Wrd Speld "Human" At Iz Spohk Az

Thuh FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz Seekwehnss "H->ee->uu->m->uh->n",

Wich Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Heeuumuhn

Table of Contents

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

[ Wrd Human ] Pronunciations

(UK) IPA(key): /ˈ(h)juːmən/, [ˈ(ç)ju̟ːmən], [ˈ(ç)ju̟ːmn̩]
(US) enPR: (h)yo͞oʹmən, (h)yo͞omʹn, IPA(key): /ˈ(h)jumən/, [ˈ(ç)ju̟mən], [ˈ(ç)ju̟mn̩]
(NYC, some other US dialects) IPA(key): /ˈjumən/
(Indian English) IPA(key): /ˈhjuːmən/

trilaminar embryo

( Ehtihmolluhjeez = "Wrd Histuhreez" ) Fruhm Uhv Wrd Heeuumuhn

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

human (adj.)

mid-15c., humain, humaigne, "human,"

from Old French humain, umain (adj.) "of or belonging to man"

(12c.), from Latin humanus "of man, human,"

also "humane, philanthropic, kind, gentle, polite; learned, refined, civilized." …

Human interest is from 1824. Human rights attested by 1680s; human being by 1690s. Human relations is from 1916; human resources attested by 1907, American English, apparently originally among social Christians and based on natural resources. Human comedy "sum of human activities" translates French comédie humaine (Balzac);

human (n.)

"a human being," 1530s, from human (adj.).

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Human Overview Brief Summary

Animalia +
Bilateria +
Deuterostomia +
Chordata +
Vertebrata +
Gnathostomata +
Tetrapoda +
Mammalia Linnaeus, 1758 +
Theria Parker and Haswell, 1897 +
Eutheria Gill, 1872 +
Primates Linnaeus, 1758 +
Haplorrhini Pocock, 1918 +
Simiiformes Haeckel, 1866 +
Hominoidea Gray, 1825 +
Hominidae Gray, 1825 +
Homininae Gray, 1825 +
Homo Linnaeus, 1758 +
Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758

Where Lived: Evolved in Africa, now worldwide

When Lived: About 200,000 years ago to present

The species that you and all other living human beings on this planet belong to is Homo sapiens. During a time of dramatic climate change 200,000 years ago, Homo sapiens (modern humans) evolved in Africa. Like other early humans that were living at this time, they gathered and hunted food, and evolved behaviors that helped them respond to the challenges of survival in unstable environments.

Anatomically, modern humans can generally be characterized by the lighter build of their skeletons compared to earlier humans. Modern humans have very large brains, which vary in size from population to population and between males and females, but the average size is approximately 1300 cubic centimeters. Housing this big brain involved the reorganization of the skull into what is thought of as "modern" — a thin-walled, high vaulted skull with a flat and near vertical forehead. Modern human faces also show much less (if any) of the heavy brow ridges and prognathism of other early humans. Our jaws are also less heavily developed, with smaller teeth.

Scientists sometimes use the term “anatomically modern Homo sapiens” to refer to members of our own species who lived during prehistoric times.

Human Anatomy

Kuhz Uhv Heereeng Thus

Heeuumuhn Uhnattuhmee

Table of Contents

THuh Uhbuhv Immaj Wuhz Sohrst Fruhm:

Directional terms and body planes:

Fohr Mohr Infoh See:

Female body surface anatomy:


Male body surface anatomy:


Included page "terminologia-anatomica" does not exist (create it now)

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Terminologia Anatomica

From a historical point of view, anatomy can be considered as the first exact field; its terminology is a crucial base for many scientific disciplines.

Key Facts about Terminologia Anatomica Definition

A list of terms that pertain to the anatomy of the human body


Nomina anatomica
- published by International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee (IANC)
- six editions, with 6th published in 1989
Terminologia anatomica
- published by International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA)
- first edition published 1999, second to be expected in 2018/2019


To standardize terminology in order to overcome national differencies
Indexed in latin, where every latin term has its english equivalent

History of anatomcial terminology

The origin of anatomical terminology dates back to the ancient period, more than 2,500 years ago, and was described in the common languages of that time: Greek, and later Latin. This principle has endured and serves as a base for the modern-day anatomical nomenclature. Greek and Latin medicine established the foundation of anatomical terminology which varied with different authors. Most of the anatomical terms are different from colloquial words, and have changed since ancient times. Hippocrates (ca. 460-370 BC), in Greece, introduced terms such as acromion, bronchus and peritoneum. Aurus Cornelius Celsus (25 BC – 50 AD), in Rome, used cartilago, patella or sutura. Cladius Galenos of Pergamon (129/130 – 199/200 AD) introduced new terms such as aponeurosis, coccyx, epiphysis, hypophysis, epidermis, pylorus. Friedrich D. J. Henle (1809 - 1885) was the first to simplify anatomical terminology. Terms such as “medialis, and lateralis” were introduced by him to describe the appropriate orientation and direction of anatomical structures.

Terminologia Anatomica

Terminologia Anatomica, in a broad sense, is a list of terms that pertain to the anatomy of the human body. It has been the subject of much controversy and disagreement.

Previously, the International Anatomical Nomenclature Committee has been responsible for the production of six editions of Nomina Anatomica. The Nomina anatomica (6th edition in 1989) was the standard anatomical nomenclature until recently. This has been succeeded by the Terminologia Anatomica by resolution of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) in 1999.

Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology

The IFAA was founded in 1903 and its membership comprises anatomical societies and associations worldwide. It represents and coordinates all aspects of anatomy and the anatomical sciences. FIPAT, the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (formerly known as the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology, FCAT), deals with the official international standard set of human anatomical terminologies. It is one of the six major fields of activity of the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists [IFAA], the world body of Anatomy. The others are Education, Ethics and Humanities, Research, Supranational Projects and Scientific Publications.

FIPAT worked for 9 years and published Terminologia Anatomica in 1998. It's aim was to further standardise the anatomical terminology, also internationally, and especially to democratize it; i.e. to ensure that it accommodates the needs of clinicians and medical scientists, thus making it the living language of anatomy.

How it works

Worldwide adoption of the same terminology would eliminate national differences, which were causing extreme confusion in instances where the same structure was known by several names. The new terminology is thus the result of worldwide consultation and centres around the latin nomenclature with equivalent English terms provided. It is indexed in Latin and English and contains an index of eponyms in order to find the correct non-eponymous term.

The number of anatomical terms now recorded in “Terminologia Anatomica”, contains nomenclature for more than 7500 human gross (macroscopic) anatomical structures. This growth in numbers is caused mainly by the insertion of clinical anatomical and neuro-anatomical names. A number of incorrect or misleading terms have been replaced.

Each Latin term has a unique code number and is supplied with an English equivalent (International anatomical terminology; IAT) the spelling of which in either UK English or American English is considered equally correct.

Based on the Terminologia Anatomica, every language can formulate its own anatomical nomenclature centered on the standardised Latin terminology. The nomenclature is presented per system or organ tract. An alphabetic index follows Terminologia Anatomica as well as the English IAT list.

FIPAT have also developed similar terminologies for specific disciplines which fall under the wider umbrella of human anatomy i.e. terminologia embryologica, terminologia neuroanatomica, terminologica histologica, terminologica anthropologica etc.

Thus, Terminologia Anatomica "can be described as the international standard on human anatomic terminology developed by the Federative International Programme for Anatomical Terminology (FIPAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998”.

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Terminologia Anatomica (TA) is the international standard on human anatomic terminology. It was developed by the Federative Committee on Anatomical Terminology (FCAT) and the International Federation of Associations of Anatomists (IFAA) and was released in 1998.

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Terms of the anatomical nomenclature are systematically arranged into sixteen categories of Terminologia anatomica (TA)…

Anatomical terms are arranged in different groups according to official codes and formatted according to the importance by font type…

1 General anatomy
2 Skeletal system
3 Articular system
4 Muscular system
5 Alimentary system
6 Respiratory system
7 Thoracic cavity
8 Urinary system
9 Genital system
10 Abdominopelvic cavity
11 Endocrine glands
12 Cardiovascular system
13 Lymphoid system
14 Nervous system
15 Sense organs
16 Integumentary system

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Categories of anatomical structures
1 A01: General anatomy (anatomia generalis)
2 A02: Bones (ossa)
3 A03: Joints (juncturae)
4 A04: Muscles (musculi)
5 A05: Alimentary system (systema digestorium)
6 A06: Respiratory system (systema respiratorium)
7 A07: Thoracic cavity (cavitas thoracis)
8 A08: Urinary system (systema urinarium)
9 A09: Genital systems (systemata genitalia)
10 A10: Abdominopelvic cavity (cavitas abdominis et pelvis)
11 A11: Endocrine glands (glandulae endocrinae)
12 A12: Cardiovascular system (systema cardiovasculare)
13 A13: Lymphoid system (systema lymphoideum)
14 A14: Nervous system (systema nervosum)
15 A15: Sense organs (organa sensuum)
16 A16: The integument (integumentum commune) [ the skin and its appendages ]

Directional terms and body planes:
Fohr Mohr Infoh See:

See Also:

Gal Heeuumuhn Eerodjehnuhss Zohnz

Thuh NeksT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

The Most Erogenous Parts of the Female Body, Ranked By Science

Here’s a study that will make you blush.

Canadian scientists tested the sensitivities of several sexual areas on the female body, including the parts in the perineum area–the area between the anus and vulva–as well as the side boob and nipple. They compared these to neutral areas on the body, like the neck, forearm, abdomen.

Exactly how did they go about this? The researchers used light touch, pressure, and yes, vibration to assess how sensitive these body parts were. They had 3o healthy women between the ages of 18 and 35 get undressed and lie on a table covered in a bed sheet. They then used scientific instruments to apply the various forms of touch to the women’s clitoris, labia minora, vaginal margin, anal margin, lateral breast (side boob), areola (the small ring of skin surrounding the nipple), nipple, neck and forearm.

The researchers applied stimulation for 1.5 seconds, then waited for five seconds before asking the women if they felt it.

Here’s what they found.

For light touch, the neck, forearm, and vaginal margin are the most sensitive areas, and the areola is the least sensitive. When it comes to pressure, the clitoris and nipple are the most sensitive, and the side boob and abdomen are the least. Lastly, when it comes to vibration, the clitoris and nipple are most sensitive. The clitoris was the most sensitive to vibration out of all the body parts.

Overall, the researchers found that the genitals are more sensitive to pressure and vibration compared to light touch, which they found “interesting” because people enjoy sex and sex toys. (Duh).

In all seriousness, the researchers say that understanding these sensitives is useful knowledge for breast augmentation and gender reassignment surgery. But if you want this information for other reasons, by all means bookmark this page.

This study is published in the Journal of Sexual Medicine.


Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Is Fluoride Bad for You? Effects for Thyroid & Body

August 3, 2019 (Updated: September 9, 2019) — by Katie Wells

Dr Scott Sorries Medical Advisor

Wellness Mama Dr Terry Wahls

Medically reviewed by

  • Dr. Scott Soerries, MD,
  • Dr. Terry Wahls, MD

The effects fluoride has on the thyroid and body

Reading Time: 8 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.

You likely know that mercury, lead, and other heavy metals are not great for the body and can cause a host of issues. But whether or not fluoride is safe (or effective) is more controversial.
Is Fluoride Beneficial?

In the early part of the twentieth century, it was discovered that small communities who had higher levels of naturally occurring fluoride in their drinking water had fewer dental caries (cavities). Naturally fluoridated water at about 1mg/L seemed to be beneficial to dental health. (Fluoride that is naturally occurring is calcium fluoride.)

Unfortunately, the fluoride that is often added to water supplies in the U.S. is hydrofluoric acid (an industrial by-product), not elemental fluorine or calcium fluoride. It’s well known that naturally occurring substances (even heavy metals) are generally better tolerated by the body than synthetic counterparts.

But because early studies showed few dental caries in communities using fluoridated water, fluoridated water became known as one of 10 best public health achievements of the twentieth century according to the Center for Disease Control (CDC).

However, rates of dental caries have been going down for all western countries, both using fluoridation and not, suggesting that there is no connection between fluoridated water and fewer cavities.

For example, Sweden does not fluoridate its water and has the same amount of dental caries as the United States. Nobel Prize Winner Dr. Arvid Carlsson argued against its use in Sweden by saying that topical use of fluoride may work for dental caries but drinking fluoride was not a good idea, especially when you consider that the amount any individual consumes can vary quite a bit.

Though some earlier studies showed that fluoride in the water supply can help reduce dental caries, a 2015 Cochrane review found that the most recent and comprehensive evidence shows that there is simply not enough evidence to support fluoridating water.

Though fluoride may help prevent cavities when used topically, there are other (better) ways to improve oral health without fluoride.

Sources of Fluoride

Fluoridated water is an obvious source of fluoride but there are many others as well. Because there are so many sources of fluoride today, it’s especially concerning that water supplies are “spiked” with fluoride. Here are some of the major sources of fluoride:

Packaged foods and drinks (made with fluoridated water)
Tea (the plant naturally absorbs fluoride; herbal teas are fine)
Teflon pans
Mechanically separated meat (fragments of bone can be left behind)
Industry (aluminum, fertilizer, iron, oil refining, semi-conductor, and steel industries)
Fluorinated pharmaceuticals (the fluorine doesn’t usually break down into fluoride, but may)
Dental products

Of course, there are reasons other than fluoride to avoid some of the things on this list. For someone who is interested in natural health (and avoiding many of these things already), avoiding fluoride isn’t all that hard.

How Fluoride Affects the Thyroid

Though there is some debate about whether fluoride is safe, the evidence is pretty clear that it can affect thyroid function, and for anyone at risk to begin with (many women are), fluoride is potentially dangerous. Considering thyroid disease affects 20 million Americans (mostly women), this is an important angle to consider.

In the 1930s a product containing fluoride was used to treat people with hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid). The fluoride poisoned the enzymes in the thyroid gland and slowed down the production of thyroid hormones. This drug stopped being used because some people’s thyroid glands were permanently damaged from its use.

Studies show that fluoride affects the thyroid gland specifically. Studies done in India found that children in communities with high fluoride intake had a significant decrease in thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). Another study found that people with unfluoridated water were less likely to develop hypothyroidism.

Fluoride and Iodine

Fluoride can lead to thyroid inflammation and autoimmune thyroid disease (like Hashimoto’s). Fluoride is also an endocrine disruptor. Dr. Izabella Wentz explains in this post how it’s misidentified as iodine in the body so it is taken up into the body and stored in body tissues the way iodine should be.

One study found that iodine levels directly impact how much harm fluoride can do to the thyroid and may help protect the thyroid from fluoride. On the other hand, many people who have thyroid disease like Hashimoto’s have low levels of iodine but can’t tolerate supplemental iodine either. In those cases, fluoride is particularly problematic.
How Fluoride Affects the Skeletal System

Fluoride is also fairly clearly implicated in bone health issues. Though supporters of fluoride claim that it can help improve bone density, evidence shows that the amount of fluoride plays a very important part in whether fluoride helps or hurts bone health.

This study looked at different populations in China with varying levels of naturally occurring fluoride in the water ranging from 0.25 mg/L to 7.97 mg/L (as a comparison, places that add fluoride to water typically add to .7-1 mg/L). What the study found was that fractures happened less when fluoride levels were at about 1 mg/L but more when they were on the lowest and highest parts of the range. Clearly, there’s a fine line between helpful and harmful here.

Skeletal fluorosis is a serious bone disease which causes hardening and thickening of the bones which makes movement difficult. It can be confused with a number of other skeletal issues including arthritis. Skeletal fluorosis is caused by excessive exposure to fluoride which can happen over time as fluoride can accumulate in the body. The most recent research shows that early signs of skeletal fluorosis can occur with as little as 6 mg of fluoride a day (much less for those with kidney disease).

The Upside

Having good health to begin with, particularly normal levels of vitamins and minerals, can help reduce the negative effects of fluoride. One study found that normal levels of calcium helped prevent fluoride-induced bone issues in rats. Another found that sufficient levels of vitamin D could be protective. Additionally, another study found that magnesium-deficient rats absorbed more fluoride than rats with normal magnesium levels and also had more fluoride in their bones and teeth.

What does this mean? That we can do something about fluoride exposure by doing some of the same things that are good for health overall. Optimizing calcium, vitamin D, and magnesium levels (here are some ideas on that) and eating a nutrient-dense diet is a great first step.

Fluoride and the Brain

Fluoride is a confirmed neurotoxin and many prestigious reviews have dug into the research that is available on the topic over the years. A 2012 Harvard review found that of the 27 studies in the review, 26 of them concluded that there is a relationship between elevated fluoride and reduced IQ.

A 2014 Lancet review documents fluoride as a neurotoxin that could be harmful to child development. The review concludes, “The presumption that new chemicals and technologies are safe until proven otherwise is a fundamental problem.”

Newer research is finding the same neurotoxicity problems as earlier studies. A 2017 study found that fluoride exposure in utero was linked to poorer cognitive performance later in life.

Fluoride Affects Other Parts of the Body

While the effects of fluoride on the thyroid, skeletal system, and brain is fairly clear cut, the science is less clear on how fluoride affects other parts of the body. Here are some other ways fluoride may cause harm:

Cancer – A connection between fluoride and cancer is a hotly debated topic, probably because the research is inconclusive and at times confusing.
Early sexual development – One researcher found that fluoride accumulates in high amounts in the pineal gland (that secretes hormones). A 1997 study found that fluoride was associated with faster sexual development in the female gerbils in the study.
Male infertility – Some data suggest that a decline in male fertility could be associated with topical fluoride use. Animal studies show concern but more information is needed.

So… Should I Be Worried About Fluoride?

There are many conflicting opinions on whether fluoride is safe and whether it’s something to worry about. (I know, you hear me say things like that a lot!) Mark Sisson’s opinion on it is that fluoride isn’t great but that we should focus on improving health in other ways first (clean diet, plenty of sleep, low stress, etc) before worrying about filtering fluoride from the water. On the other hand, if you are filtering your water because of any number of the other pollutants that could be in it, you may as well filter out fluoride too.

There is evidence on either side of the debate. My personal stance is that for people with thyroid issues (like me) it’s clearly best to avoid fluoride. And since fluoride does come with a warning to call the poison control center immediately if ingested (and after seeing a close friend’s scare when her son ingested some fluoride), I buy unfluoridated toothpaste and don’t keep fluoride-containing products around our house.

How to Protect Teeth Without Fluoride

Though fluoride may have a protective effect on teeth, there are other (better) ways to keep teeth healthy than to smear them with fluoride.

Dental Diet

What you eat can impact your oral health even more than brushing or flossing. Teeth are in a constant state of remineralization as the saliva in the mouth provides minerals to the teeth and the cells in the teeth use these minerals to strengthen themselves.

Diet can play a huge part in this process (and the health of your teeth). According to Weston A. Price’s (and others) research, a diet rich in healthy fats, vitamins, and minerals can help heal and protect oral health. I go into more detail in this post.

Balancing Hormones

Hormones can have a huge effect on oral health as they can control the acid/alkaline balance in the mouth. They also affect how well the body can heal from or fight disease. Many of us have symptoms of hormone imbalance and things like optimizing sleep, stress, diet, and fitness can make a big difference in hormone health (and oral health).
Homemade Toothpaste

Many conventional kinds of toothpaste contain chemicals and artificial ingredients that can do more harm than good! That’s why I started making my own remineralizing toothpaste. I’ve been using it for years and have had no new cavities (and have even healed some that were waiting for a filling).

Fluoride: Bottom Line

There’s lots of conflicting evidence surrounding fluoride and fluoridating water. Some agencies and dentists think fluoride use has been a huge health advancement. But there’s also growing evidence that fluoride can be harmful. I like to go on the side of caution (especially when there are natural ways to improve oral health) and avoid it. We use a water filter that removes fluoride as well.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Scott Soerries, MD, Family Physician and Medical Director of SteadyMD. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

This article was medically reviewed by Dr. Terry Wahls, a clinical professor of medicine and clinical research and has published over 60 peer-reviewed scientific abstracts, posters, and papers. As always, this is not personal medical advice and we recommend that you talk with your doctor.

Do you use fluoride? Why or why not?


Are fluoride levels in drinking water associated with hypothyroidism prevalence in England? A large observational study of GP practice data and fluoride levels in drinking water.

Li, Y., Liang, C., Slemenda, C. W., Ji, R., Sun, S., Cao, J., … Johnston, J. R. (2001, May). Effect of long-term exposure to fluoride in drinking water on risks of bone fractures.

Estimated “Threshold” Doses for Skeletal Fluorosis. (n.d.).

Beary, D. F. (2005, February 02). The effects of fluoride and low calcium on the physical properties of the rat femur.

Chapman, S. K., Malagodi, M. H., & Thomas, J. R. (n.d.). Effect of vitamin D in fluoride-treated rats

Impact of fluoride on neurological development in children. (2014, December 22).

Grandjean, P., & Landrigan, P. J. (2014, March). Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.

Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6–12 Years of Age in Mexico. (n.d.).

Regression Analysis of Cancer Incidence Rates. (n.d.).

Fluoride. (n.d.).

J., L. (n.d.). The Effect of Fluoride on the Physiology of the Pineal Gland.

Male Fertility. (n.d.).

Prystupa, J. (2011, February). Fluorine–a current literature review. An NRC and ATSDR based review of safety standards for exposure to fluorine and fluorides.

Water Fluoridation “Obsolete” According to Nobel Prize Scientist. (n.d.).

Main, D. (2016, April 06). Fluoridation May Not Prevent Cavities, Scientific Review Shows.

Singh, N., Verma, K. G., Verma, P., Sidhu, G. K., & Sachdeva, S. (2014). A comparative study of fluoride ingestion levels, serum thyroid hormone & TSH level derangements, dental fluorosis status among school children from endemic and non-endemic fluorosis areas.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Homemade Remineralizing Toothpaste Recipe (Natural + Simple)

August 29, 2017 (Updated: July 30, 2019) — by Katie Wells
How to make your own remineralizing toothpaste with natural ingredients

Reading Time: 5 minThis post contains affiliate links. Click here to read my affiliate policy.
Table of Contents[Show]

I’ve talked before about the link between nutrition and oral health and the ability of teeth to remineralize and regenerate and shared my own experience with reversing a cavity. The approach I used was two-part: addressing mineral levels in the body/saliva and using a natural remineralizing toothpaste that provided minerals to the surface of the teeth.
A Remineralizing Toothpaste

There is a lot of emerging information about tooth remineralization, a process that many dentists previously thought was impossible. This article goes into detail about the science behind tooth remineralization and the dietary steps necessary. (It also explains why ingredients in most toothpastes, even natural ones, are not optimal!) I also did a podcast interview with a dentist who explains the science of remineralization (listen here).

The information I found in researching this was mirrored by my own experience over the last few years with natural toothpastes and a remineralizing diet.
Natural Toothpaste

I’ve noticed definite changes in my teeth over the last few years of using this toothpaste. My teeth are whiter than they’ve ever been and everyone who I’ve asked to try this remineralizing toothpaste has remarked that it makes their teeth feel very clean.

The most surprising change in my teeth, however, was that they are no longer sensitive to cold! For as long as I can remember, biting into anything cold (or even thinking of it!) made me shudder and hurt my front teeth. After switching toothpaste, I noticed that I could eat cold foods without my teeth hurting at all. I have never been able to do that before!

This toothpaste recipe is kid-approved, and since it has no fluoride, its safe on babies, toddlers, and those with thyroid problems.
Remineralizing Toothpaste Ingredients

5 parts calcium powder (you can use cleaned powdered egg shells!)
1 part diatomaceous earth (optional, contains trace minerals and silica. UPDATE: A reader noted that DE can be abrasive and is not needed with the baking soda, so if you don’t have DE… no worries!)
2 parts baking soda
3 parts xylitol powder – this ingredient is not completely necessary, but just keeps it from tasting bitter
3-5 parts coconut oil to achieve desired texture
Optional ingredients: essential oils for flavor (mint, cinnamon, and orange are all good), myrrh, and trace minerals

Remineralizing Toothpaste Instructions

Mix all powdered ingredients (calcium, baking soda, xylitol) well in a bowl.
Add coconut oil one part at a time until you get desired consistency.
Add any optional ingredients, including essential oils for flavor (my favorite is peppermint orange)
Store in small container like ½ pint glass jar. To use, either dip clean toothbrush into it, or use Popsicle stick or spoon to put on toothbrush. I’ve also thought of storing in a plastic bag with a corner cut off to be able to squeeze like toothpaste, but haven’t tried it yet.


natural homemade remineralizing toothpaste ingredientsFor this recipe, “part” denotes whatever unit of measurement you are using. For instance, if part=tablespoon, you would need 5 tablespoons calcium powder, 1 tablespoon diatomaceous earth, etc.
The Internal Side of Remineralization

It is really important to note that remineralization is not a process that happens only in the mouth and that simply using a toothpaste (like the one above) with a higher concentration of minerals will not likely be enough to help teeth. Remineralization is a whole-body process and in order for it to happen, the body must have adequate levels of certain nutrients, especially fat soluble vitamins and certain minerals.


Table of Contents

Klinnikkul Deth Vrsuhss Brain Deth

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

clinical death is the medical term for cessation of blood circulation and breathing, the two necessary criteria to sustain life. … On the other hand, brain/biological death occurs four to six minutes after clinical death.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Brain DeTh Recorded As Much As 10 Minutes after clinical human death

Neer Deth Ekspeerienss

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

near-death experience noun

[ Dikshuhnehree Deskripshuhn Uhv Uh ] near-death experience

1: an occurrence in which a person comes very close to dying and has memories of a spiritual experience (such as meeting dead friends and family members or seeing a white light) during the time when death was near

NexT TexT Wuhz Frhm BoTh:
* And

In a prospective study, we included 344 consecutive cardiac patients who were successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in ten Dutch hospitals…Findings 62 patients (18%) reported NDE, of whom 41 (12%) described a core experience.

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

A 1982 Gallup poll found that 15 percent of all Americans who had almost died (under widely varying circumstances) reported an NDE…Also published…as the finding that, among 100 NDE subjects, religious belief and prior knowledge of NDEs did not seem to have an impact on the likelihood of having an NDE…

Bruce Greyson, M.D., of the University of Virginia wrote in a paper titled “The Mystical Impact of Near-Death Experiences”: “In a cross-cultural study in the United States and India, for example, psychologists Karlsis Osis and Erlendur Haraldsson did not find any straightforward relationship between religiousness and deathbed visions, although they did find that an individual’s belief system influenced the interpretation of the experience.” Kevin Ring found the same in a study of 102 people with these experiences.

NexT TexT Wuhz Frhm BoTh:
* And

In a prospective study, we included 344 consecutive cardiac patients who were successfully resuscitated after cardiac arrest in ten Dutch hospitals…Findings 62 patients (18%) reported NDE, of whom 41 (12%) described a core experience.

Ther Iz A Science Of Reesuhsihtaishuhn

Inkluudeeng Wut Iz Tot AT Reesuhsihtaishuhn, Thoh ReesuhsihTaishuh Non-GehranTeez Non LaeTr DeTh.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz RohT By EddiTTohr Uhv

AfTr Brain DeTh, Thuh Nrv Selz, Inklwdeeng Brain Selz And Ther Mem Kemz GeT EeTen By Bugz And Wrmz And Djrmz.

Mem Engram Kemz GeT Chaindjd Tu Bug Poop And Wrm Poop And Jrm Poop.

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Human decomposition is a natural process involving the breakdown of tissues after death. While the rate of human decomposition varies due to several factors, including weather, temperature, moisture, pH and oxygen levels, cause of death, and body position, all human bodies follow the same four stages of human decomposition.


According to Dr. Arpad A. Vass, a Senior Staff Scientist at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Tennessee in Forensic Anthropology, human decomposition begins around four minutes after a person dies and follows four stages: autolysis, bloat, active decay, and skeletonization.

Stage One: Autolysis

The first stage of human decomposition is called autolysis, or self-digestion, and begins immediately after death. As soon as blood circulation and respiration stop, the body has no way of getting oxygen or removing wastes. Excess carbon dioxide causes an acidic environment, causing membranes in cells to rupture. The membranes release enzymes that begin eating the cells from the inside out.

Rigor mortis causes muscle stiffening. Small blisters filled with nutrient-rich fluid begin appearing on internal organs and the skin’s surface. The body will appear to have a sheen due to ruptured blisters, and the skin’s top layer will begin to loosen.

Stage Two: Bloat

Leaked enzymes from the first stage begin producing many gases. The sulfur-containing compounds that the bacteria release also cause skin discoloration. Due to the gases, the human body can double in size. In addition, insect activity can be present.

The microorganisms and bacteria produce extremely unpleasant odors called putrefaction. These odors often alert others that a person has died, and can linger long after a body has been removed.

Stage Three: Active Decay

Fluids released through orifices indicate the beginning of active decay. Organs, muscles, and skin become liquefied. When all of the body’s soft tissue decomposes, hair, bones, cartilage, and other byproducts of decay remain. The cadaver loses the most mass during this stage.

Stage Four: Skeletonization

Because the skeleton has a decomposition rate based on the loss of organic (collagen) and inorganic components, there is no set timeframe when skeletonization occurs.

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Pikchrz Uhv Skehlehtuhnz

Pikchr Address:

Nohts Uhbowt Skehlehtuhnz: List Uhv wut iz non ther!!!

1: No Senseeng Senss Ohrganz Ther!!!
2: No Senss Ekspeeriensseeng Nrv SisTem Ther!!!
3: No Wrkeeng Braeen Ther!!!
4: No Wrkeeng Mem Ther!!!
5: No Senss Uhv SeLf Ther!!!
6: No Muhslz Thus No Uhbillittee Tu Moov Ther!!!
7: No Uhbillittee Tu Wrk Twohrdz A Gohl Ther!!!
8: No Uhbillittee Tu Win Uh Gohl Ther!!!
9: No Uhbillittee Tu Teech Ther!!!

Heer Why All Skeletons Don't Become Fossils?

Ohr Wahch Ohrijjinnul: YouTube Vid: Why Don't All Skeletons Become Fossils?

Kohrpss Shood GeT Frohz Fohr ReessuhsiTTaeeshuhn

See Vid Naeemd " Larry King Demands Conan Freeze His Corpse" AT

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Can You Really Be Cryogenically Frozen?

  • Why The Sci-Fi Fantasy May Be More Science Than Fiction

Mar 11, 2014 03:51 PM By Chris Weller

Scientists have been cryogenically freezing people for decades, and advances on the cellular and tissue level offer hope for people who've taken the leap of faith. Photo courtesy of Shutterstock.

It’s sort of a nice thought, getting frozen indefinitely. You can bide your time inside a chamber cooled to a balmy 321 degrees below zero, until humans find a way to turn you into a zombie — at which point you can emerge with your outdated haircut and weird clothes. Sounds appealing, right? You’re basically a time traveler.

What We Can Do

A quick disclaimer: Getting cryogenically frozen doesn’t mean your rag doll corpse is just dropped into a vat of liquid nitrogen. Cells are mostly water, and water expands when it freezes. (If you’ve ever taken chicken out of the freezer to thaw, you know what I’m talking about.) Basically, your cells would shatter and die.

Getting frozen forever (or until science can reanimate your freezer burnt self) — a process formally known as “cryonics” — requires substances called cryoprotectants. Think of them like the antifreeze you put in your car. So far, our greatest leap forward in preserving our own species and bringing it back to life is on the tissue level, and small ones at that. These include ovaries, embryos, plant seeds, blood, and semen. Larger tissues, such as hearts and livers, let alone entire bodies, require loads more cryoprotectants and, thus, are harder to preserve.

Still, the effects can be mind-boggling. In May 2006, the second of two twin girls was born 16 years after her sister. After a long, storied battled with pregnancy complications, including three ectopic pregnancies and 10 miscarriages, the girls’ parents decided to delay fertilizing the second of the twin embryos. When the initial sibling embryo fertilized, and eventually grew up into a healthy teenager, the family decided in 2005 to revisit the idea.

"We feel incredibly lucky that we've finally been able to complete our family. It's been a long and traumatic journey, but we're so glad we never gave up," said the girls’ mother, Jane Davis, according to BioNews.

What We Want To Do

So we’re making waves with embryos. But what about you? You’re already a person — who will not only die, but, if things remain the same, stay dead. So what’s a person seeking immortality to do?

Enter Robert Ettinger. Aside from being the 106th person to be cryogenically frozen at the Cryonics Institute in Clinton Township, Mich., he also happens to be the Institute’s founder. Ettinger first learned about cryonics in a science-fiction novel he read as a kid, and it was a fantasy he refused to abandon as an adult. Inside the building, over 100 people float limply inside large white drums, including Ettinger’s mother, his wife, and his second wife. And when nature takes its course on Ettinger’s son, David, he too will take the hopeful plunge.

"He believed like a lot of people do that in the future we're going to have dramatically better medical technology,” Ettinger told ABC News of his father. “The question is how do you get them from here to there, and cryonics is kind of an ambulance to the future.”

That ambulance is decidedly complex. Fork over $200,000 for a full-body preservation, or $30,000 for just your head, Ted Williams-style, and you’re entitled to a full vitrification process. Scientists sap your body of its natural water supply and replace it with a sort of “solid liquid” that keeps your cells in suspended animation and ice crystal-free.

Critics uninterested in living forever, or at least in spending 200-grand to do so, happily point to the zero frozen patients that science has managed to revive. Keeping a person at the appropriate temperature is expensive, and many people quit funding the endeavor before any scientific advance quits it for them. This leads many people to question the true intention of companies like Cryonics Institute. But then again, if you have $200K to blow, why not live forever?

All this points to a curious dilemma. On the one hand, we’re edging closer and closer to preserving the sum of our parts indefinitely. (Recently, scientists used 22-year-old frozen sperm to fertilize an egg.) On the other, people who are in the position to take a chance at immortality seem to be taking advantage of it — even if the freezers are turned off before the decade’s out.

But maybe asking whether cryogenic freezing is possible misses the whole point: Yes, it’s possible; David Ettinger has a marching band frozen in his warehouse. Maybe the better question is: When can we be unfrozen? And to that I say, there’s only one way to find out.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

This Company Will Freeze Your Dead Body for $200,000

By Zack Guzman

In the desert climate of Scottsdale, Arizona rest 147 brains and bodies, all frozen in liquid nitrogen with the goal of being revived one day.

It's not science fiction — to some it might not even be science — yet thousands of people around the world have put their trust, lives and fortunes into the promise of cryonics, the practice of preserving a body with antifreeze shortly after death in hopes future medicine might be able to bring the deceased back.

"If you think back half a century or so, if somebody stopped breathing and their heart stopped beating we would've checked them and said they're dead," said Max More, CEO of the Scottsdale-based Alcor. "Our view is that when we call someone dead it's a bit of an arbitrary line. In fact they are in need of a rescue."

That "rescue" begins the moment a medical doctor declares a patient to be dead. It's then that Alcor's team prepares an ice bath and begins administering 16 different medications and variations of anti-freeze, until the patient's temperature drops to near freezing.


Cloning for Brain Transplants

Is it possible to live forever through cloning and brain transplants?

If I have the money, and provided science makes some medical breakthroughs within the next 60 years, do you think I can clone myself, raise the clone till it's like 18, do a brain transplant, and put my brain, in the 18 year old(mindless) clone body, and keep doing so till the end of time, or at least till my brain reaches the max capacity of information. If it's not possible to do it forever, then maybe one or few extra life times could be a possibility?

Because, I don't want to die

A brain transplant or whole-body transplant is a hypothetical operation in which the brain of one organism is transplanted into the body of another. It is a procedure distinct from head transplantation, which involves transferring the entire head to a new body, as opposed to the brain only. Theoretically, a person with advanced organ failure could be given a new and functional body while keeping their own personality and memories.

Historically, brain transplants have not been feasible and were widely regarded as impossible. Today, given progress in organ transplant and human cloning research, many scientists hold that brain transplants are theoretically possible and likely to be feasible in the future.

Brain transplants and similar concepts have been explored in various forms of fiction.

One of the most significant barriers to the procedure is the inability of nerve tissue to heal properly; scarred nerve tissue does not transmit signals well (this is why a spinal cord injury is so devastating). However, recent research at the Wistar Institute of the University of Pennsylvania involving tissue-regenerating mice (known as MRL mice) may provide pointers for further research as to how to regenerate nerves without scarring.

There is also a potential problem of the new interface at the spinal cord, in that even if all the nerves are connected successfully, they may still be connected wrongly, thus not transmitting the same information as the same nerve connection in the previous body. For example, a nerve that used to control the right index finger's muscle group might be connected to a different finger's muscle group or another body part entirely. If this were to happen to a large number of connections, the person undergoing the transplant might end up with a body which transmitted sensory input to the wrong destination, making it incomprehensible and potentially requiring many years of rehabilitation.

A whole head might be kept alive for various reasons in the future. You may find that an entirely new body will be constructed to take the place of the old one, as headless accident victims will be in short supply. A new robotic body (hybrid creatures of this sort are called cyborgs) could be available plus you might get a whole wardrobe full of new bodies for different occasions. A new body could be cloned by a yet undetermined method which produces a force grown body with no head; so there you are with an old head on a new body - the proud citizen of the future.

Alternatively a brain–computer interface can be used connecting the subject to his own body. A study using a monkey as a subject shows that it is possible to directly use commands from the brain, bypass the spinal cord and enable hand function. An advantage is that this interface can be adjusted after the surgical interventions are done where nerves can not be reconnected without surgery.

Also, for the procedure to be practical, the age of the donated body must be sufficient: an adult brain cannot fit into a skull that has not reached its full growth, which occurs at age 9–12 years.

This presents an ethical issue as to what happens to the child’s brain that is being replaced; even if it was also your clone?

If one wanted to grow a clone that didn't have higher brain functions, you might try the "mechanical" method…just find a way of destroying the cloned fetus' brain at a relatively early point in gestation, without killing the entire fetus. Surgical removal or destruction of most of the fetus' brain, while leaving the fetus' brain stem intact would be somewhat "problematic," I'd guess. Due to intracranial bleeding and tissue inflammation, I'd recommend using an artifical womb to incubate the clone, which would allow easy access for surgical decerebrating, as well as enabling your medical team to connect the fetus to an (even more) invasive life-support system to keep it's body alive after the brain stem has been destroyed.

I'd predict a high "failure rate," though. So you should probably have at least a few-dozen clones being incubated at any given time. This would, naturally, get very "pricey" very fast.

There is an advantage, however, with respect to the immune response. The brain is an immunologically privileged organ, so rejection would not be a problem. (When other organs are transplanted, aggressive rejection can occur; this is a major difficulty with kidney and liver transplants.

Here's an idea then; (nanotech again) inject a bunch of self-replicating nanoconstructors - their task is to set up camp at a suitable site in the spinal column, remove a piece of one of the vertebrae (reinforcing the space with a stronger, more compact material), then they construct a 'universal coupling' in the space, after that, they re-route the neurons through it, (one at a time, so there is no significant disruption to the function). When the time comes to affect the transplant, the universal coupling is separated and marries it up with a similar one in the new host body.

The only tricky part is that the nanomachines have to understand the layout of the neurons in the spinal column, so that they can meaningfully connect them into the coupling and not end up with a leg motor neuron wired up to a finger etc. Well, it isn't the only tricky part, but it is certainly one of the biggies.

I particularly like the decapitation in Use of Weapons by Iain Banks … the head is saved and kept alive - when they ask him how he feels he says 'it's just a scratch.'

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Will a cryogenically-frozen corpse ever come back to life?

Is there any reason to freeze your body after death?

A teenager who tragically died of cancer recently has become the latest among a tiny but growing number of people to be cryogenically frozen after death. These individuals hoped that advances in science would one day allow them to be woken up and cured of the conditions that killed them. But how likely is it that such a day will ever come?

Nature has shown us that it is possible to cryopreserve animals like reptiles, amphibians, worms and insects. Nematode worms trained to recognize certain smells retain this memory after being frozen. The wood frog (Rana sylvatica) freezes into a block of ice during winter and hops around the following spring. However, in human tissue each freeze-thaw process causes significant damage. Understanding and minimizing this damage is one of the aims of cryobiology.

At the cellular level, these damages are still poorly understood, but can be controlled. Each innovation in the field relies on two aspects: improving preservation during freezing and advancing recovery after thawing. During freezing, damage can be avoided by carefully modulating temperatures and by relying on various types of cryoprotectants. One of the main objectives is to inhibit ice formation, which can destroy cells and tissues by displacing and rupturing them. For that reason, a smooth transition to a "glassy stage" (vitrification) by rapid cooling, rather than "freezing", is the aim.

For this, simple substances such as sugars and starches have been used to change viscosity and protect cell membranes. Chemicals like dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethylene glycol, glycerol and propandiol are used to prevent intracellular ice formation and anti-freeze proteins inhibit ice crystal growth and re-crystallization during thawing.

But it's not just the individual cells we have to worry about. In a frozen state, tissues are generally biologically stable. Biochemical reactions, including degeneration, are slowed at ultra-low temperatures to a point where they are effectively halted. Nonetheless, there is a risk that frozen structures can experience physical disruption, such as hairline cracks. Then, upon thawing, temperature fluctuation causes a series of problems. Tissues and cells can be damaged at this state. But it also has an effect on our overall "epigenetics" – how environmental factors and lifestyle choices influence our genes – by causing epigenetic reprogramming. However, antioxidants and other substances can help aid post-thaw recovery and prevent damage.

Reviving whole bodies also poses its own challenges, as organs need to commence function homogeneously. The challenges of restoring the flow of blood to organs and tissues are already well-known in emergency medicine. But it is perhaps encouraging that cooling itself does not only have negative effects – it can actually mitigate trauma. In fact, drowning victims who have been revived seem to have been protected by the cold water – something that has led to longstanding research into using low-temperature approaches during surgery.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Can These New Advancements in Cryonics Revive Our Bodies After Freezing?

By Brady Hartman in Futurism November 20, 2017
Reading Time: 8 minutes. »

Summary: Cryonics has long been a non-starter due to technical limitations. A week-old radical proposal by a Russian cryonics firm to freeze people before death, combined with technological advances in cryopreservation are shaking up the cryonics industry. When will cryonics be ready for prime time? [This article has been updated on 12/2/2017 and first appeared on LongevityFacts. For weekly articles, follow us on Reddit | Google+ | Facebook. Author: Brady Hartman.]

Google’s most famous technologist, Ray Kurzweil, has signed up for cryonics, saying:

“My primary strategy for living through the 21st century and beyond is not to die”

However, if plan ‘A’ doesn’t work out, Kurzweil, has opted to have his body cryogenically preserved at Alcor’s modern cryonics facility in Scottsdale.

Even leading lifespan extension advocate Aubrey de Grey of the SENS Foundation has signed up for cryonics and is on Alcor’s list of future guests. In fact, a slew of famous people, many of them transhumanists, have signed up to have their bodies frozen shortly after death.

What is Cryonics?

Cryonics comes from the Greek word for cold and describes the freezing of bodies or tissues with the hope of resuscitation at some future date. The idea of cryopreservation of humans was first proposed in the 1960s by professor Robert Ettinger, in the book called “The Prospect of Immortality.”

Ettinger argued that death could be a reversible process. Professor Ettinger started the Cryonics Institute (CI) in Michigan where his body and those of his mother and his first and second wives now reside in metal flasks called dewars kept at −196 °C.

Moreover, people are using cryonics for more than just the preservation of human bodies. CI’s website states that they, “specialize in full-body cryo-preservation of humans and pets, DNA & tissue storage.”

People are Warming up to Cryonics

While cryonics has never become mainstream, the number of people signing up for cryopreservation is steadily increasing each year. There are now several hundred cryogenically frozen people in the US and dozens in Russia. Among the living, a few thousand people have signed up for cryopreservation, and have already made a down payment on a shot at immortality.

The concept is simple: preserve the body in a pristine condition until a future time when medical science has developed a cure for whatever killed you, at which point your corpse is thawed and reanimated. As the Alcor website states,

“Calling someone ‘dead’ is merely medicine’s way of excusing itself from resuscitation problems it cannot fix today.”

Chilling Doubts about Cryonics

The real question, though, is not whether medical science will advance – and clearly, it will – but whether the frozen bodies will be fit enough to bring back to life.

Freezing takes place down to a temperature of below -130°C, typically using liquid nitrogen. Sometimes the whole body, and sometimes just the head, is frozen, with the hopes of reattaching it later. The idea of freezing only the head came about because some people think that long-term memory and therefore self is all that needs to be preserved indefinitely, though this is a far-fetched opinion.

The argument that encourages people to sign up to be cryopreserved is one akin to Pascal’s Wager. And a relatively low cost of earthly insurance versus the priceless prospect of immortality. Pascal’s Wager posited, in ultra-religious 18th Century France, that the small cost of believing in God – a price paid by forgoing sinful pleasures – was worth it in return for the chance of eternal life in heaven.

Legal Restrictions on Cryonics

There are lots of legal issues surrounding cryopreservation. For example, it is easier to have it done in Russia than in the US and is impossible in most European countries. A 14-year-old British girl who died in 2016 was cryopreserved against her father’s wishes.

Cryopreservation is also expensive, costing upwards to a couple of hundred thousands of dollars, and this is generally financed by a life insurance policy.
Skeptics View Cryonics Cooly

If you are skeptical about cryopreservation in its current form, you are correct. The current state of cryonics technology doesn’t allow the safe freezing and defrosting of an entire human being. Researchers have made remarkable advances in freezing smaller tissues, and I believe that as cryonics technology evolves, one day it will significantly extend our lifespans.

Alcor Life Extension Foundation admits that the current methods of reviving cryopreserved people will most likely not be successful. The firm and its current clients are depending on advances in technology, and in particular nanomolecular technology, to make this possible.

If a firm such as Alcor is skeptical, then we should also be.

There are several reasons for the skepticism. Most notably, these are whether human bodies can be successfully unfrozen, and thereby potentially cured, and also whether the operators of the cryonics facilities can be trusted to stay open for the decades necessary to allow medical technology to advance sufficiently to be able to resuscitate its customers.

Most likely, the people who have been cryopreserved up until now will never be successfully revived. However, it is likely that sometime in the future, techniques will be improved and for some people, it will become a viable option.
Warming Up to Advancements in Cryonics

Two advances have made cryonics a little less far-fetched that it once was.
The First Cryonics Advance – Vitrification

When our cells freeze, they fill with ice crystals, which expand and break down cell walls, reducing our tissues to mush once they are thawed.

Vitrification prevents this by replacing the blood of the recently deceased with a mixture of antifreeze-like chemicals and an organ preservation solution. When the mixture is cooled to below -90C, it becomes a glass-like solid. Vitrification turns the tissues into glass-like structures and prevents the formation of damaging ice crystals.
How Does Vitrification Work?

At the time of death, technicians replace the blood of the recently expired with a type of anti-freeze called cryoprotectants. Afterwards, the body is subjected to vitrification.

Without cryoprotectants, cells cannot be revived, as salt concentrations build up during freezing and wreak massive damage, making effective thawing impossible.
Advancements in Cryonics Continue

Attempts to recover large animal models by thawing have consistently failed. However, in the 1990s engineers introduced solutions that successfully achieved vitrification. Unlike freezing without cryoprotectants, vitrification does not produce the salt problem. However, although these cryoprotectants stop cellular damage, they are also somewhat toxic. Furthermore, large organs can develop fractures.

In 2016, McIntyre and Greg Fahy of the cryopreservation company 21st Century Medicine demonstrated that a form of vitrification called aldehyde-stabilized cryopreservation could preserve a rabbit’s brain in perfect condition when vitrification and freezing at -130°C were combined.

The rabbit’s brain was indeed in perfect condition, at least in maintaining circuitry. However, the gunk involved in preserving it caused chemical crosslinks, a form of macromolecular damage which tangled the molecules, making it impossible to revive the brain.

Dr. Greg Fahy has been the leading source of innovation in the cryonics field. In recent years, the researcher has turned his considerable talents to the task of restoring human thymus function. The thymus is an essential part of our immune system and starts to shrink beginning in our young adulthood. Dr. Fahy hopes he can lengthen our lifespans by rejuvenating the aging thymus and thus put off our visit to a cryonics facility.

Despite the setbacks, researchers continue to successfully freeze and defrost larger and larger tissues. Vitrification has substantially improved the reliability of freezing and thawing embryos, and particularly eggs, used in fertility treatment. As well, the technology works for small pieces of tissue and blood vessels.

Researchers are making advances in the technology, and hope to be able to use the technique on organs at first, and then entire organisms.
Cryonics storage tanks at cryonics firm KrioRus.
Cryonics storage tanks at cryonics firm KrioRus. Credit: KrioRus / Author: ‘Удалова, Валерия Викторовна’ CC BY-SA 4.0

The Second Advance in Cryonics

One major drawback to cryonics is that the procedure is legally allowed only after death. Even then, for best results, freezing should ideally be performed within a few minutes of a client’s demise.

A Russian company named KrioRus believes that the best option is to freeze people before death, and already has plans to do so. KrioRus is sidestepping the legal issue by creating a cryopreservation startup called CryoGen in Switzerland, a country where human euthanasia is legal.

If the cryonics company manages to fund their revolutionary ambitions, they plan to buy a building in Switzerland and convert it to a cryopreservation facility. Clients with one foot in the grave could fly in from around the world and be placed in a cryopreservation tank and wait for the day when medical science finds a cure for their otherwise-fatal disease, at which time their body is thawed to go on living.
Some propose brain uploading as a backup to cryonics.
Some propose brain uploading as a backup to cryonics. Credit: Gerd Altmann.
The Backup Plan to the Backup Plan

Scientists have discovered that our personality, skills, and memories are to some extent defined by the connections between neurons. This discovery has led some futurists to speculate that rather than bringing the actual body back to life, our brains could be uploaded and implanted into a new body or just remain as disembodied holograms – something that has been described as ‘philosophical zombiedom’.

However, many neuroscientists point out that even if scientists could code the astronomical number of connections between the brain’s 100 billion neurons, even this would not capture the full complexity of the human mind.

While technically not an advance in cryonics, per se, mind uploading serves as a backup plan to cryonics.

In other words, brain uploading is the plan ‘B’ for the plan ‘B.’
The Cryonics Business is Heating Up

So, while brain uploading is ways off, those seeking immortality are sticking to cryopreservation. As the demand is growing, cryonics firms are building new state-of-the-art facilities to accommodate even more people. For example, the architect Stephen Valentine is trying to construct an elaborate and impregnable structure in Comfort Texas.

Called the Time Ship, the facility is designed to house hundreds of cryopreserved bodies. Time Ship aspires to be a latter-day Noah’s Ark and plans to preserve a great many things, including human beings, tissues, DNA and many other forms of life. The ambitious project is an expensive one, estimated to cost about $200 million and may never get funded. However, there is plenty of interest in this project, mostly from men who outnumber women three to one in the body count of cryopreservation. As Valentine puts it,

If you’re cremated, you have zippo chance of coming back [as] who you are.

Bottom Line

In a nutshell, the people who choose cryopreservation do so despite slim chances of success. Until cryonics technology improves, their chances of success are mighty slim indeed.

Rather than choosing the cryonics option, you would be better off investing your time and money in the more promising life extension strategies currently being tested, such as intermittent rapamycin therapy, the anti-diabetic drug metformin (currently being tested for anti-aging purposes), or the NAD-boosting NMN.

And while many of his ideas are beyond current technology, and other ideas are far-fetched, some of the SENS strategies of Aubrey de Grey hold promise for extending our lifespans, such as the compounds called senolytics, shown to reverse aging in mice.

The new field of anti-aging medicine has given rise to a new breed of researchers called geroscientists. To learn more, watch the two videos; Can We End Aging Forever? and Can These Revolutionary Technologies Beat Aging in Our Lifetimes?

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Cryobiologists are hopeful that nanotechnology will make revival possible someday. Nanotechnology can use microscopic machines to manipulate single atoms to build or repair virtually anything, including human cells and tissues. They hope one day, nanotechnology will repair not only the cellular damage caused by the freezing process, but also the damage caused by aging and disease.

Some cryobiologists have predicted that the first cryonic revival might occur as early as year 2045.

Thuh NeksT TeksT Wuhz Fruhm:

Cryonics Institute Life Insurance Information

There are many options for funding a cryonic suspension with the Cryonics Institute. One of the most affordable is purchasing a Life Insurance Policy with CI named as the primary beneficiary. Depending on a person’s age, health and other factors, some basic policies can cost just a few dollars per month for the average person.

Please note, the Cryonics Institute does not offer financial, investment or insurance consulting. However, we do have experience with patients who have successfully used this funding option, and we recommend you explore Life Insurance as a potential funding option for yourself with a qualified insurance or investment professional.

To help you get started, here are some considerations and suggestions to keep in mind.


In its most basic terms, a member purchases a life insurance policy of a sufficient amount to cover their cryopreservation costs and additional expenses and names CI as the primary beneficiary. Upon your deanimation, CI will have access to those funds to pay for your suspension and perpetual maintenance. Essentially, your funded policy becomes an "IOU" to be paid when you need to be placed in cryonic suspension at CI. Therefore, it is critical to insure the policy is of sufficient value to cover all your costs and, especially, to make certain that the policy doesn't lapse, which most commonly occurs due to failure to pay the annual premiums.

It is also important to remember a person can also purchase more than one life insurance policy, so you can have one policy earmarked exclusively for your cryonics costs and another in place with the traditional insurance goal of providing for your family. Whenever possible, we do recommend you purchase insurance coverage for cryonics as a separate policy in order to avoid potential legal challenges with the disbursement. Situations can, and have, happened where a family member or other interested party contests cryonics funding in a policy in an attempt to get that money for themselves. Therefore, it is a safer option to have a separate policy with the Cryonics Institute as the sole beneficiary to ensure that money will be available to pay for your suspension and associated expenses when the time comes.


If you are planning to use a Life Insurance policy to fund your suspension, CI does require certain guarantees to safeguard that funding. Obviously, we don’t want a situation where a contracted patient needs cryonic suspension but no longer has the funding available to cover the costs.

For suspension agreements to be funded by a life insurance policy, we require proof of insurance, updated annually at a minimum, that the policy is of sufficient value, and that the Cryonics Institute is the named beneficiary. Typically, CI requires a copy of the original policy documents for our records and annual statements thereafter confirming the policy is paid in full and active.

One smart way to make sure CI stays updated is to sign full or joint ownership of the policy over to CI. If CI owns the policy we get all statements and have immediate proof of insurance thus halting delays in cryopreservation. A member can always change their mind and CI's policy is to transfer policy ownership back to the member upon simple written request. If you want to still retain control over the policy then joint ownership should serve all of your needs.


The cost of perpetual Human Cryopreservation with the Cryonics Institute is $28K (US,) for a Lifetime Member and $35K (US) for an Annual Member, so these amounts would be the absolute minimum amount required to fund your particular agreement. We do, however, strongly urge members to overfund their policies in order to cover additional costs, including transport, standby, funeral director services or any other specialized arrangements. Overfunding provides an extra level of security for yourself and your family to cover these additional costs or other unforeseen expenses.

We recommend at least $50K as a reasonable amount that provides for cryonics-related expenses above and beyond the basic cost. Depending on your financial situation and insurability, you may be in a position to choose to add additional coverage for a relatively modest increase in the monthly premium.

Additionally, we encourage members to overfund with proceeds above and beyond the basic cryopreservation (and additional) expenses donated to CI for cryonics research, facility maintenance and improvements and furthering the cryonics movement.


Both Term and Whole Life insurance offer a "death benefit," paid out at the insured’s time of passing to the Primary beneficiary designated in the policy. Term insurance is less expensive, but Whole Life includes investment features that Term insurance doesn't.

Term Insurance provides coverage at a fixed payment rate for a fixed amount of time, or "term" of the policy. If the insured passes away during the term, the contracted benefit is paid out to the designated beneficiary. Term insurance is generally regarded as the least expensive life insurance option, offering an inexpensive way to purchase a substantial "death benefit" for a fixed rate over a pre-determined period of time. However, there is no investment option involved, so no monies accrue and if you stop paying the premiums, you don’t receive any money back. If you are going to buy Term Life, it is important that you invest the difference you would save over buying Whole Life. If you don’t have the willpower to invest the difference, or don't want to take the risk of outliving your insurability, then perhaps Whole Life is a better option.

Whole Life is a considerably more expensive option, however there is a savings component built into the policy and the "term" is understood to be the insured’s lifetime rather than a fixed period of time. In addition to the savings and investment component built into such policies, whole life insurance also includes a death benefit to be paid out to a specific beneficiary.

Insurance policies vary from state to state and company to company, in terms of costs, benefits and other details. However one critical factor doesn't change, and that’s the fact that the older one gets the more difficult it becomes to acquire insurance and that coverage typically becomes more expensive the older a person is. The plain message is to start early before it’s too late to even get insurance. Once you have been accepted for coverage and acquire a basic term policy, you have many more options in the future, regardless of your age.

We strongly recommend you do some research online or meet with an insurance professional to discuss your options and at a minimum, purchase a basic term plan to get started. Once you have established basic term coverage, you give yourself more options for the future.


A "Rider" is a special addition to your policy that provides for additional benefits. Two of the most common are the "Accelerated Benefit" rider and the "Double Indemnity" rider.
Accelerated Benefit Rider

This rider provides for the insurance company to pay a portion of the death benefit before you pass. This rider can provide up to 50% of the death benefit for persons with a terminal medical condition to use in any way they choose. Cryonics Institute members can use this advance payment to pay off their suspension contract while they are still alive, as well as standby arrangements, transportation and other anticipated expenses.
Double Indemnity

The double indemnity rider requires the insurance company to pay double the death benefit if the insured dies by accidental means. Usually, the money one would spend on this rider is better spent on additional life insurance which pays off regardless of the causes of death. Also, many insurance companies will require or encourage the next of kin to order an autopsy as a means of determining that death was indeed accidental. Autopsies are definitely not a good idea for anyone planning to enter cryonic suspension.


You can’t. No insurance companies sell "cryonics insurance." What they sell are life insurance policies (for any legal purpose) where the policy owner can name a cryonics organization like CI (or any person, organization or cause you choose) as the beneficiary. The goal is to fund a cryonic suspension, but it’s still a normal Life Insurance policy, not a special "cryonics policy." Any of the hundreds of life insurance companies in the US or other countries can sell you such a policy.

This is an important consideration to keep in mind as you approach agents to discuss your options. If you approach an agent looking for "cryonics insurance," you run the risk of being forced into a debate on the subject of cryonics rather than focusing on the more important subject at hand, which is purchasing a sufficiently funded policy. Life Insurance is essentially a financial transaction, and as the insured it's your money, and your right to designate the beneficiary.


When buying life insurance, it pays to shop. Many web-sites or individual insurance agents can do this for you by comparing rates for many insurance companies. If you have an agent that you work with to buy other insurance, you might want to ask for proposals from him or her.

There are also dozens of companies that will give you a term insurance quote online. Keywords: “term insurance”, “life insurance”, or “life insurance quotes” will turn up a number of informative and helpful websites you can use to compare policies and costs.

Please note, these links are intended for information purposes only and do not express an endorsement by the Cryonics Institute.

Glossaries of Insurance Terms

Helpful references explaining a number of life insurance terms and principles.

Sites providing online insurance quotes

Insurance Agents and Agencies

Ben Archer
Ben Archer Insurance Agency
12117 Bee Cave Road
Austin, TX 78738
Office: 512-263-5565
 Fax: 512-263-5484
Email: moc.serusnineb|neb#moc.serusnineb|neb

Michael A. Flower
Financial Principles, LLC
310 Passaic Ave. #203
Fairfield NJ 07004
Phone: 973-582-1004
 Fax: 973-582-1001
Email: moc.selpicnirplaicnanif|rewolfm#moc.selpicnirplaicnanif|rewolfm

Jeff Hansen
American Family Insurance
2848 N. Brookfield Rd., Suite 4
Brookfield, WI 53045
Phone: 262-784-3664
Web Site:

Rudi Hoffman, CFP
Certified Financial Planner, Investment & Financial Services
P.O. Box 290549
Port Orange, FL 32127
Cell 386-235-7834
Fax 386-269-9622
Email: moc.namffohidur|idur#moc.namffohidur|idur
Licensed in most states, including CA, AZ and TX

Bradley D. Holland
Holland Financial Group

25 Boone Lane 
P.O. Box 156

Mitchell, IN 47446
Phone: (812) 849-2010 or (800) 774-1806
Email: moc.liamseitiruces|dnallohb#moc.liamseitiruces|dnallohb
Licensed in multiple states

Joseph Z. Kowalsky
Upstream Investment Partners
28250 Southfield Road, Suite 210
Lathrup Village, MI 48076
Tel: (248) 556-2942 or toll-free (877) 255-1949
Fax: (248) 415-1724

George Kramer, MBA, CLU, ChFC, RICP
Wealth Management Advisor
Northwestern Mutual
4 West 34th Street
Erie, PA 16508
Phone: 814-616-0190
Fax: 814-616-0194
LinkedIn: George Kramer: Northwestern Mutual
Learn about Financial Guidance with Northwestern Mutual: Financial Guidance
Website: George Kramer: Wealth Management Advisor
Licensed in all 50 States


Serge Vallée

Financière Sun Life Insurance
1405 Route Transcanadienne Suite 600

Dorval, QC, H9P 2V9|Canada
Tel: (514) 685-0484 Ext: 2228

Cell: (514) 865-3158

Fax: (514) 685-2878
Email: moc.efilnus|eellav.egres#moc.efilnus|eellav.egres

Josee Mainville (Quebec Province)
Conseillere en Securite
Financiere & Representante en epargne Collective
JM Assurances & Services Financiers Inc
48, rue de Sorel
Blainville (QC) Canada
Tel: (514) 554-4487 (French Only)
Email: moc.fsamj|ellivniam.eesoj#moc.fsamj|ellivniam.eesoj

Chris Morgan

Unusual Risks Mortgage & Insurance Services
8 Kings Road, Honiton, Devon, England, EX14 1HW
Telephone: +44 (0) 845 474 3075

Email: ku.oc.sksirlausunu|seiriuqne#ku.oc.sksirlausunu|seiriuqne 


UK based financial advisers with specialist knowledge of Insurance for the purpose of funding Cryonics. Visit their web page for details of services and a free Cryonics and Insurance Fact Sheet.

  • Note to Insurance Agents: If you are an agent specializing in providing services for cryonicists, please contact gro.scinoyrc|sinned#gro.scinoyrc|sinned to be considered for inclusion on this page.

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