Intrnashuhnuhl Lah Syzohmz

International Law Sizomes in Funetik Inglish iz Intrnashuhnuhl Lah Syzohmz

International Laws uv Lahz uv Omnio

International Law in Funetik Inglish iz Intrnashuhnal Lah

InTernaTional in FuhnehTik Inglish iz InTrnashuhnuL

(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˌɪntəˈnæʃ(ə)n(ə)l/, [ˌɪntəˈnæʃ(ə)n(ə)ɫ]
(General American) IPA(key): /ˌɪntɚˈnæʃ(ə)n(ə)l/, [ˌɪntɚˈnæʃ(ə)n(ə)ɫ], [ˌɪɾ̃ɚˈnæʃ(ə)n(ə)ɫ]

inter- +‎ national. Reportedly coined in modern English by Jeremy Bentham.

Prefix inter uv international law uv Lahz uv Omneeoh


  • IPA(key): [ˈintɛr]

From Latin inter- (“between, amid”), a form of prepositional inter (“between”).

National in Funetik Inglish iz Nashuhnal.

IPA(key): /ˈnæʃ(ə)nəl/

From Middle French national; see nation.

Legal Dictionary national adjective affecting the nation as a whole, common, country-wide, domestic, established by the federal government, federal, general, government, governmental, public, publicly owned, sovereign

Thus InTrnashuhnuL Meenz BeeTween nations.

Simp Lang Lah

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Law [ Wrd Deskripshuhn ]:

Rules of conduct approved and enforced by the government of and over a certain territory…

Related Terms: Regulation, Statutes, Lex Scripta, Act, Custom,… Civil Law,… Justice, Rule of Law, Substantive Law, Positive Law

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

The Law

The role of government is to protect individual rights. It must ensure that nobody violates the rights of another. In this capacity, it must specify what kinds of actions are forbidden. These rules, punishable by retaliatory force, are called laws. Laws are predefined rules. They are written to make them explicit and verify that they are predefined.

Laws serve multiple purposes. The first is a method of informing the populace of what actions will bring about retaliatory force. This facilitates the job of protecting rights by enabling citizens to have knowledge beforehand whether a particular act is forbidden. The people are then able to act appropriately, removing the need for retaliatory force, and increasing the ability of people to avoid violating others rights.

The second job of a law is to make the rules of the land explicit. This serves to avoid confusion in exactly what is legal or not. Such confusion can occur since the government is an organization of individuals. Individuals that can err or have differences of opinions. It also limits the power of the government officials by requiring them to act according to predefined methods. This has the advantage of safeguarding the people from their own representatives.

A third job of the law is to clarify ambiguous situations between men that may be difficult to decide if rights have been violated, or by who. Even among rational men, disagreement can occur, especially in areas as complicated as contracts. The law provides them a means of settling disputes peacefully by subjecting their claims to an objective, predefined reference. In this respect, the law stands as an impartial arbiter to conflicts.

Laws have many other positive benefits as well, such as providing a reaffirmation that coercive acts will be punished, and justice will be served. To be secure in life and property, man must be able to know what to expect from other people. Although an occasional criminal may act against the rules that govern society, this is exceptional. One interacts in a society because the majority of men act in good faith to respect each other's rights. The law is the primary facilitator for this.

See Also=AhLsoh:

International Law Definition:

A combination of treaties and customs which regulates the conduct of states amongst themselves, and persons who trade or have legal relationships which involve the jurisdiction of more than one state.

Related Terms: State, Law, Customary International Law, Private International Law, Law of Nations, [[[Jus Cogens], International Criminal Law

International Law Commission uv Lahz uv Omnio

The International Law Commission was established by the UN General Assembly, in 1947, to undertake the mandate of the Assembly, under
UN General Assembly article 13 (1) (a) of the Charter of the United Nations to "initiate studies and make recommendations for the purpose of … encouraging the progressive development of international law and its codification".

Object of the Commission

Article 1, paragraph 1, of the Statute of the International Law Commission provides that the “Commission shall have for its object the promotion of the progressive development of international law and its codification”. Article 15 of the statute makes a distinction “for convenience” between progressive development as meaning “the preparation of draft conventions on subjects which have not yet been regulated by international law or in regard to which the law has not yet been sufficiently developed in the practice of States” and codification as meaning “the more precise formulation and systematization of rules of international law in fields where there already has been extensive State practice, precedent and doctrine”. In practice, the Commission’s work on a topic usually involves some aspects of the progressive development as well as the codification of international law, with the balance between the two varying depending on the particular topic.

Although the drafters of the statute envisaged that somewhat different methods would be used in regard to progressive development, on the one hand, and codification, on the other, they thought it desirable to entrust both tasks to a single commission. Furthermore, they did not favour proposals for the setting up of separate commissions for public, for private and for international criminal law. Thus article 1, paragraph 2, of the statute states that the Commission “shall concern itself primarily with public international law, but is not precluded from entering the field of private international law”.

For more than sixty years, however, the Commission has worked almost exclusively in the field of public international law. In 1996, the Commission noted that in recent years it had not entered the field of private international law, except incidentally and in the course of work on subjects of public international law; moreover, it seemed unlikely that the Commission would be called upon to do so having regard to the work of bodies such as the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law (UNCITRAL) and the Hague Conference on Private International Law.

The Commission has worked extensively in the field of international criminal law, beginning with the formulation of the Nürnberg principles and the consideration of the question of international criminal jurisdiction at its first session, in 1949, which culminated in the completion of the draft Statute for an International Criminal Court at its forty-sixth session, in 19944, and the draft Code of Crimes against the Peace and Security of Mankind at its forty-eighth session, in 19965. At its sixty-seventh session, in 2014, the Commission adopted the final report on the topic “the obligation to extradite or prosecute (aut dedere aut judicare)”. At the same session, the Commission decided to include the topic “Crimes against humanity” in its programme of work.

private international law uv Lahz uv Omneeoh

Private International Law Definition:

A specialized branch of law which resolves cases which have an element of conflicting foreign law.

Related Terms: Jus Cogens, Customary International Law, International Law, Jurisdiction, Attorn or Attornment

Some jurists prefer to call this subject matter of law conflict of laws.

In some cases, a state will defer to the laws of another, in whole or in part, in order to resolve a dispute where some element of the case commands that referral. The rules of law governing that analysis are known as private international law, international private law or the rules of conflict of laws.

Conflict Of Laws uv International Laws uv Lahz uv Omneeoh

Conflict of Laws Definition:

A specialized branch of law which resolves cases which have an element of conflicting foreign law.

Related Terms: Mobilia Sequuntur Personam, Immobilia Situa, Depecage, Locus Regit Actum, Lex Loci Contractus

Conflict of laws is an area of the law, the subject matter taught to law students, and which purport to set out, in a long list of rules, how to resolve private disputes which include an international or foreign element.


(Entered into force on 15 July 1955)

The Governments of the countries hereinafter specified:

the Federal Republic of Germany, Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Spain, Finland, France, Italy, Japan, Luxembourg, Norway, the Netherlands, Portugal, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, Sweden and Switzerland;

In view of the permanent character of the Hague Conference on Private International Law;

Desiring to stress that character;

Having, to that end, deemed it desirable to provide the Conference with a Statute;

Have agreed upon the following provisions:

Article 1

The purpose of the Hague Conference is to work for the progressive unification of the rules of private international law.

Article 2

(1) Members of the Hague Conference on Private International Law are the States which have already participated in one or more Sessions of the Conference and which accept the present Statute.

(2) Any other State, the participation of which is from a juridical point of view of importance for the work of the Conference, may become a Member. The admission of new Member States shall be decided upon by the Governments of the participating States, upon the proposal of one or more of them, by a majority of the votes cast, within a period of six months from the date on which that proposal is submitted to the Governments.

(3) The admission shall become effective upon the acceptance of the present Statute by the State concerned.

Article 3

(1) The Member States of the Conference may, at a meeting concerning general affairs and policy where the majority of Member States is present, by a majority of the votes cast, decide to admit also as a Member any Regional Economic Integration Organisation which has submitted an application for membership to the Secretary General. References to Members under this Statute shall include such Member Organisations, except as otherwise expressly provided. The admission shall become effective upon the acceptance of the Statute by the Regional Economic Integration Organisation concerned.

(2) To be eligible to apply for membership of the Conference, a Regional Economic Integration Organisation must be one constituted solely by sovereign States, and to which its Member States have transferred competence over a range of matters within the purview of the Conference, including the authority to make decisions binding on its Member States in respect of those matters.

(3) Each Regional Economic Integration Organisation applying for membership shall, at the time of such application, submit a declaration of competence specifying the matters in respect of which competence has been transferred to it by its Member States.

(4) Each Member Organisation and its Member States shall ensure that any change regarding the competence of the Member Organisation or in its membership shall be notified to the Secretary General, who shall circulate such information to the other Members of the Conference.

(5) Member States of the Member Organisation shall be presumed to retain competence over all matters in respect of which transfers of competence have not been specifically declared or notified.

(6) Any Member of the Conference may request the Member Organisation and its Member States to provide information as to whether the Member Organisation has competence in respect of any specific question which is before the Conference. The Member Organisation and its Member States shall ensure that this information is provided on such request.

(7) The Member Organisation shall exercise membership rights on an alternative basis with its Member States that are Members of the Conference, in the areas of their respective competences.

(8) The Member Organisation may exercise on matters within its competence, in any meetings of the Conference in which it is entitled to participate, a number of votes equal to the number of its Member States which have transferred competence to the Member Organisation in respect of the matter in question, and which are entitled to vote in and have registered for such meetings. Whenever the Member Organisation exercises its right to vote, its Member States shall not exercise theirs, and conversely.

(9) "Regional Economic Integration Organisation" means an international organisation that is constituted solely by sovereign States, and to which its Member States have transferred competence over a range of matters, including the authority to make decisions binding on its Member States in respect of those matters.

Article 4

(1) The Council on General Affairs and Policy (hereafter "the Council"), composed of all Members, has charge of the operation of the Conference. Meetings of the Council shall, in principle, be held annually.

(2) The Council ensures such operation through a Permanent Bureau, the activities of which it directs.

(3) The Council shall examine all proposals intended to be placed on the Agenda of the Conference. It shall be free to determine the action to be taken on such proposals.

(4) The Netherlands Standing Government Committee, instituted by Royal Decree of 20 February 1897 with a view to promoting the codification of private international law, shall, after consultation with the Members of the Conference, determine the date of the Diplomatic Sessions.

(5) The Standing Government Committee shall address itself to the Government of the Netherlands for the convocation of the Members. The Chair of the Standing Government Committee presides over the Sessions of the Conference.

(6) The Ordinary Sessions of the Conference shall, in principle, be held every four years.

(7) If necessary, the Council may, after consultation with the Standing Government Committee, request the Government of the Netherlands to convene the Conference in Extraordinary Session.

(8) The Council may consult the Standing Government Committee on any other matter relevant to the Conference.

Article 5

(1) The Permanent Bureau shall have its seat at The Hague. It shall be composed of a Secretary General and four Secretaries who shall be appointed by the Government of the Netherlands upon presentation by the Standing Government Committee.

(2) The Secretary General and the Secretaries must possess appropriate legal knowledge and practical experience. In their appointment account shall also be taken of diversity of geographic representation and of legal expertise.

(3) The number of Secretaries may be increased after consultation with the Council and in accordance with Article 10.

Article 6

Under the direction of the Council, the Permanent Bureau shall be charged with -

a) the preparation and organisation of the Sessions of the Hague Conference and the meetings of the Council and of any Special Commissions;

b) the work of the Secretariat of the Sessions and meetings envisaged above;

c) all the tasks which are included in the activity of a secretariat.

Article 7

(1) With a view to facilitating communication between the Members of the Conference and the Permanent Bureau, the Government of each of the Member States shall designate a national organ and each Member Organisation a contact organ.

(2) The Permanent Bureau may correspond with all the organs so designated and with the competent international organisations.

Article 8

(1) The Sessions and, in the interval between Sessions, the Council, may set up Special Commissions to prepare draft Conventions or to study all questions of private international law which come within the purpose of the Conference.

(2) The Sessions, Council and Special Commissions shall, to the furthest extent possible, operate on the basis of consensus.

Article 9

(1) The budgeted costs of the Conference shall be apportioned among the Member States of the Conference.

(2) A Member Organisation shall not be required to contribute in addition to its Member States to the annual budget of the Conference, but shall pay a sum to be determined by the Conference, in consultation with the Member Organisation, to cover additional administrative expenses arising out of its membership.

(3) In any case, travelling and living expenses of the delegates to the Council and the Special Commissions shall be payable by the Members represented.

Article 10

(1) The budget of the Conference shall be submitted each year to the Council of Diplomatic Representatives of the Member States at The Hague for approval.

(2) These Representatives shall also apportion among the Member States the expenses which are charged in that budget to the latter.

(3) The Diplomatic Representatives shall meet for such purposes under the chairmanship of the Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands.

Article 11

(1) The expenses resulting from the Ordinary and Extraordinary Sessions of the Conference shall be borne by the Government of the Netherlands.

(2) In any case, the travelling and living expenses of the delegates shall be payable by the respective Members.

Article 12

The usages of the Conference shall continue to be observed on all points, unless contrary to the present Statute or to the Regulations.

Article 13

(1) Amendments to the Statute must be adopted by consensus of the Member States present at a meeting concerning general affairs and policy.

(2) Such amendments shall enter into force, for all Members, three months after they are approved by two thirds of the Member States in accordance with their respective internal procedures, but not earlier than nine months from the date of their adoption.

(3) The meeting referred to in paragraph 1 may change by consensus the periods of time referred to in paragraph 2.

Article 14

To provide for their execution, the provisions of the present Statute will be complemented by Regulations. The Regulations shall be established by the Permanent Bureau and submitted to a Diplomatic Session, the Council of Diplomatic Representatives or the Council on General Affairs and Policy for approval.

Article 15

(1) The present Statute shall be submitted for acceptance to the Governments of States which participated in one or more Sessions of the Conference. It shall enter into force as soon as it is accepted by the majority of the States represented at the Seventh Session.

(2) The statement of acceptance shall be deposited with the Netherlands Government, which shall make it known to the Governments referred to in the first paragraph of this Article.

(3) The Netherlands Government shall, in the case of the admission of a new Member, inform all Members of the declaration of acceptance of that new Member.

Article 16

(1) Each Member may denounce the present Statute after a period of five years from the date of its entry into force under the terms of Article 15, paragraph 1.

(2) Notice of the denunciation shall be given to the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of the Netherlands at least six months before the expiration of the budgetary year of the Conference, and shall become effective at the expiration of the said year, but only with respect to the Member which has given notice thereof.

See also:

Public International Law uv international laws uv Lahz uv Omneeoh

Each state is ruled by duties and rights that need to be adhered to. This is an international law that covers these rights and duties of inter-government agencies and departments.

Public Law Definition:
Those laws which regulate the structure and administration of the government, the conduct of the government in its relations with its citizens, the responsibilities of government employees and the relationships with foreign governments.

Jowitt's Dictionary of English Law describes public law as having several branches, as follows:

"… law is either public or private.
"Public law is that part of the law which deals with the state, either by itself or in its relations with individuals, and is called constitutional, when it regulates the relations between the various divisions of the sovereign power; and administrative, when it regulates the business which the state has to do…."

Other good examples of public law are tax law and criminal law.

Public law can be distinguished from private law, which regulates the private conduct between individuals, without direct involvement of the government.

Private law and public law can overlap. For example, an unsolicited punch in the nose would constitute a crime for which the government would prosecute under criminal law but for which there would also be a private legal action possible by the injured party under tort law, which is private law (although governments can be held responsible under tort law).

Codification and Prograddive Development of International Law

According to UN General Assembly Article 13, paragraph (1)(a), of the Charter of the United Nations, the UN General Assembly is mandated to encourage the progressive development of international law and its codification. The progressive development of international law encompasses the drafting of legal rules in fields that have not yet been regulated by international law or sufficiently addressed in State practice. In contrast, the codification of international law refers to the more precise formulation and systematization of rules of international law on subjects that have already been extensively covered by State practice, precedent and doctrine.

The Codification Division of the United Nations Office of Legal Affairs assists the UN General Assembly in carrying out the above-mentioned mandate, in particular by providing substantive secretariat services to relevant bodies established by the Assembly, such as the International Law Commission, as well as the Assembly’s Sixth (Legal) Committee, and to diplomatic conferences of plenipotentiaries convened to negotiate multilateral treaties. The Codification Division also assists in the precise formulation and systematization of rules of international law by preparing analytical research studies in various fields of international law. It promotes the universal respect for international law, especially by providing the legislative (legal bodies) of the UN General Assembly with assistance in enhancing compliance of States with their obligations under the UN Charter or other legal instruments, or under general international law. The Codification Division also encourages and facilitates the teaching, study, dissemination and wider appreciation of international law, by planning and implementing the Programme of Assistance in the Teaching, Study, Dissemination and Wider Appreciation of International Law.

This website provides access to information on the work of the various bodies established to carry-out the UN General Assembly’s mandate to encourage the progressive development and codification of international law such as the Sixth (Legal) Committee and the International Law Commission. It also provides access to information on the different activities of the Programme of Assistance, including the training courses in international law offered by the United Nations, the Audiovisual Library]] of International Law, and the publications prepared by the Codification Division.

See also:

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