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Directional terms and body planes:

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Female body surface anatomy:


Male body surface anatomy:


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Terminologia Anatomica

From a historical point of view, anatomy can be considered as the first exact field; its terminology is a crucial base for many scientific disciplines.

Key Facts about Terminologia Anatomica Definition

A list of terms that pertain to the anatomy of the human body


Nomina anatomica
- published by International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (IANC)
- six editions, with 6th published in 1989
Terminologia anatomica
- published by International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA)
- first edition published 1999, second to be expected in 2018/2019


To standardize terminology in order to overcome national differencies
Indexed in latin, where every latin term has its english equivalent

History of anatomcial terminology

The origin of anatomical terminology dates back to the ancient period, more than 2,500 years ago, and was described in the common languages of that time: Greek, and later Latin. This principle has endured and serves as a base for the modern-day anatomical nomenclature. Greek and Latin medicine established the foundation of anatomical terminology which varied with different authors. Most of the anatomical terms are different from colloquial words, and have changed since ancient times. Hippocrates (ca. 460-370 BC), in Greece, introduced terms such as acromion, bronchus and peritoneum. Aurus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC – 50 AD), in Rome, used cartilago, patella or sutura. Cladius Galenos of Pergamon (129/130 – 199/200 AD) introduced new terms such as aponeurosis, coccyx, epiphysis, hypophysis, epidermis, pylorus. Friedrich D. J. Henle (1809 - 1885) was the first to simplify anatomical terminology. Terms such as “medialis, and lateralis” were introduced by him to describe the appropriate orientation and direction of anatomical structures.

Terminologia Anatomica

Terminologia Anatomica, in a broad sense, is a list of terms that pertain to the anatomy of the human body. It has been the subject of much controversy and disagreement.

Previously, the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee has been responsible for the production of six editions of Nomina Anatomica. The Nomina anatomica (6th edition in 1989) was the standard anatomical nomenclature until recently. This has been succeeded by the Terminologia Anatomica by resolution of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) in 1999.

Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology

The IFAA was founded in 1903 and its membership comprises anatomical societies and associations worldwide. It represents and coordinates all aspects of anatomy and the anatomical sciences. FIPAT, the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (formerly known as the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, FCAT), deals with the official international standard set of human anatomical terminologies. It is one of the six major fields of activity of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists [IFAA], the world body of Anatomy. The others are Education, Ethics and Humanities, Research, Supranational Projects and Scientific Publications.

FIPAT worked for 9 years and published Terminologia Anatomica in 1998. It's aim was to further standardise the anatomical terminology, also internationally, and especially to democratize it; i.e. to ensure that it accommodates the needs of clinicians and medical scientists, thus making it the living language of anatomy.

How it works

Worldwide adoption of the same terminology would eliminate national differences, which were causing extreme confusion in instances where the same structure was known by several names. The new terminology is thus the result of worldwide consultation and centres around the latin nomenclature with equivalent English terms provided. It is indexed in Latin and English and contains an index of eponyms in order to find the correct non-eponymous term.

The number of anatomical terms now recorded in “Terminologia Anatomica”, contains nomenclature for more than 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures. This growth in numbers is caused mainly by the insertion of clinical anatomical and neuro-anatomical names. A number of incorrect or misleading terms have been replaced.

Each Latin term has a unique code number and is supplied with an English equivalent (International anatomical terminology; IAT) the spelling of which in either UK English or American English is considered equally correct.

Based on the Terminologia Anatomica, every language can formulate its own anatomical nomenclature centered on the standardised Latin terminology. The nomenclature is presented per system or organ tract. An alphabetic index follows Terminologia Anatomica as well as the English IAT list.

FIPAT have also developed similar terminologies for specific disciplines which fall under the wider umbrella of human anatomy i.e. terminologia embryologica, terminologia neuroanatomica, terminologica histologica, terminologica anthropologica etc.

Thus, Terminologia Anatomica "can be described as the international standard on human anatomic terminology developed by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998”.

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Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998.

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Terms of the anatomical nomenclature are systematically arranged into sixteen categories of Terminologia anatomica (TA)…

Anatomical terms are arranged in different groups according to official codes and formatted according to the importance by font type…

1 General anatomy
2 Skeletal system
3 Articular system
4 Muscular system
5 Alimentary system
6 Respiratory system
7 Thoracic cavity
8 Urinary system
9 Genital system
10 Abdominopelvic cavity
11 Endocrine glands
12 Cardiovascular system
13 Lymphoid system
14 Nervous system
15 Sense organs
16 Integumentary system

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Categories of anatomical structures
1 A01: General anatomy (anatomia generalis)
2 A02: Bones (ossa)
3 A03: Joints (juncturae)
4 A04: Muscles (musculi)
5 A05: Alimentary system (systema digestorium)
6 A06: Respiratory system (systema respiratorium)
7 A07: Thoracic cavity (cavitas thoracis)
8 A08: Urinary system (systema urinarium)
9 A09: Genital systems (systemata genitalia)
10 A10: Abdominopelvic cavity (cavitas abdominis et pelvis)
11 A11: Endocrine glands (glandulae endocrinae)
12 A12: Cardiovascular system (systema cardiovasculare)
13 A13: Lymphoid system (systema lymphoideum)
14 A14: Nervous system (systema nervosum)
15 A15: Sense organs (organa sensuum)
16 A16: The integument (integumentum commune) [ the skin and its appendages ]

Directional terms and body planes:
Fohr Mohr Infoh See:

See Also:

Gal Heeuumuhn Eerodjehnuhss Zohnz

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The Most Erogenous Parts of the Female Body, Ranked By Science

Here’s a study that will make you blush.

Canadian scientists tested the sensitivities of several sexual areas on the female body, including the parts in the perineum area–the area between the anus and vulva–as well as the side boob and nipple. They compared these to neutral areas on the body, like the neck, forearm, abdomen.

Exactly how did they go about this? The researchers used light touch, pressure, and yes, vibration to assess how sensitive these body parts were. They had 3o healthy women between the ages of 18 and 35 get undressed and lie on a table covered in a bed sheet. They then used scientific instruments to apply the various forms of touch to the women’s clitoris, labia minora, vaginal margin, anal margin, lateral breast (side boob), areola (the small ring of skin surrounding the nipple), nipple, neck and forearm.

The researchers applied stimulation for 1.5 seconds, then waited for five seconds before asking the women if they felt it.

Here’s what they found.

For light touch, the neck, forearm, and vaginal margin are the most sensitive areas, and the areola is the least sensitive. When it comes to pressure, the clitoris and nipple are the most sensitive, and the side boob and abdomen are the least. Lastly, when it comes to vibration, the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive. The clitoris was the most sensitive to vibration out of all the body parts.

Overall, the researchers found that the genitals are more sensitive to pressure and vibration compared to light touch, which they found “interesting” because people enjoy sex and sex toys. (Duh).

In all seriousness, the researchers say that understanding these sensitives is useful knowledge for breast augmentation and gender reassignment surgery. But if you want this information for other reasons, by all means bookmark this page.

This study is published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.