Gaia Earth Science Sizomes in FonehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Gaia in Funetik Inglish iz Gyuh.

Pronunciation
(Received Pronunciation, General American) IPA(key): /ˈɡaɪə/, /ˈɡeɪə/

Etymology

British scientist, environmentalist, and futurist James Lovelock, c. 1960. Lovelock first used the word Gaia to describe the ecosystem of the Earth regarded as a self-regulating organism (sense 1).

Borrowed from Ancient Greek Γαῖᾰ (Gaîa, “Gaea, the Earth personified as a goddess”), from γαῖᾰ (gaîa, “the Earth”), probably related to γῆ (gê, “earth, land; country”).

Sense 1 was coined by the British scientist, environmentalist, and futurist James Lovelock (born 1919), at the suggestion of the British novelist, playwright, and poet William Golding (1911–1993)

Gaia Overview

The Gaia Paradigm

While reading on about the science of Gaia Theory – below and throughout this website – consider the term “Gaia Paradigm.” This phrase refers to the confluence of the best available scientific understanding of Earth as a living system with cultural understandings of human society as a seamless continuum of that system. The “Gaia Paradigm” employs the powerful metaphor of “Gaia” to take the perspective of human beings as part of a living system. This encourages us to explore scientific insights from scientists that have been associated with “Gaia Theory” and from those who identify themselves as researchers in “Earth system science” or other disciplines. The “Gaia Paradigm” is a context in which our society’s “cultural narrative” can best reflect and incorporate these scientific realities.

What is Gaia Theory?

Pick up a newspaper or listen to the news and you’ll quickly see that our understanding of the Earth and our relationship to it has never mattered more. The Gaia Theory offers insights into climate change, energy, health, agriculture, and other issues of great, if not urgent, importance.

Overall, the Gaia Theory is a compelling new way of understanding life on our planet. It argues that we are far more than just the “Third Rock from the Sun,” situated precariously between freezing and burning up. The theory asserts that living organisms and their inorganic surroundings have evolved together as a single living system that greatly affects the chemistry and conditions of Earth’s surface. Some scientists believe that this “Gaian system” self-regulates global temperature, atmospheric content, ocean salinity, and other factors in an “automatic” manner. Earth’s living system appears to keep conditions on our planet just right for life to persist! The Gaia Theory has already inspired ideas and practical applications for economic systems, policy, scientific inquiry, and other valuable work. The future holds more of the same.

Understanding Gaia Theory

The Gaia Theory posits that the organic and inorganic components of Planet Earth have evolved together as a single living, self-regulating system. It suggests that this living system has automatically controlled global temperature, atmospheric content, ocean salinity, and other factors, that maintains its own habitability. In a phrase, “life maintains conditions suitable for its own survival.” In this respect, the living system of Earth can be thought of analogous to the workings of any individual organism that regulates body temperature, blood salinity, etc. So, for instance, even though the luminosity of the sun – the Earth’s heat source – has increased by about 30 percent since life began almost four billion years ago, the living system has reacted as a whole to maintain temperatures at levels suitable for life.

The Gaia theory was developed in the late 1960’s by Dr. James Lovelock, a British Scientist and inventor, shortly after his work with NASA in determining that there was probably no life on Mars. His research led to profound new insights about life on Earth. The theory gained an early supporter in Lynn Margulis, a microbiologist at the University of Massachusetts. In the past 15-20 years, many of the mechanisms by which Earth self-regulates have been identified. As one example, it has been shown that cloud formation over the open ocean is almost entirely a function of the metabolism of oceanic algae that emit a large sulfur molecule (as a waste gas) that becomes the condensation nuclei for raindrops. Previously, it was thought that cloud formation over the ocean was a purely chemical/physical phenomenon. The cloud formation not only helps regulate Earth’s temperature, it is an important mechanism by which sulfur is returned to terrestrial ecosystems.

The Gaia Theory has inspired many leading figures of the past 20 years, including Vaclav Havel, John Todd (inventor), Freeman Dyson (physicist), Al Gore, Joseph Campbell (mythology expert), and Elisabet Sahtouris (microbiologist). These and many other people have written and spoken eloquently about how the Gaia Theory can help us model human activities after the living systems of our planet; the concept offers lessons for the design of economic, energy, social and governmental systems.


EARTH SCIENCES in Funetik Inglish iz Rth Syuhnsez uv Gaia Earth Science Sizomes

Earth Science in Funetik Inglish iz Rth Syuhns uv Gaia Earth Science Sizomes

Earth in Funetik Inglish iz Rth uv Gaia Earth Science Sizomes

220px-EpicEarth-Globespin%282016May29%29.gif310px-Earth_poster.svg.png

Structure of the Atmosphere

Earth's atmosphere Lower 4 layers of the atmosphere in 3 dimensions as seen diagonally from above the exobase. Layers drawn to scale, objects within the layers are not to scale. Aurorae shown here at the bottom of the thermosphere can actually form at any altitude in this atmospheric layer.

Principal layers

In general, air pressure and density decrease with altitude in the atmosphere. However, temperature has a more complicated profile with altitude, and may remain relatively constant or even increase with altitude in some regions (see the temperature section, below). Because the general pattern of the temperature/altitude profile is constant and measurable by means of instrumented balloon soundings, the temperature behavior provides a useful metric to distinguish atmospheric layers. In this way, Earth's atmosphere can be divided (called atmospheric stratification) into five main layers. Excluding the exosphere, the atmosphere has four primary layers, which are the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and thermosphere.[10] From highest to lowest, the five main layers are:

Exosphere: 700 to 10,000 km (440 to 6,200 miles)
Thermosphere: 80 to 700 km (50 to 440 miles)[11]
Mesosphere: 50 to 80 km (31 to 50 miles)
Stratosphere: 12 to 50 km (7 to 31 miles)
Troposphere: 0 to 12 km (0 to 7 miles)[12]
Exosphere
Main article: Exosphere
The exosphere is the outermost layer of Earth's atmosphere (i.e. the upper limit of the atmosphere). It extends from the exobase, which is located at the top of the thermosphere at an altitude of about 700 km above sea level, to about 10,000 km (6,200 mi; 33,000,000 ft) where it merges into the solar wind.

This layer is mainly composed of extremely low densities of hydrogen, helium and several heavier molecules including nitrogen, oxygen and carbon dioxide closer to the exobase. The atoms and molecules are so far apart that they can travel hundreds of kilometers without colliding with one another. Thus, the exosphere no longer behaves like a gas, and the particles constantly escape into space. These free-moving particles follow ballistic trajectories and may migrate in and out of the magnetosphere or the solar wind.

The exosphere is located too far above Earth for any meteorological phenomena to be possible. However, the aurora borealis and aurora australis sometimes occur in the lower part of the exosphere, where they overlap into the thermosphere. The exosphere contains most of the satellites orbiting Earth.

Thermosphere
Main article: Thermosphere
The thermosphere is the second-highest layer of Earth's atmosphere. It extends from the mesopause (which separates it from the mesosphere) at an altitude of about 80 km (50 mi; 260,000 ft) up to the thermopause at an altitude range of 500–1000 km (310–620 mi; 1,600,000–3,300,000 ft). The height of the thermopause varies considerably due to changes in solar activity.[11] Because the thermopause lies at the lower boundary of the exosphere, it is also referred to as the exobase. The lower part of the thermosphere, from 80 to 550 kilometres (50 to 342 mi) above Earth's surface, contains the ionosphere.

The temperature of the thermosphere gradually increases with height. Unlike the stratosphere beneath it, wherein a temperature inversion is due to the absorption of radiation by ozone, the inversion in the thermosphere occurs due to the extremely low density of its molecules. The temperature of this layer can rise as high as 1500 °C (2700 °F), though the gas molecules are so far apart that its temperature in the usual sense is not very meaningful. The air is so rarefied that an individual molecule (of oxygen, for example) travels an average of 1 kilometre (0.62 mi; 3300 ft) between collisions with other molecules.[13] Although the thermosphere has a high proportion of molecules with high energy, it would not feel hot to a human in direct contact, because its density is too low to conduct a significant amount of energy to or from the skin.

This layer is completely cloudless and free of water vapor. However, non-hydrometeorological phenomena such as the aurora borealis and aurora australis are occasionally seen in the thermosphere. The International Space Station orbits in this layer, between 350 and 420 km (220 and 260 mi).

Mesosphere
Main article: Mesosphere
The mesosphere is the third highest layer of Earth's atmosphere, occupying the region above the stratosphere and below the thermosphere. It extends from the stratopause at an altitude of about 50 km (31 mi; 160,000 ft) to the mesopause at 80–85 km (50–53 mi; 260,000–280,000 ft) above sea level.

Temperatures drop with increasing altitude to the mesopause that marks the top of this middle layer of the atmosphere. It is the coldest place on Earth and has an average temperature around −85 °C (−120 °F; 190 K).[14][15]

Just below the mesopause, the air is so cold that even the very scarce water vapor at this altitude can be sublimated into polar-mesospheric noctilucent clouds. These are the highest clouds in the atmosphere and may be visible to the naked eye if sunlight reflects off them about an hour or two after sunset or a similar length of time before sunrise. They are most readily visible when the Sun is around 4 to 16 degrees below the horizon. Lightning-induced discharges known as transient luminous events (TLEs) occasionally form in the mesosphere above tropospheric thunderclouds. The mesosphere is also the layer where most meteors burn up upon atmospheric entrance. It is too high above Earth to be accessible to jet-powered aircraft and balloons, and too low to permit orbital spacecraft. The mesosphere is mainly accessed by sounding rockets and rocket-powered aircraft.

Stratosphere
Main article: Stratosphere
The stratosphere is the second-lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. It lies above the troposphere and is separated from it by the tropopause. This layer extends from the top of the troposphere at roughly 12 km (7.5 mi; 39,000 ft) above Earth's surface to the stratopause at an altitude of about 50 to 55 km (31 to 34 mi; 164,000 to 180,000 ft).

The atmospheric pressure at the top of the stratosphere is roughly 1/1000 the pressure at sea level. It contains the ozone layer, which is the part of Earth's atmosphere that contains relatively high concentrations of that gas. The stratosphere defines a layer in which temperatures rise with increasing altitude. This rise in temperature is caused by the absorption of ultraviolet radiation (UV) radiation from the Sun by the ozone layer, which restricts turbulence and mixing. Although the temperature may be −60 °C (−76 °F; 210 K) at the tropopause, the top of the stratosphere is much warmer, and may be near 0 °C.[16]

The stratospheric temperature profile creates very stable atmospheric conditions, so the stratosphere lacks the weather-producing air turbulence that is so prevalent in the troposphere. Consequently, the stratosphere is almost completely free of clouds and other forms of weather. However, polar stratospheric or nacreous clouds are occasionally seen in the lower part of this layer of the atmosphere where the air is coldest. The stratosphere is the highest layer that can be accessed by jet-powered aircraft.

Troposphere
Main article: Troposphere
The troposphere is the lowest layer of Earth's atmosphere. It extends from Earth's surface to an average height of about 12 km, although this altitude actually varies from about 9 km (30,000 ft) at the poles to 17 km (56,000 ft) at the equator,[12] with some variation due to weather. The troposphere is bounded above by the tropopause, a boundary marked in most places by a temperature inversion (i.e. a layer of relatively warm air above a colder one), and in others by a zone which is isothermal with height.[17][18]

Although variations do occur, the temperature usually declines with increasing altitude in the troposphere because the troposphere is mostly heated through energy transfer from the surface. Thus, the lowest part of the troposphere (i.e. Earth's surface) is typically the warmest section of the troposphere. This promotes vertical mixing (hence the origin of its name in the Greek word τρόπος, tropos, meaning "turn"). The troposphere contains roughly 80% of the mass of Earth's atmosphere.[19] The troposphere is denser than all its overlying atmospheric layers because a larger atmospheric weight sits on top of the troposphere and causes it to be most severely compressed. Fifty percent of the total mass of the atmosphere is located in the lower 5.6 km (18,000 ft) of the troposphere.

Nearly all atmospheric water vapor or moisture is found in the troposphere, so it is the layer where most of Earth's weather takes place. It has basically all the weather-associated cloud genus types generated by active wind circulation, although very tall cumulonimbus thunder clouds can penetrate the tropopause from below and rise into the lower part of the stratosphere. Most conventional aviation activity takes place in the troposphere, and it is the only layer that can be accessed by propeller-driven aircraft.

Space Shuttle Endeavour orbiting in the thermosphere. Because of the angle of the photo, it appears to straddle the stratosphere and mesosphere that actually lie more than 250 km below. The orange layer is the troposphere, which gives way to the whitish stratosphere and then the blue mesosphere.

Other layers

Within the five principal layers that are largely determined by temperature, several secondary layers may be distinguished by other properties:

The ozone layer is contained within the stratosphere. In this layer ozone concentrations are about 2 to 8 parts per million, which is much higher than in the lower atmosphere but still very small compared to the main components of the atmosphere. It is mainly located in the lower portion of the stratosphere from about 15–35 km (9.3–21.7 mi; 49,000–115,000 ft), though the thickness varies seasonally and geographically. About 90% of the ozone in Earth's atmosphere is contained in the stratosphere.
The ionosphere is a region of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation. It is responsible for auroras. During daytime hours, it stretches from 50 to 1,000 km (31 to 621 mi; 160,000 to 3,280,000 ft) and includes the mesosphere, thermosphere, and parts of the exosphere. However, ionization in the mesosphere largely ceases during the night, so auroras are normally seen only in the thermosphere and lower exosphere. The ionosphere forms the inner edge of the magnetosphere. It has practical importance because it influences, for example, radio propagation on Earth.
The homosphere and heterosphere are defined by whether the atmospheric gases are well mixed. The surface-based homosphere includes the troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere, and the lowest part of the thermosphere, where the chemical composition of the atmosphere does not depend on molecular weight because the gases are mixed by turbulence.[21] This relatively homogeneous layer ends at the turbopause found at about 100 km (62 mi; 330,000 ft), the very edge of space itself as accepted by the FAI, which places it about 20 km (12 mi; 66,000 ft) above the mesopause.
Above this altitude lies the heterosphere, which includes the exosphere and most of the thermosphere. Here, the chemical composition varies with altitude. This is because the distance that particles can move without colliding with one another is large compared with the size of motions that cause mixing. This allows the gases to stratify by molecular weight, with the heavier ones, such as oxygen and nitrogen, present only near the bottom of the heterosphere. The upper part of the heterosphere is composed almost completely of hydrogen, the lightest element.
The planetary boundary layer is the part of the troposphere that is closest to Earth's surface and is directly affected by it, mainly through turbulent diffusion. During the day the planetary boundary layer usually is well-mixed, whereas at night it becomes stably stratified with weak or intermittent mixing. The depth of the planetary boundary layer ranges from as little as about 100 metres (330 ft) on clear, calm nights to 3,000 m (9,800 ft) or more during the afternoon in dry regions.

See also:

Thuh Wrd " Syuhnss " Wuhz Fikst Tu Syenss.

See also:


Syenss


Syenss Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Uhv Syenss


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Our definition of science

Science is the pursuit and application of knowledge and understanding of the natural and social world following a systematic methodology based on evidence.


Syenss Wrd Lah Dehfinnishuhn

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What is SCIENCE?:

Knowledge that is comprised of verifiable and measurable facts that have been acquired by the application of a scientific method.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

science

Science is the field of study concerned with discovering and describing the world around us by observing and experimenting. Biology, chemistry, and physics are all branches of science.

Science is an "empirical" field, that is, it develops a body of knowledge by observing things and performing experiments. The meticulous process of gathering and analyzing data is called the "scientific method," and we sometimes use science to describe the knowledge we already have…


SyenTiffik MeThuhd Uhv Syenss And SyenTiffik Trmz

Thuh Fraeez Trm "ScienTific MeThod"

SaiunTihfik Methud iz Saiuntihfik + Methuhd,


Syentiffik Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh NexT ETimmoLLuhjee Uv Wrd SyenTiffik Fruhm:

scientific (adj.)

1580s, from Middle French scientifique,

from Medieval Latin scientificus "pertaining to science,"

from Latin scientia "knowledge" (see science) + -ficus "making, doing,"…

Originally used to translate Greek epistemonikos "making knowledge" in Aristotle's "Ethics."…

First record of scientific revolution is from 1803;

scientific method is from 1854;

scientific notation is from 1961.


Thuh NexT Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

scientific adjective…

Definition of scientific

1 : of, relating to, or exhibiting the methods or principles of science
2 : conducted in the manner of science or according to results of investigation by science : practicing or using thorough or systematic methods


Thuh NexT Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

scientific…adj
1. (prenominal) of, relating to, derived from, or used in science: scientific equipment.
2. (prenominal) occupied in science: scientific manpower.
3. conforming with the principles or methods used in science: a scientific approach…
Cite: Collins English Dictionary – Complete and Unabridged, 12th Edition

sci•en•tif•ic…adj.
1. of, pertaining to, or concerned with a science or the sciences.
2. regulated by or conforming to the principles of exact science.
3. systematic or accurate in the manner of an exact science…
Cite: Random House Kernerman Webster's College Dictionary,

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd Syentiffik Wrd Deskripshuhnz


Methuhd Vrs (Haoh=#)1: ( MeThod In Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Methuhd Vrs (Haoh=#)2: method (n.)

early 15c., "regular, systematic treatment of disease," from Latin methodus "way of teaching or going," from Greek methodos "scientific inquiry, method of inquiry, investigation," originally "pursuit, a following after," from meta "in pursuit or quest of" (see meta-) + hodos "a method, system; a way or manner" (of doing, saying, etc.), also "a traveling, journey," literally "a path, track, road," a word of uncertain origin… Meaning "way of doing anything" is from 1580s; that of "orderliness, regularity" is from 1610s. In reference to a theory of acting associated with Russian director Konstantin Stanislavsky, it is attested from 1923.

Methuhd Vrs (Haoh=#)3: Methud In Simp Lang


Senss Pruuf Fakt Syz Lrn Waee


Deskripshun Uhv Thuh Senss Pruuf Fakt Syz Lrn Waee Wich Iz Uh Uhv Syuhnss } Iz:
1: Yuuzeeng Uh ( Syentiffik = Syenss-Baeesst ) ( Methuhd = PLand Task Akts )
2: Tu Uhkwyr Senst Vehriffyd Faktss
3: Then Syz Eech Fakt
4: Then Klassiffy That Fakt Intu 1 Uhv Thuh Syenss Main Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr.


Nekst Iz Uh Standrd Deskripshuhn Uhv Syentiffik Methuhdolluhjee.
SyenTiffik-MeThuhd-STeps_V6_UpdaeeTed_2013.png
Thuh Uhbuhv Immaj Wuhz SohrsT Fruhm:

Wuhn SyenTiffik Ed Task Iz

  • Tu KuhmeewnikkaeeT ReezuLTs Uhv SyehnTiffik PrakTiss OpTs.

Syenss Main Branch Kyndz

  • Nohrm Speld " Science Main Branches ".

Frst Ther Ahr Prinsippul-Baeest Syenss Branch Kyndz

Fillossuhfee Uhv Syenss Nohrm Speld Philosophy of Science

Fohrmul Syenss Nohrm Speld Formal Science


Then Ther Ahr Syz-baessd Syenss Branch Kyndz.


Syenss Main Branch Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdr


Thuh Main Branch Kynd Types Uhv Syenss Klast Uhkohrdeeng Tu Syz Ahr:

Math Konsept ( Zeeroh Nohrm Speld Zero )

Kwahntuhm Fizziks Nohrm Speld Quantum Physics

Kehmistree Nohrm Speld Chemistry

Lyf Syenss Nohrm Speld Life Science

Beehaeevyohrul Syenss Nohrm Speld Behavioral Science

Sohshul Syenss Nohrm Speld Social Science

Uhplyd Syenss Nohrm Soeld Applied Science

Rth Syenss Nohrm Speld Earth Science

Uhstronnuhmee Nohrm Speld Astronomy

Math Konsept Naemmd Tranzfynytittee Nohrm Kahld ( Infinnittee Nohrm Speld Infinity )


Fohr Mohr Info See: KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr

See also:

UNESCO » Natural Sciences » Environment » Earth Sciences

Earth Sciences
International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme
International Geoscience Programme
UNESCO Global Geoparks
Geo-Hazards Risk Reduction
Section on Earth Sciences and Geo-Hazards Risk Reduction (EGR)

Responsible for providing the [[secretariat]]] service for the International Geoscience and Geoparks Programme (IGGP). The IGGP comprises the International Geoscience Programme (IGCP), which for over 45 years has brought geoscientists together from all regions of the world to study the Earth and geological processes under themes which have increasing societal relevance, and the UNESCO Global Geoparks, which promote sites of international geological value and are the basis of local sustainable development.

IGGP functions to serve as a knowledge hub of UNESCO to facilitate international scientific cooperation in the geosciences and sustainable use of natural resources, in particular mineral resources, and to advance new initiatives related to geo-diversity and geo-heritage.

The section has also the role to be an in-house interdisciplinary task force for a coherent UNESCO response based on sound science to natural hazards and disaster risk reduction, including capacity for early warning and early recovery response in UN Member States.

The increasing losses from disasters caused by natural hazards, including earthquakes, floods, landslides, volcanoes, windstorms, drought and desertification, represent a major challenge to UNESCO’s Member States, in particular developing ones.

Building a culture of resilient communities requires active and knowledgeable citizens and informed decision-makers.

Through a multidisciplinary and intersectoral approach, the Earth Sciences and Geo-Hazards Risk Reduction Section builds capacities and fosters partnerships so that Earth sciences and technology can serve to mitigate the effects of the threats and reduce vulnerability increase scientific knowledge and improve living conditions and well-being of communities in general.