GNU GRUB2 Uv ZOOM Lang Sohrss TekSTs Uv SmahrT Tek Langz Tot Heer

GNU GRUB Manual 2.02

Table of Contents

1 Introduction to GRUB
1.1 Overview
1.2 History of GRUB
1.3 Differences from previous versions
1.4 GRUB features
1.5 The role of a boot loader
2 Naming convention
3 OS-specific notes about grub tools
4 Installation
4.1 Installing GRUB using grub-install
4.2 Making a GRUB bootable CD-ROM
4.3 The map between BIOS drives and OS devices
4.4 BIOS installation
5 Booting
5.1 How to boot operating systems
5.1.1 How to boot an OS directly with GRUB
5.1.2 Chain-loading an OS
5.2 Loopback booting
5.3 Some caveats on OS-specific issues
5.3.1 GNU/Hurd
5.3.2 GNU/Linux
5.3.3 NetBSD
5.3.4 DOS/Windows
6 Writing your own configuration file
6.1 Simple configuration handling
6.2 Writing full configuration files directly
6.3 Multi-boot manual config
6.4 Embedding a configuration file into GRUB
7 Theme file format
7.1 Introduction
7.2 Theme Elements
7.2.1 Colors
7.2.2 Fonts
7.2.3 Progress Bar
7.2.4 Circular Progress Indicator
7.2.5 Labels
7.2.6 Boot Menu
7.2.7 Styled Boxes
7.2.8 Creating Styled Box Images
7.3 Theme File Manual
7.3.1 Global Properties
7.3.2 Format
7.3.3 Global Property List
7.3.4 Component Construction
7.3.5 Component List
7.3.6 Common properties
8 Booting GRUB from the network
9 Using GRUB via a serial line
10 Using GRUB with vendor power-on keys
11 GRUB image files
12 Core image size limitation
13 Filesystem syntax and semantics
13.1 How to specify devices
13.2 How to specify files
13.3 How to specify block lists
14 GRUB’s user interface
14.1 The flexible command-line interface
14.2 The simple menu interface
14.3 Editing a menu entry

15 GRUB environment variables

15.1 Special environment variables
15.1.1 biosnum
15.1.2 check_signatures
15.1.3 chosen
15.1.4 cmdpath
15.1.5 color_highlight
15.1.6 color_normal
15.1.7 config_directory
15.1.8 config_file
15.1.9 debug
15.1.10 default
15.1.11 fallback
15.1.12 gfxmode
15.1.13 gfxpayload
15.1.14 gfxterm_font
15.1.15 grub_cpu
15.1.16 grub_platform
15.1.17 icondir
15.1.18 lang
15.1.19 locale_dir
15.1.20 menu_color_highlight
15.1.21 menu_color_normal
15.1.22 net_<interface>_boot_file
15.1.23 net_<interface>_dhcp_server_name
15.1.24 net_<interface>_domain
15.1.25 net_<interface>_extensionspath
15.1.26 net_<interface>_hostname
15.1.27 net_<interface>_ip
15.1.28 net_<interface>_mac
15.1.29 net_<interface>_next_server
15.1.30 net_<interface>_rootpath
15.1.31 net_default_interface
15.1.32 net_default_ip
15.1.33 net_default_mac
15.1.34 net_default_server
15.1.35 pager
15.1.36 prefix
15.1.37 pxe_blksize
15.1.38 pxe_default_gateway
15.1.39 pxe_default_server
15.1.40 root
15.1.41 superusers
15.1.42 theme
15.1.43 timeout
15.1.44 timeout_style

15.2 The GRUB environment block

16 The List of available commands

16.1 The list of commands for the menu only
16.1.1 menuentry
16.1.2 submenu

16.2 The list of general commands
16.2.1 serial
16.2.2 terminal_input
16.2.3 terminal_output
16.2.4 terminfo
16.3 The list of command-line and menu entry commands
16.3.1 [
16.3.2 acpi
16.3.3 authenticate
16.3.4 background_color
16.3.5 background_image
16.3.6 badram
16.3.7 blocklist
16.3.8 boot
16.3.9 cat
16.3.10 chainloader
16.3.11 clear
16.3.12 cmosclean
16.3.13 cmosdump
16.3.14 cmostest
16.3.15 cmp
16.3.16 configfile
16.3.17 cpuid
16.3.18 crc
16.3.19 cryptomount
16.3.20 date
16.3.21 linux
16.3.22 distrust
16.3.23 drivemap
16.3.24 echo
16.3.25 eval
16.3.26 export
16.3.27 false
16.3.28 gettext
16.3.29 gptsync
16.3.30 halt
16.3.31 hashsum
16.3.32 help
16.3.33 initrd
16.3.34 initrd16
16.3.35 insmod
16.3.36 keystatus
16.3.37 linux
16.3.38 linux16
16.3.39 list_env
16.3.40 list_trusted
16.3.41 load_env
16.3.42 loadfont
16.3.43 loopback
16.3.44 ls
16.3.45 lsfonts
16.3.46 lsmod
16.3.47 md5sum
16.3.48 module
16.3.49 multiboot
16.3.50 nativedisk
16.3.51 normal
16.3.52 normal_exit
16.3.53 parttool
16.3.54 password
16.3.55 password_pbkdf2
16.3.56 play
16.3.57 probe
16.3.58 pxe_unload
16.3.59 read
16.3.60 reboot
16.3.61 regexp
16.3.62 rmmod
16.3.63 save_env
16.3.64 search
16.3.65 sendkey
16.3.66 set
16.3.67 sha1sum
16.3.68 sha256sum
16.3.69 sha512sum
16.3.70 sleep
16.3.71 source
16.3.72 test
16.3.73 true
16.3.74 trust
16.3.75 unset
16.3.76 uppermem
16.3.77 verify_detached
16.3.78 videoinfo
16.3.79 xen_hypervisor
16.3.80 xen_linux
16.3.81 xen_initrd
16.3.82 xen_xsm

16.4 The list of networking commands
16.4.1 net_add_addr
16.4.2 net_add_dns
16.4.3 net_add_route
16.4.4 net_bootp
16.4.5 net_del_addr
16.4.6 net_del_dns
16.4.7 net_del_route
16.4.8 net_get_dhcp_option
16.4.9 net_ipv6_autoconf
16.4.10 net_ls_addr
16.4.11 net_ls_cards
16.4.12 net_ls_dns
16.4.13 net_ls_routes
16.4.14 net_nslookup

17 Internationalisation
17.1 Charset
17.2 Filesystems
17.3 Output terminal
17.4 Input terminal
17.5 Gettext
17.6 Regexp

17.7 Other
Currently GRUB always uses YEAR-MONTH-DAY HOUR:MINUTE:SECOND [WEEKDAY] 24-hour datetime format but weekdays are translated. GRUB always uses the decimal number format with [0-9] as digits and . as descimal separator and no group separator. IEEE1275 aliases are matched case-insensitively except non-ASCII which is matched as binary. Similar behaviour is for matching OSBundleRequired. Since IEEE1275 aliases and OSBundleRequired don’t contain any non-ASCII it should never be a problem in practice. Case-sensitive identifiers are matched as raw strings, no canonical equivalence check is performed. Case-insenstive identifiers are matched as RAW but additionally [a-z] is equivalent to [A-Z]. GRUB-defined identifiers use only ASCII and so should user-defined ones. Identifiers containing non-ASCII may work but aren’t supported. Only the ASCII space characters (space U+0020, tab U+000b, CR U+000d and LF U+000a) are recognised. Other unicode space characters aren’t a valid field separator. test (see test) tests <, >, <=, >=, -pgt and -plt compare the strings in the lexicographical order of unicode codepoints, replicating the behaviour of test from coreutils. environment variables and commands are listed in the same order.

18 Security
18.1 Authentication and authorisation in GRUB
18.2 Using digital signatures in GRUB
19 Platform limitations
20 Outline
21 Supported boot targets
21.1 Boot tests
22 Error messages produced by GRUB
22.1 GRUB only offers a rescue shell
23 Invoking grub-install
24 Invoking grub-mkconfig
25 Invoking grub-mkpasswd-pbkdf2
26 Invoking grub-mkrelpath
27 Invoking grub-mkrescue
28 Invoking grub-mount
29 Invoking grub-probe
30 Invoking grub-script-check
Appendix A How to obtain and build GRUB
Appendix B Reporting bugs
Appendix C Where GRUB will go
Appendix D Copying This Manual
D.1 GNU Free Documentation License
D.1.1 ADDENDUM: How to use this License for your documents
Index