies. Patients also use cannabis to reduce the nausea and anorexia of cancer chemotherapies and to improve their mood and outlook—frequently with their oncologist’s approval…


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Schizophrenia, CBD, and THC

Molecular CBD has been shown to treat symptoms of schizophrenia

  • under controlled clinical trial conditions, with results comparable to those of treatment with an approved antipsychotic medication, and with a favorable adverse-effect profile.4 Other studies support the view that

CBD may have therapeutic potential as an antipsychotic

  • and may counter or offset psychotomimetic effects of THC. Differences between THC and CBD notwithstanding, in a small case series, 6 patients with schizophrenia and a history of symptom relief with cannabis use were treated with the addition of low-dose prescription THC to regimens that included clozapine in some cases or multiple antipsychotics in 1 patient.5 Four of the 6 patients showed improvement with the addition of THC to their regimen, and in 3 of the 4 patients a specific antipsychotic effect was evident. As with the anxiogenic potential of THC, dosage may be important in the relationship between THC and psychosis.

Cannabis and cognition

The National Academy report also acknowledged that there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between cannabis use and better cognitive performance among individuals with psychotic disorders and a history of cannabis use. It has been speculated that this could represent a less cognitively vulnerable subgroup of patients who would not have developed psychosis in the absence of exposure to cannabis, but this is not known. More generally, there is moderate evidence of a statistical association between acute cannabis use and impairment in the cognitive domains of learning, memory, and attention. However, results have been mixed on the question of longer-term and residual cognitive impairment. A recent report indicates neuropsychological decline in persistent long-term users with cannabis use disorders, although an earlier meta-analysis found no residual impairment.6,7 Evidence of impaired academic achievement and educational outcomes was judged to be limited according to the National Academy report. Again, with cognitive functioning as with the risk of psychosis, dosage may be an important factor, since the findings of impairment relate primarily to heavy long-term use and even more specifically to those patients with cannabis use disorders.


Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

By Christopher G. Fichtner, MD, And Howard B. Moss, MD

Cannabis and PTSD

Evidence that cannabis or cannabinoids are effective for improving symptoms of PTSD

  • is considered limited by the National Academy report, but clinical reports and case series excluded under its research quality criteria are more positive for the benefits of cannabis for PTSD symptoms.

A growing number of states have included PTSD as one of the acceptable indications for recommending or approving medicinal use of cannabis.

Clinicians who have written large numbers of medical cannabis recommendations have documented that a sizeable minority have been for psychiatric indications, with PTSD being perhaps the most common.10

Greer and colleagues11 reported on 80 patients with PTSD who were approved for medicinal use of cannabis through the New Mexico Medical Cannabis program. As a retrospective assessment, the study’s methodology limits the scientific conclusions that can be drawn. However, the authors reported decreases of 75% overall and separately in each of the 3 respective (DSM-IV) symptom clusters: re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance, as measured by current versus retrospective baseline Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS) scores, with and without cannabis use, respectively. The study was not included in the National Academy report, but it was reviewed by Walsh and colleagues,1 who noted that most studies on the therapeutic use of cannabis by persons with mental health conditions are not of methodologically high quality.

The beneficial effects of cannabinoid medicines for PTSD are consistent with what is known about the psychobiology of PTSD and the emerging research on the endocannabinoid system.12 Components of the endocannabinoid system include cannabinoid (CB1 and CB2) receptors; endogenous ligands anandamide, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), and others; and enzymes that regulate endocannabinoid ligand production. Endocannabinoid signaling occurs in retrograde fashion, with postsynaptic release of ligands that bind to presynaptic cannabinoid receptors and inhibit presynaptic neurotransmitter release. This contrasts with the classic monoaminergic neurotransmitter systems that have shaped much of our thinking in psychopharmacology, and represents a potential alternative strategy for psychopharmacologic intervention (Figure).

CB1 receptors are widespread throughout the brain. Based on animal and human studies, the endocannabinoid system appears to be involved in the extinction of aversive memories, and both THC and CBD have been shown individually in separate studies to facilitate extinction of the conditioned fear response.13,14 Recent neuroimaging studies have found increased CB1 receptor availability in multiple brain regions in PTSD, including the amygdala-hippocampal-cortico-striatal circuit implicated in its pathophysiology.15

The National Academy report also found limited evidence of an association between cannabis use and increased severity of symptoms among individuals with PTSD, but the cause-and-effect relationships are unclear. Individuals with more severely symptomatic PTSD may be more likely to self-medicate with cannabis. The possibility of symptom exacerbation with cannabis use must be weighed against reported therapeutic benefit in individual cases. Other psychiatric diagnoses for which the National Academy report found limited evidence for effectiveness include Tourette syndrome and social anxiety disorders.

Thuh NekST TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

MORE ABOUT Christopher G. Fichtner, MD

Dr. Fichtner is a Clinical Professor of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine, and a staff psychiatrist with the Riverside University Health System—Behavioral Health. He received his medical degree from The University of Chicago Pritzker School of Medicine (1987). Dr. Fichtner is a diplomate of the American Board of Psychiatry and Neurology and a Fellow of the American Psychiatric Association, with specialty certification in administrative psychiatry. In addition, he is a Fellow of the American Association for Physician Leadership and a past President of the American Association of Psychiatric Administrators…

Dr. Fichtner and Dr. Moss are Clinical Professors of Psychiatry at the University of California, Riverside School of Medicine.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Mehriwahnuh Nachropathik Eeuuss Kyndz.



Marijuana Az Psychedelic

Bohth Uhv SykehdehLikss And Uhv Marijuana

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Is Marijuana a Psychedelic?

The answer is not as simple as you may think!

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both…

Properties of a Psychedelic

Psychedelics are an informal class within the broader umbrella class of hallucinogens. A psychedelic is defined as a substance that heightens cognition, raises consciousness, heightens awareness, and causes hallucinations. It is an informal subclass of substances in the class of hallucinogens and mainly affects serotonin…

Types of psychedelics

There are several types of psychedelics. Each of the types has slightly different properties. These types are:

Classic psychedelics – mescaline, DMT, and mushrooms,
Empathogen-enactogens – MDMA, MDA, and MDEA,
Dissociatives – Ketamine
Cannabinoids – THC this technically is in two classes, cannabis and psychedelics,
Others – Salvia divinorum

It is important to note that the term psychedelic is an informal classification. All of these fall under the definition of hallucinogens except for cannabiniods, they are not thought of as hallucinogens.

Effects of a psychedelic

The effects of psychedelics differ widely depending on the type of psychedelic. Even though it is a loose classification, there are some commonalities. These are:

altered states of consciousness,
distortion of time,
euphoria of some type,
changes in cognitions, and
changes in mental state.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
changes in emotional state or mood,
altered states of mind and cognition,
difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Comparing marijuana and psychedelics

Under the definitions strict of marijuana and psychedelics, they are two different substances not chemically related. Their actions in the body are different as are their effects on the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Drug Enforcement Administration, they are two different classes of drug. It is possible to argue that because of this difference in classification it is not a psychedelic. If you take the effects of each into consideration the essential ingredient in cannabis, acts like a psychedelic. Psychedelics cause what is termed expansion of consciousness, heightened cognition or thinking, and hallucinations. Cannabinoids do the same thing in different ways. Cannabinoids are unique to marijuana. Essentially the practical answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes, but not in the same way that LSD, MDMA, and others in that class. It contains many of the characteristics, properties, and effects that fall under the definitions of both. This is probably why marijuana is in a class on its own.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor

CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations.

Mechanisms of How THC/CBD Can Interact With Serotonin

You may read that THC is capable of inhibiting both serotonin-metabolizing MAO activity (2010 study) and serotonin reuptake activity (2007 study). However, it does both of these so weakly that it is not likely to be clinically relevant. Here are 3 ways that THC and CBD can interact with the serotonin system that are likely to be important:

CB1 activation enhances serotonergic neuron firing

CB1 receptors are expressed directly in some serotonergic neurons, but also in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that regulate the activation of serotonergic neurons. Both endocannabinoids and THC were shown to increase serotonergic neuron firing in animals.

However, studies of serotonin levels in different brain regions after treatment with cannabinoids have produced conflicting results. This may be due to biphasic effects, where cannabinoids can increase serotonin under some conditions, but decrease them under others. But overall, it appears that CB1 activation tends to increase serotonin release.

CB1 can interact with the 5-HT2A receptor

The CB1 receptor is capable of directly binding to other receptors to form what is called a heterodimer or heteromer. This is one way that the ECS can interact with other neurotransmitter systems.

A 2015 study demonstrated that CB1 receptor can form a heteromer with the 5-HT2A receptor. This heteromer exists in brain areas such as the hippocampus, dorsal striatum and cortex and mediates some of the memory-impairing and anti-anxiety effects of THC.

CBD can directly activate the 5-HT1A receptor

CBD is an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, which underlies some of its anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antiemetic, and antinociceptive properties.

Effects of THC & CBD That Depend Serotonin Receptors

Here are the top 6 cannabinoid effects that are mediated through serotonin receptors. Remember that these studies were performed in animals and that in many cases these effects have not yet been confirmed to be clinically meaningful in humans.

1. Reduce Pain

Although CB1 receptor agonists (such as THC) can reduce pain through several different mechanisms, one may involve serotonin. A 2010 study showed that CB1 agonists reduced acute pain through activation of descending spinal serotonin pathways and subsequent activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the spinal cord.

There are also serotonergic mechanisms for reducing neuropathic pain with CBD. For example, a 2019 study showed that inducing neuropathic pain in mice reduced serotonergic firing of the spinal pathway. CBD reversed these changes and improved neuropathic pain partially through the 5-HT1A receptor.

2. Depression

Both THC and FAAH inhibitors, which raise levels of anandamide, can improve animal models of +++ depression. The antidepressant effects of these molecules went away when animals were depleted of serotonin (2016 study, 2018 study), indicating that they are working at least partially through increasing serotonin release.

In addition, the antidepressant effect of CBD in animal models depended on activation of the 5-HT1A receptor (2016 study). Read more about the effects of cannabinoids in depression.

3. Anxiety

Low dose THC and FAAH inhibitors can have anti-anxiety effects. A 2007 study showed that anti-anxiety effects of THC depended on the 5-HT1A receptor, although a 2015 study demonstrated a dependence on the 5-HT2A receptor.

CBD also has an anti-anxiety effect that is mediated by activating the 5-HT1A receptor in some experimental models. However CBD treatment of chronically stressed mice had an anti-anxiety effect mediated through cannabinoid instead of serotonin receptors (2018 study).

4. Memory Impairment

As mentioned earlier, memory impairments caused by THC depended on formation of a heteromer between the CB1 receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. A 2018 study confirmed that this heteromer exists in humans and its levels, which were increased in cannabis users, inversely correlated with working memory.

CBD is reported to reverse some memory impairments of THC, and it may do this through activation of 5-HT1A receptors (2019 study).

5. Nausea

Anti-nausea effects of CBD in animal models were mediated by agonism of 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2012 study).

6. Body Temperature

Hypothermia, or lowered body temperature, is an effect of THC that many people may not even know about. This effect also involves 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2001 study).


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

How Cannabinoids Connects With Serotonin

Serotonin receptors

50 years back, when researchers suggested that the main cause of clinical depression is “serotonin deficiency”. Although in present research studies, it turns out that the pathogenesis of depression is much more complicated than previously thought.

It is true that serotonin ( 5-HT from the proper chemical name 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a versatile compound that regulates many physiological functions in the body. In addition to being a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system responsible for mood, appetite, sleep, memory or learning. Practically 90% of serotonin is found in the cells of the digestive system, which helps to control the appropriate regulation of bowel motility.

5-HT affects the body by binding to serotonin receptors classified as 7 subgroups (5-HT1, 5-HT2 …).

Maurice rapport

The new scientific discoveries regarding serotonin have now commenced after the biochemist Maurice Rapport in the late 1940s isolated this compound and established its molecular structure. We had to wait several decades to discover that the receptors for serotonin – 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 (named 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) were identified in the rat brain, and more recent studies have confirmed this.

CBD Receptors

Apart from serotonin, they can bind other molecules to serotonin receptors. In 2005, researchers determined that cannabidiol (CBD) receptors (CB1 and CB2) can bind to serotonin receptors. He points to a broader relationship between endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. After all, they are involved in similar physiological functions in the human body i.e. reducing anxiety, pain, relieving nausea and maintaining a proper body temperature.
Dimer

From a pharmacological point of view, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors belong to the so-called G-protein-coupled receptors. As we have seen, this type of receptors can combine to form dimer-like complexes (a dimer is a structure made up of two receptors that merge together into one functional unit.)

A new discovery

A breakthrough discovery was made by Spanish scientists studying cerebral ischemia in newborn piglets. They showed that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A connected to the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the dimeric complex.

There are descriptions in the scientific literature that show that CBD is a weak 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Recall – an agonist is a compound that binds to the receptor and on this basis triggers its action on the body. On the contrary, acts against it as an antagonist that blocks the receptor.

[ CBDA acts as a stronger agonist of 5HT2A receptors than CBD ]

It has been shown that activation of the 5-HT1A receptor by cannabidiol lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart rate and reduces the sensation of pain. However, from an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, it appears that CBD prevents liver damage, reduces anxiety, pain and nausea in laboratory animals based on this mechanism of action. Interestingly, CBDA (cannabidiol acid) – the acid precursor of cannabidiol, present in large amounts in a crude cannabis plant, is a stronger 5-HT 1A agonist than CBD, and therefore very high hopes are associated with the possible use of this compound as an antiemetic.

CBD also has a link with the 5-HT2A receptor, although it is weaker compared to the 5-HT1A receptor and is mediated by antagonism. While CBD stimulates the 5-HT1A receptor, it apparently acts as an antagonist to 5-HT2A. The 5HT2A receptor is referred to as psychedelic because its strong agonists are compounds such as LSD or mescaline.

5-HT2A & CB1 Receptors

It is important to note that oral intake of a large dose of marijuana resin (called hashish) can produce effects likened to LSD. Long-term hemp researcher Dr Ethan Russo advised that THC is a hallucinogenic factor in the hash. While closely related cannabidiol (CBD) has opposite activity.

Is it possible that the compound 5-HT2A receptor effectuates the hallucinogenic properties of THC? Contrast to CBD, THC does not directly bind to 5-HT2A. However, as mentioned earlier, THC can directly activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, and from the article published by PLoS Biology in 2015, we know that CB1 receptors form a complex structure with 5-HT2A receptors, hence the hallucinogenic effect after ingestion of hashish.
5-HT3A receptor

The 5-HT3A receptor is unique among serotonin receptors because, unlike all other serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT3A is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Rather, 5-HT3A acts as an ion channel that regulates the flow of ions across the cell membrane and contributes to creating fast electrical signals in the brain. 5-HT3A receptors are involved in mood modulation as well as in the transmission of pain signals.

THC and CBD as potent modulators

5-HT3A receptor blockers (antagonists) are used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Both THC and CBD are potent, negative allosteric modulators of 5-HT3A receptors. This means that these compounds change the shape of the receptor so that the molecule that originally activates it (eg serotonin) is unable to bind to it. This may explain some of the antiemetic effects of THC and CBD.

Until now, the interactions between cannabinoids and other serotonin receptors (5-HT4,6,7) have not been fully identified. However, ongoing research will let us know in the near future.


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " *Marijuana Az Psychedelic ".


SaTiva In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz SuhTeevuh

marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-BEC2T4.jpg
Frum: https://www.alamy.com/stock-photo-marijuana-cannabis-sativa-buds-26081220.html

See:

Marijuana Indica iz thuh SanskriT Simp Lang Bhang

Bhang Pronunciation
(US) IPA: /bæŋ/

Etimolluhjee bhang (n.)

"dried leaves of Cannabis Indica," 1590s, from Hindi bhang "narcotic from hemp," from Sanskrit bhangah "hemp," which is perhaps cognate with Russian penika "hemp." The word first appears in Western Europe in Portuguese (1560s). It also was borrowed into Persian (bang) and Arabic (banj).
Sum Incica Bud Haz Noh CBDz

Fruhm: https://cannabis.net/blog/strains/the-difference-between-indica-and-sativa-marijuana
3744_Oos4_indica_vs_sativa.png

Included page "ruderalis" does not exist (create it now)

See:

Iz Mehrihwahnuh Smohk ohvrdohss lethal???

NexT TexT Fruhm: Here's how much marijuana it would take to kill you

"With more people lighting up than ever…it's important to remember how many fatally overdose on the drug:

"Zero. That's according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention which collects data on a range of other substances, both legal and illicit, and the Drug Enforcement Administration…

"It's pretty impossible to ingest a lethal dose of marijuana...

"Cannabinoid receptors are not found in the brainstem areas that control breathing. Thus, 'lethal overdoses from cannabis and cannabinoids do not occur,' The National Cancer Institute explains…

"[W]hile there are no recorded cases of deaths from marijuana overdose, one bong rip too many can make users feel incredibly uncomfortable. Their heart starts to race, hands tremble, and anxiety strikes. There are things they can do to mitigate a 'What I have done?' high…

"Drink some water to stay hydrated and eat a snack — preferably one that is ready-to-eat and does not require operating a stove — to boost your blood sugar…"

See: Human Essential Nutrition

"…The good news is, as reported in The British Journal of Psychiatry, cannabis is safe in overdose. In other words, it is physically impossible for a human to die as a direct result of a cannabis overdose. Having said that, this guide will be helpful to medical marijuana patients who find themselves smoking or ingesting too much of their favorite plant…What are the signs and symptoms of a cannabis overdose?…"
* Fruhm: https://www.medicaljane.com/2015/11/05/can-you-overdose-on-marijuana-survival-tips-for-greening-out/

"Non-tobacco smoking was associated with chronic cough (OR=1.73), chronic phlegm (OR=1.53) and wheeze.,.There was no significant difference in lung function measurements between marijuana-only smokers and non-smokers…Marijuana use was significantly associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms, coughing on most days, phlegm production, wheezing and chest sounds without a cold…"

Deskripshuhnz uhv wrd chronic

If you smoke a cigarette once, you've simply made a bad choice. But if you're a chronic smoker, you've been smoking for a long time and will have a hard time stopping.

The word chronic is used to describe things that occur over a long period of time and, in fact, comes from the Greek word for time, khronos. If you have chronic asthma, it is a recurring health issue for you. No one likes a chronic liar!

"If it gets to an advanced stage, chronic bronchitis can lead to a life-threatening illness. When the bronchial tubes and lungs become weak enough, it becomes more likely that you will experience respiratory failure, develop lung cancer or a heart or lung disease. You also have a heightened risk for pneumonia. About one percent of people with a chronic obstructive pulmonary disease like chronic bronchitis die from their condition every year…

"Chronic bronchitis symptoms include mucus, cough, wheezing and inflammation or irritation of the lining of bronchial tubes. You may also have chills and fever with chronic bronchitis. Smoking is a common cause, but not the only cause. Air pollution may also be a cause. When bronchitis symptoms last a long time, the condition is serious.

Antibiotics, inhalers, and cough medicines are all used to help treat chronic bronchitis. Sometimes a course of respiratory therapy is also used."


Smohkeeng Iz AiThr:
1: Brneeng ( Wood Ohr An UhThr FlammabuL Rb PahrT ) Tu Smohk, Or
2: BreeTheeng ( In Then Out ) Smohk Frum A Kush Rb Such Az Tobacco Or [[[Mehrihwahnuh]].


Tu Tohk Iz Tu DeeLibrayTLee BreeTh In a PsychoAcTive Gas, EspeshuLLee Wood-Lyk Mehrihwahnuh Rb BrnT Tu Kush Smohk.



Toke In Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz OfT KahLd Smohk.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually

Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe.


Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,



Smohkeeng Iz AiThr:
1: Brneeng ( Wood Ohr An UhThr FlammabuL Rb PahrT ) Tu Smohk, Or
2: BreeTheeng ( In Then Out ) Smohk Frum A Kush Rb Such Az Tobacco Or [[[Mehrihwahnuh]].


Cooking Kemz Tu Gaz Iz KahLd ( Vaypryzeeng = Making Vaypr ).

Tu BreeTh Kush Vaypr Iz Heer AhLsoh KahLd Tu Tohk


  • Tohkeeng Kush Smohk Haz A High Risk Tu Koz loud rude devil kof suhfreeng. ThaT Loudness Shood GeT KuhnsidraTLee KrTeeuhsLee Kuhvrd WiTh A CLoTh Kof MuhfLr, Lyk A KiTchen CLoTh Ohr PahrT Uhv A ShrT. ThaT Kof CloTh ShouLd Be PuT Neer In A Handy PLayss, Lyk RyT Undr THuh Hand That U Plan Tu HohLd Thuh Tohrch. Then Wen U STahrT Tu Brn Your Mehrihwahnuh Wood Tu Kush Smohk And STahrT Tu ( Tohk = DeeLibrayTLee BreeTh In Gaz WiTh Kemz ThaT Koz A SykuhTropik EefekT ), Thuh Kush Smohk, NohrmuLee In UhbowT 3 Sekuhnds, Thuh Rdj ThaT SignuLz Kof PuLss Iz FelT Thuh Soon Your Kof CloTh MyT Bee Handy Eenuf Tu Grab Then MuffLeen gThuh MohsT RrLee Kof Az PossibuL,KwikLee STahrT Tu (MuhfuL = Mayk KwyeTr ) Then AhL Following Kof Pulsez Az PossibuL WuhT MyT Have Ben Mohr Loud Sowndz.

Kannuh bud Can AhLTrnuhTivLee Bee hand-grynded intu green Spyss wich kan get spreengkLd on or in a fwd or drink (lyk tea) and then mixt ohr shook in and then kunswmd.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Marijuana and Cannabinoids

People have used marijuana, also called cannabis, for a variety of health conditions for at least 3,000 years. More recently, individual components of marijuana or similar synthetic substances have also been used for health purposes. These substances are called cannabinoids.


Kannuhbinnoeed Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Cannabinoid
* Uhv Kush Groop Kemz
* And Uhv Thuh Kush Byb EL.

Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Wrd Kannuhbinnoeed If Brohk UhpahrT Duz SpliT Tu: Kannuhbin + Oeed.


Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Etymology

(cannabis +‎ -n- +‎ -oid)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbinnoeed Wrd Deskripshuhnz ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

Uhv

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

cannabinoid noun

can·​na·​bi·​noid | \kə-ˈna-bə-ˌnȯid
[Dehskripshuhnz] of cannabinoid

1 : any of several substances (as anandamide) naturally produced within the body : endocannabinoid

2 : any of various naturally-occurring, biologically active, chemical constituents (such as cannabidiol or cannabinol) of hemp or cannabis including some (such as THC) that possess psychoactive properties

  • Toxicologists know only that synthetic cannabinoids bind to certain receptors in the brain and they understand nothing about the drug's long-term health effects.— Steve Featherstone
  • These products contain synthetic cannabinoids, which produce some of the euphoria associated with natural marijuana, but they can also be accompanied by a wide range of negative health effects not associated with cannabis.— James Maynard

3 : a substance that is structurally or functionally similar to cannabinoids derived from hemp or Cannabis:

4 : a substance that is synthetically produced to mimic the effects of natural cannabinoids

Thiss Iz Thuh Last LynKannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss ".




Kannuhbinnoeedz 3 Typss

The Science of Cannabinoids

Cannabis sativa L. has been used therapeutically for thousands of years.

It was well known that the plant had psychotropic effects, inducing a “high.” However, the cause of those effects was not understood until recently. Research into the effects of the plant led to the discovery of cannabinoids, which can now be separated into 3 classes: endocannabinoids, phytocannabinoids, and synthetic cannabinoids.

Endocannabinoids are compounds produced by the body that impact biological processes.

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz ) consist of >100 naturally occurring compounds found in Cannabis sativa L….with a chemical structure related to endocannabinoids

The discovery of this endogenous system has led to exploration of how cannabinoids, including both the plant molecules and synthetic versions developed in laboratories, might be used for therapeutic purposes.

Recently, scientists have gained a greater understanding of different cannabinoids, such as THC (Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol) and CBD (cannabidiol), and their potential therapeutic benefits.


Uhnanduhmyd Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr

  • Wrd Speld Anandamide
    • Wich Wen Sownded OwT GeTs EenuhnseeaeeTed Az Ay nan day my deh.

Uhnanduhmyd MoLLekeewL Az STrukchr And Fohrmeewluh

Uhnanduhmyd-Kannuhbinnoeed-MoLLekeewL-Az-STrukchr-And-Fohrmeewluh.jpg
Pikchr Sayvd Fruhm Payj AT: https://www.shutterstock.com/image-vector/anandamide-endocannabinoid-chemical-molecular-structure-signaling-556944526

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Anandamide is a ( neurotransmitter = Nrv Kom Groop Kem ) produced in the brain that binds to the Kannabinnoeed ReesepTrz. It’s been called the “bliss molecule,” aptly named after ananda, the Sanskrit word for “joy, bliss, or happiness.” It is considered an endocannabinoid — a substance produced in the body that binds to cannabinoid receptors.

Eventually, anandamide was found to do a lot more than produce a state of heightened happiness. It’s synthesized in areas of the brain that are important in memory, motivation, higher thought processes, and movement control. It plays an important role in pain, appetite, and fertility. It also helps put the brakes on cancer cell proliferation.

By increasing neurogenesis — the formation of new nerve cells — anandamide exhibits both anti-anxiety and antidepressant properties. Anandamide, like all neurotransmitters, is fragile and breaks down quickly in the body which is why it doesn’t produce a perpetual state of bliss.

Tu Lrn Mohr Uhbout Thuh Kynd Uhv Websyt Thiss Info Iz Fruhm, See https://reset.me/about/


Cacao Cocoa Powdr Fohr ProhTeen And 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz


Thuh 3 SykuhTrohpik Drugz In Cacao Cocoa Powdr Ahr: Uhnanduhmyd and Caffeine And Phenylethylamine


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.naturalnews.com/022610_cacao_chocolate_raw.html

Let's have a look at raw cacao:

Cacao is derived from Theobroma Cacao beans, which literally means "Food of the Gods". Cacao contains over 300 compounds including: protein, fat, carbohydrates, fiber, iron, zinc, copper, calcium and magnesium. Magnesium helps to build strong bones and is a muscle relaxant associated with feelings of calmness. Cacao is also high in sulfur, which helps form strong nails and hair.

In addition, cacao also contains the chemicals phenylethylamine (PEA) and anandamide. PEA is an adrenal-related chemical that we create naturally when we're excited. It also plays a role in feeling focused and alert because it causes your pulse rate to quicken, resulting in a similar feeling to when we are excited…


Cocoa Powdr SeLz Groh Uhnanduhmyd

NexT TekST Fruhm:

Health Benefits of Organic Cocoa Powder You May Not Have Heard Of

There are so many incredible benefits of eating cocoa powder that you won’t believe that something so delicious could be so good for you. These benefits have lasting effects that can improve your health overall…

Come On Get Happy

If you struggle with mood regulation or you just need a mood boost, grab some cocoa. Researchers have described Cocoa as a natural antidepressant that can healthily raise your happiness levels. Cocoa contains** the mood boosting chemicals anandamide. This chemical helps make people feel euphoric**. Cocoa has also been found to have an effect on the reward center of the brain. Researchers have also found that cocoa interacts with your neurotransmitter systems to release dopamine, serotonin and endorphins, which make you feel happier.


Kaffeen UhmownT In Kohkoh Powdr

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Caffeine in Food

Cocoa Powder (Hershey's)

Caffeine Level: 8.4mg
Serving Size: 1 tablespoon


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed izm


kannuhbiss Kannuhbinnoeed 2 Baeesik Kyndz Pikchr Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Izm Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Biosynthetic pathway resulting in production of cannabinoid acids.
Kannuhbinnoeed_2_Baeesik_Kyndz.jpg

Thuh Pikchr Uhbuhv Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm Thuh InTrneT Paydj AT:


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-2-baeesik-kyndz-pikchr" does not exist (create it now)


THCA-Tu-THC-Kuhnvrzhuhn.png
Tetrahydrocannabinol-thc-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-is-the-principal.jpg
cannabidiol-cbd-structural-chemical-formula-and-molecule-model-active-cannabinoid-in-cannabis.jpg

Kannabbinnoeedz Grohn Ohr Shrungk Pikchr

Kannabbinnoeedz-Grohn-Ohr-Shrungk-910x710.png
LisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

Endocannabinoid Uhv Kannuhbinnoeed Uhv Kush Byb EL


Endocannabinoid Brohk UhpahrT GeTs Chaynjd Tu:

  • Endo- + Cannabin + -oid

Preefix Endo

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/endo-

endo-

word-forming element meaning "inside, within, internal," fromf Greek endon "in, within," from PIE *en-do-, extended form of root *en "in."


Included page "kannuhbinnoeed-wrd-deskripshuhn" does not exist (create it now)


Kannuhbin Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr wrd Cannabin.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin [kan-uh-bin] noun

Origin of cannabin
< Latin cannab(is ) hemp + -in2


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/-in

-in2

a noun suffix used in a special manner in chemical and mineralogical nomenclature ( glycerin; acetin , etc.).. -in being restricted to certain neutral compounds…( albumin; palmitin , etc.)…


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/cannabin

cannabin noun


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Kannuhbin ".


Oeed Iz Fohnehtik Eeng-glish Speech Sownd Synz Fohr Pohstfix-oid


NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.etymonline.com/word/-oid

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Eidos Wrd Deskripshuhn

NexT TekST Fruhm: https://www.yourdictionary.com/eidos

Eidos Noun

(plural eidoi)

(philosophy) form; essence; type; species

Origin

Ancient Greek εἶδος (eidos, “species”)


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Payj Naymd " Oeed ".

-oid

word-forming element meaning "like, like that of, thing like a __," from Latinized form of Greek -oeides, from eidos "form,"


Endocannabinoids Paydj Frum: https://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1361971-overview

Humans and animals alike naturally synthesize endocannabinoids, chemical compounds that activate the same receptors as delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active component of marijuana (Cannabis sativa)…

Endocannabinoids are crucial to bioregulation. Their main role is in cell-signaling, and, because they are hydrophobic, their main actions are limited to paracrine (cell-to-cell) or autocrine (same cell), rather than systemic, effects…

Research in animal models suggests the possible use of cannabinoids as anticancer drugs…

Multiple human and animal studies support that endocannabinoids play a key role in memory, mood, brain reward systems, drug addiction, and metabolic processes, such as lipolysis, glucose metabolism, and energy balance.

Potential therapeutic targets for cannabinoid pharmacologic intervention are as follows:

Pain

Antinausea

Cough

Glaucoma

Cachexia

Neurologic diseases: Parkinson disease, Huntington disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, alcohol-induced neuroinflammation/neurodegeneration, traumatic brain injury, stroke, seizures

Autoimmune diseases: Autoimmune uveitis, systemic sclerosis, inflammatory bowel disease

Infection: HIV-1 brain infection

Psychiatric disorders: Anxiety-related disorders, impulsivity, bipolar disorder, personality disorders, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, substance abuse and addictive disorders, anorexia nervosa

Cardiovascular: Atherosclerosis

Gastrointestinal: Gut motility disorders, inflammatory bowel syndrome, chronic liver diseases, alcoholic liver disease

Diabetic nephropathy

Osteoporosis

Cancer: Breast, prostate, skin, pancreatic, colon, and lymphatic, among others

The greater promise is that with this understanding, the ECS will yield an important therapeutic target for future pharmacologic therapy.


Endocannabinoid System Uhv Cannabinoid Uhv Kush Byb EL

Brayn-Nrv-SeLz-Az-EndohKannuhbinnoeed-SinnapTik-NurohTranzmiTTrz-And-ReesepTrz.jpgLisT_Uhv_Kannuhbinnoeedz_in_Mehriwwahnuh.png

TexT Below Frum: https://unitedpatientsgroup.com/blog/2016/02/09/the-endocannabinoid-system-UPG-cannabis-inside-the-body

"One interesting way that endocannabinoids differ from other neurotransmitters is that they transmit information in retrograde. This means that instead of traveling from the presynaptic neuron to the postsynaptic, they can flow the opposite way. In doing so, endocannabinoids can provide feedback to the nervous system. For example, endocannabinoids will travel “upstream” to inform presynaptic neurons when a neuron is firing too quickly…

"[W]hen THC connects with the endocannabinoid system, it provides highly effective pain relief. The THC modulates neurological function to reduce pain signals. Likewise, THC, when connected to the endocannabinoid system, can send malignant cells into apoptosis. The cellular process of autophagy is moderated by the endocannabinoid system. Autophagy not only keeps healthy cells alive, but also causes malignant cancer cells to consume themselves…

[C]annabinoids have antioxidant properties that neutralize free radicals that ultraviolet radiation generate. Free radicals are responsible for aging-related illnesses in humans, including cancer."


Included page "fytohkannuhbinnoeedz" does not exist (create it now)

( Phytocannabinoids = FytohKannuhbinnoeedz )

Thuh NexT TekST Wr Fruhm:

How many different cannabinoids in cannabis?

[ Fohks WiTh hempgazette.com Hav ] seen numbers ranging from 66 [ and up ].. Below [iz ther ] list all cannabinoids [They]’re aware of…

Cannabichromenes

Cannabichromene (CBC)
Cannabichromenic acid (CBCA)
Cannabichromevarin (CBCV)
Cannabichromevarinic acid (CBCVA)

Cannabicyclols

Cannabicyclol (CBL)
Cannabicyclolic acid (CBLA)
Cannabicyclovarin (CBLV)

Cannabidiols

Cannabidiol (CBD)
Cannabidiol monomethylether (CBDM)
Cannabidiolic acid (CBDA)
Cannabidiorcol (CBD-C1)
Cannabidivarin (CBDV)
Cannabidivarinic acid (CBDVA)

Cannabielsoins

Cannabielsoic acid B (CBEA-B)
Cannabielsoin (CBE)
Cannabielsoin acid A (CBEA-A)

Cannabigerols

Cannabigerol (CBG)
Cannabigerol monomethylether (CBGM)
Cannabigerolic acid (CBGA)
Cannabigerolic acid monomethylether (CBGAM)
Cannabigerovarin (CBGV)
Cannabigerovarinic acid (CBGVA)

Cannabinols and cannabinodiols

Cannabinodiol (CBND)
Cannabinodivarin (CBVD)
Cannabinol (CBN)
Cannabinol methylether (CBNM)
Cannabinol-C2 (CBN-C2)
Cannabinol-C4 (CBN-C4)
Cannabinolic acid (CBNA)
Cannabiorcool (CBN-C1)
Cannabivarin (CBV)

Cannabitriols

10-Ethoxy-9-hydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
8,9-Dihydroxy-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol
Cannabitriol (CBT)
Cannabitriolvarin (CBTV)

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ8-THC)
Delta-8-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ8-THCA)

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinols

Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol-C4 (THC-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid A (THCA-A)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid B (THCA-B)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid-C4 (THCA-C4)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcol (THC-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabiorcolic acid (THCA-C1)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV)
Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabivarinic acid (THCVA)

Miscellaneous cannabinoids

The following are other cannabinoids not classified in a class, or those we’re not sure what class they fit into.

10-Oxo-delta-6a-tetrahydrocannabinol (OTHC)
Cannabichromanon (CBCF)
Cannabifuran (CBF)
Cannabiglendol
Cannabiripsol (CBR)
Cannbicitran (CBT)
Dehydrocannabifuran (DCBF)
Delta-9-cis-tetrahydrocannabinol (cis-THC)
Tryhydroxy-delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (triOH-THC)

… and we’d be remiss not to mention this doozy:

3,4,5,6-Tetrahydro-7-hydroxy-alpha-alpha-2-trimethyl-9-n-propyl-2,6-methano-2H-1-benzoxocin-5-methanol, or OH-iso-HHCV to its friends.


See Also: Marijuana And The Bible

RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war