BeasT In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Beest

OhfishuL ETymoLogy Uv beast (n.)

c. 1200, beste, "one of the lower animals" (opposed to man), especially "a four-footed animal," also "a marvelous creature, a monster" (mermaids, werewolves, lamia, satyrs, the beast of the Apocalypse), "a brutish or stupid man," from Old French beste "animal, wild beast," figuratively "fool, idiot" (11c., Modern French bête), from Vulgar Latin *besta, from Latin bestia "beast, wild animal," which is of unknown origin.

Used in Middle English to translate Latin animal. Replaced Old English deor (see deer) as the generic word for "wild creature," only to be ousted 16c. by animal.

Phile Vrsuhs Erotica

Phile

-phile ETymoLogy

also -phil, word-forming element meaning "one that loves, likes, or is attracted to," via French -phile and Medieval Latin -philus in this sense, from Greek -philos, common suffix in personal names (such as Theophilos), from philos "loving, friendly, dear; related, own," related to philein "to love," which is of unknown origin.

See: https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Category:English_words_suffixed_with_-phile

EroTica In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz EeroTTikuh.

Erotica Dehfihnishuhn

Erotica is any artistic work that deals substantively with erotically stimulating or sexually arousing subject matter. All forms of art may depict erotic content, including painting, sculpture, photography, drama, film, music or literature. Erotica has high-art aspirations, differentiating it from commercial pornography.

Wen BeesT Growz InTu Prsuhn Uhv BeesT RyTs Uhv BeesT Syz Ohmz
Uhv Thuh ReeL Prwvd TrwTH Syz Ohmz Uhv Thuh Baisik Kyndz Syz Ohmz Paidj LisT

A BeesT WiTh ( Senss & Nrv & { MuhsuL = Muhs STreeng } Mynd

  • MyT GeT KahLd A ( "Beysik Dif SeLf BeesT" Ohr "SelfT BeesT" ).

WHEN IS AN ANIMAL A LEGAL PERSON?

Defining rights for non-humans beyond bestowing them with “personhood” can only become more important as we learn more about animal cognition…

In any case, what qualifies a being as deserving of rights? The NhRP has vowed to fight for personhood for other “intelligent” animals, like dolphins, whales, and elephants. But exactly what constitutes intelligence is hotly debated in the animal cognition world, and, ultimately, our definition is heavily biased toward our own species’ traits.. We think of ourselves as the smartest creatures around, so we look for human-like traits in animals. Some markers researchers have identified include self-awareness, planning and problem solving, learning from peers, and communication skills. Given these human-centric criteria, it’s unsurprising that humans are the only animals known to reliably meet all of them. Still, many other species have been shown to possess a subset of these indicators. While the NhRP recognizes animals like the primates, dolphins, whales, and elephants as intelligent, there are many other animals that we regularly overlook: Bees perform complex dance moves to show their peers where food is; crows wait for cars to crush nuts for them to eat; and lizards are capable of problem solving…

In any case, it doesn’t seem like the cognitive abilities of animals have any bearing on their legal protection. There are plenty of smart cold-blooded animals—birds, reptiles, fish, even insects—but only warm-blooded animals are covered by the AWA, which defines standards for research animals or animals for commercial sale. Standards for farm animals are generally lower—they are designed to ensure animals will not suffer “unnecessary cruelty”—though farm animals are not necessarily any less intelligent than animals covered under the AWA. Chickens are adept at problem-solving, especially when food is involved, and and appear to empathize with peers in distress. Octopuses solve complicated problems, and can even form opinions about individual humans. Pigs appear capable of deception. Fish learn from watching other fish.

When does an animal count as a person?

A grassroots movement has recently emerged in which a number of scientists, philosophers, ethicists and legal experts have rallied together in support of the idea that some nonhuman animals are persons and thus deserving of human-like legal protections. Their efforts have subsequently thrown conventional notions of personhood into question by suggesting that humans aren't the only persons on the planet. So what is a person, exactly? We spoke to two experts to find out…

The kind of beings that we are
Lori Marino, through her efforts with the NhRP, is trying to secure legal protections for a special subset of nonhuman species, a list of highly sapient animals that includes all the great apes (like bonobos and chimpanzees), elephants, cetaceans (which includes both dolphins and whales), and even some birds…

If and when these laws get passed, nonhuman persons would be protected from such things as torture, experimentation, slavery, confinement (including zoos and water parks), and the threat of unnatural death (like hunting and outright murder). Essentially, if you wouldn't do it to a human, you wouldn't do it to a nonhuman person.

Fruhm: https://www.britannica.com/science/embryo-human-and-animal

The division of the body into head and trunk becomes apparent, and the brain, spinal cord, and internal organs begin to develop. All of these changes are completed early in embryonic development, by about the fourth week, in humans.

A Min Prsuhn

  • MyT Hav Uhbihlihteez Tu:
    • Senss, Theengk, Lrn And Mwv.

PoTenTial Vocabulary:

  • How Many Wrds
    • Kan Thuh Prsuhn Lrn
      • Az a ChyL
        • Uhv A Parent Teech Ist.

Fruhm: https://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/Fetal+Rights

The term fetal rights came into wide usage following the landmark 1973 Abortion case roe v. wade, 410 U.S. 113, 93 S. Ct. 705, 35 L. Ed. 2d 147. In that case, the Supreme Court ruled that a woman had a constitutionally guaranteed unqualified right to abortion in the first trimester of her pregnancy. She also had a right to terminate a pregnancy in the second trimester, although the state may limit that right when the procedure poses a health risk to the mother that is greater than the risk of carrying the fetus to term. In making its decision, the Court…maintained that the state has an interest in protecting the life of a fetus after viability—that is, after the point at which the fetus is capable of living outside the womb. As a result, states were permitted to outlaw abortion in the third trimester of pregnancy except when the procedure is necessary to preserve the life of the mother…

Unborn children as constitutional persons.

As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in Fifth Amendment jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade should be held null and void as to the rights and interests of unborn persons.

Because of improvements in fetal monitoring and surgical techniques, physicians increasingly recommend that women give birth by cesarean section, a surgical technique that involves removing the fetus through an incision in the woman's abdomen. In many cases, cesarean section improves the chance that the fetus will be delivered safely. By 1990, cesarean sections accounted for almost 23 percent of U.S. childbirths…

The 1980s saw an increasing number of cases in which hospitals and physicians sought court orders to force women to give birth by cesarean section…

…[T]he position of the American Medical Association (AMA) on the issue: The AMA has reminded physicians that their duty is to ensure that a pregnant woman is provided with the necessary and appropriate information to enable her to make an informed decision about her fetus and that that duty does not extend to attempting to influence her decision or attempting to force a recommended procedure upon her.

Fetal Protection Policies
Fetal protection policies bar fertile women from specific jobs out of fear that those jobs may cause harm to any embryos or fetuses the women might be carrying. These policies came into widespread use by many companies during the 1970s and 1980s, before a 1991 U.S. Supreme Court decision, UAW v. Johnson Controls, 499U.S. 187, 111 S. Ct. 1196, 113 L. Ed. 2d 158, declared them a form of sexual discrimination that violates Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (42 U.S.C.A. § 2000e et seq. [1982]). Despite the Court's decision in Johnson Controls, those critical of fetal protection policies feared that the policies would be continued in more subtle forms.

Unborn children as constitutional persons.

As an effect of the unanimity of the states in holding unborn children to be persons under criminal, tort, and property law, the text of the Equal Protection Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment compels federal protection of unborn persons. Furthermore, to the extent Justice Blackmun examined the substantive law in these disciplines, his findings are clearly erroneous and as a whole amount to judicial error. Moreover, as a matter of procedure, according to the due process standards recognized in Fifth Amendment jurisprudence of the Supreme Court, Roe v. Wade should be held null and void as to the rights and interests of unborn persons.

Fetus Law and Legal Definition

A fetus is typically defined as a developing human at a certain point after conception to birth. The precise definition varies by applicable laws, some of which define a fetus to include the element of viability, so that it is able to survive independently outside the womb. Various laws have been enacted to protect fetuses and punish individuals who injure them or cause their death. For example, Texas' Prenatal Protection Act holds people who assault or harm a pregnant woman liable for crimes against the mother and unborn child. The issue has been raised as to whether the law requires doctors to report substance abuse of a pregnant mother. The federal Born-Alive Infant Protection Act of 2002 amends the legal definitions of "person," "human being," "child" and "individual" to include any fetus that survives an abortion procedure. The federal law requires doctors to attempt to keep alive a fetus that survives an abortion.

Fetal protection laws vary by state. Some states states may amend existing homicide statutes to include the fetus as a possible victim, pass statutes defining the fetus as a person or human being, so that a fetus in encompassed by other statutes applicable to all persons or human beings, enact new statutes that create the crime of injury to a fetus, fetal homicide, or "feticide", or extend wrongful death and personal injury statutes to allow civil suits against individuals who cause the death or injury of a fetus.

When Does an Artificial Intelligence Become a Person?

On artificial intelligence, animal rights, and the frontiers of legal personhood

The things that define something as someone — as a person — are complex, contested, and mutable. Thinking about the moral, legal, and philosophical arguments around who does and does not get to be a person is a crucial step as we move ever closer toward the birth of the first truly sentient machines, and the destruction of the most highly sentient, endangered animals.

What level of sophistication will artificial intelligences need to attain before we consider them people — and all the rights that entails? And at what point on the spectrum of intelligence will we be creating machines that are as smart, and as deserving of legal rights, as the sentient animals we’re driving to extinction?

“The same arguments we’re making now on behalf of chimpanzees are the same arguments that will be made when, and if, robots ever can attain consciousness,” said Steve Wise, president of the Nonhuman Rights Project.

For years, NRP staff has mounted legal challenges on behalf of nonhuman animals, hoping to use legal, moral, and scientific arguments to change the status of high-order, nonhuman animals from “things” to “persons.”

The chimpanzee shares about 99 percent of its DNA with humans — which means that, surprisingly, they have more genetic similarities with us than they do with gorillas. Like humans, chimpanzees have only a small number of offspring, with females usually giving birth once every five years of sexual maturity, and on average rearing only three children to full adulthood. In social groups they perform cooperative problem solving, teach and learn from one another, and use rudimentary tools; mentally they have at least some concept of self, an IQ comparable to a toddler, and can actually outperform humans on certain cognitive tasks.

Chimpanzees also display friendship, joy, love, fear, and sadness through body language clearly readable by human emotional standards. When exposed to stress and trauma, they have behavioral disturbances that, in some cases, meet DSM-IV criteria for depression and PTSD…

“For many centuries, the essential distinction between entities has been that of those who are things — who lack the capacity for any legal rights — and those who are persons, who have the capacity for one or more legal rights,” Wise said. “We’ve spent many years preparing a long-term, strategic litigation campaign … where we put forward arguments that elephants or chimpanzees or orcas ought to have legal rights, in fact ought to be legal persons, in terms of the sorts of values and principles which judges themselves hold.”…

Nick Bostrom, philosophy professor at Oxford University and director of the Future of Humanity Institute, is well known for writing about issues surrounding the development of superintelligent AI. Rather than debating the point at which an AI might be considered sentient, his work assumes that this will certainly happen at some point in the future, and instead questions how we should act in the present with the knowledge that we will eventually live alongside artificial minds exponentially more powerful than our own.

Though Bostrom’s work is often cited in terms of the potential dangers of AI, he’s also interested both in the idea of whether we should assign rights to artificial intelligence, and how those rights would be qualitatively different than the type of rights a natural person requires.

In order to enjoy the best quality of life, a human upload would probably demand that it live on a fast computer, that never be paused or restarted without consent — permissions which could, conceivably, be the kind of things that will one day be enshrined as legal rights for sentient artificial beings.

“This is a being that can talk, and is in many ways similar to a human: It can communicate with us, complain if we mistreat it, and so on. But what is perhaps much more realistic to assume — and this is a concern that the German philosopher Thomas Metzinger has raised — is that the first digital beings would be much more limited in their abilities, in fact much closer to nonhuman animals than humans, and so could not properly signal to us whether they were suffering.”

Which raises the question: How do we differentiate between an artificial intelligence which learns to respond as if it is thinking and feeling, and one which is genuinely able to think and feel? What standard of proof would we ask for?

Provided we accept that it will one day be possible to create machines which experience some level of sentience, then giving them the right to ethical treatment seems uncontroversial. But what about rights that go beyond the scope of avoiding suffering and into the domain of personal fulfillment — the right not just to a life, but to one that includes liberty and the pursuit of happiness?

Before we continue any further, we need to step back for a minute to look again at how we define a “person.”

From a legal standpoint human, human beings are natural persons capable of holding legal rights and obligations. However, many present legal systems — like that of the United States — permit the existence of other types of legal persons, which are not flesh-and-blood entities but may nonetheless be granted personhood rights.

Additionally, Dorf said there’s a tendency to think that personhood is an all-or-nothing position with regard to rights, but this is not necessarily the case. “It’s actually possible to have rights and responsibilities à la carte: For example, infants are persons before the law but lack some of the rights and responsibilities that competent adult persons have — such as they can’t vote, but then conversely can’t be responsible for criminal acts.”

Personhood, then, is by no means a fixed category; but in the present day we tend to think of it as something that is innate in all humans, without needing a great deal of justification. In trying to evaluate the nature of our shared humanity, arguments on the basis of intelligence — the capacity to think — are quickly dismissed, since we know that there is huge variation within our species, and the suggestion that someone with a low IQ is less human is abhorrent. More often we veer toward a description based on sentience: the capacity to feel, particularly in a complex, emotional way.

But the central point to consider in discussing robotic sentience is not the sophistication of any system that we have currently built; it is that we have the ability to build systems which are able to learn. Many applications of artificial intelligence we encounter online, from chatbots to image tagging,employ artificial neural networks, a form of machine learning inspired by the design of biological nervous systems.

Given a large enough dataset and enough time to learn, neural networks are able to develop models which will allow them to carry out complex tasks with uncanny accuracy — such as recognizing faces, transcribing speech to text, or writing plays in iambic pentameter — without having been specifically programmed to do so. It’s perfectly conceivable that as processing power increases and the range of available data on human behavior grows, neural networks will be created that are able to form some approximation of what it is to be human, and to communicate their own hopes and fears in a human-like way.

The law, as history attests, should not be set in stone. Besides being a collection of rules to help us govern ourselves, law represents a repository of knowledge about how the world works, and how we as a society should respond to issues around which there may be dispute. In this sense, the process of creating new laws, and specifically of allocating new rights to sentient beings which previously had none, can be seen as a process of increasing the level of compassion embodied in our social institutions.

We don’t necessarily need to exhaust every argument for and against giving certain animals personhood to conclude that they are deserving of the benefit of the doubt; there is no downside here to being overly generous with our compassion. Likewise, though the debate on rights for artificially sentient beings may seem abstract and theoretical at present, we don’t lose out by trying to map the route of least harm ahead of time, especially given the rate of technological change in this field.

See Also=AhLsoh:

[[[Animal RighTs]]

RighTs Of AnimaLs In Simp Lang Iz BeesT RyTs

Recognition of the Rights of Animals and Nature
In the Federation of Earth

Recognizing that, in the words of Sir Muhammad Zafrulla Khan, the human being must be a source of bliss for every being; recognizing also that the human being is not the only source of bliss;

Recognizing that, in the words of Sri Krishna, all are one–and that, in the words of Albert Schweitzer, the way back to civilization lies through the reverence for life;

Aware, as stated in the Preamble to the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, of the interdependence of people, nations and all life–and aware that man’s abuse of science and technology has brought humanity also to the brink of ecological catastrophe;

Recognizing that, as described in the Global 2000 Report to the President of the United States, the destruction of the natural world has progressed to an advanced stage, to a stage where, many authorities agree, within 30 to 50 years perhaps 50% or more of the world’s animal species will have become extinct–
unless the prevalent attitude of humanity toward the status of animals changes radically;

Recognizing that, at least since the time of Darwin, it has been scientifically established that humankind shares in significant degree a common origin with the rest of the natural world and especially with its animal species;

Recognizing that, with few exceptions, under present law the inhumane treatment of animals is common practice in scientific laboratories, factory farms, and at the hands of hunters and trappers–and that present national basic laws do little to implement an ethic of the protection of nature;

Recognizing that we need to be concerned not only with the future of humanity, but also, under the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, with the fate of the planet;

Recognizing, finally, that under the Call to the Provisional World Parliament, the business of the World Parliament includes a concern with global environmental protection;

And as an expression of love;

THEREFORE, be it enacted by this provisional World Parliament in first session, 1982:

1. From the date of adoption of this resolution by the provisional World Parliament, in all considerations and decisions bearing upon the present conditions and future of humanity, the Earth Federation shall consider the interests of other species.

2. From the date of adoption of this resolution by the Provisional World Parliament, the following activities are strongly discouraged or prohibited:
2.1. All practices of factory farming involving animals;
2.2. Research using animals as experimental subjects, of the trapping and hunting of animals except by peoples for their own subsistence use, and not including for cash sales or trade;
2.3. Employment of animals in cruel sport;
2.4. Removal of species from native habitat, in disregard of protective standards for removals;
2.5. Production of so-called animal “products” for profit.

3. The provisional World Parliament and provisional World Government shall establish a World Environmental Protection Agency, which shall include in the scope of its responsibilities the implementation of this resolution and the supervision of the establishment of the recognition of rights of animal throughout the world. (See WLA#9 summary or full text, first adopted 1987, 3rd session, revised 2004, 8th session.)

4. Until a more fully operative democratic world federation is established, the World Environmental Protection Agency is responsible to the provisional World Parliament, and to any provisional World Cabinet that is created by the provisional World Parliament. The World Environmental Protection Agency has a Board of Trustees of twenty-five members, to be appointed by the provisional World Cabinet, to be drawn from all parts of the Earth, and to include no fewer than five well-known advocates of animal rights. The Board of Trustees shall determine the organization and functioning of the World Environmental Protection Agency in accordance with the terms of this resolution and in conformance with the Constitution for the Federation of Earth, while at all times responsible to the Cabinet and Parliament. No nation may have veto powers in the decisions of the World Environmental Protection Agency.

5. At subsequent sessions of the provisional World Parliament, the Parliament will review implementation of this resolution, and will take further action as appropriate.

  • * * * * * * * * *

Above adopted 6th September 1982, at Brighton, England, first session of the Provisional World Parliament. First draft was written by John Stockwell. The work was introduced by Sally Curry, delegate Member of the Parliament from Canada.

Attested:

Eugenia Almand, JD, Secretary
Provisional World Parliament

See: Human EssenTial NuTriTion Fohr Leengks Tu Vegan And VegeTarian Food OpTs.

Health in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Helth uv Hows Hohld Syzohmz

Welkum tw Helth izmz for LyF Selz, plants, animals and humans…

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.

Food Requirements and Essential Nutrients
Essential nutrients are those that cannot be created by an animal’s metabolism and need to be obtained from the diet.

Key Points:
The animal diet needs to be well-balanced in order to ensure that all necessary vitamins and minerals are being obtained.
Vitamins are important for maintaining bodily health, making bones strong, and seeing in the dark.
Water-soluble vitamins are not stored by the body and need to be consumed more regularly than fat-soluble vitamins, which build up within body tissues.
Essential fatty acids need to be consumed through the diet and are important building blocks of cell membranes.
Nine of the 20 amino acids cannot be synthesized by the body and need to be obtained from the diet.

Chordates are animals with backbones.

An chordate takes in food through the mouth. The chordate has a mouth with a tongue. Some have teeth and some do not. It has a digestive system with stomach, intestines. Chordates eat plants and animals.

Nutrient acquisition strategies of mammalian cells

Mammalian cells are surrounded by diverse nutrients, such as glucose, amino acids, various macromolecules and micronutrients, which they can import through transmembrane transporters and endolysosomal pathways. By using different nutrient sources, cells gain metabolic flexibility to survive periods of starvation. Quiescent cells take up sufficient nutrients to sustain homeostasis.

Human EssenTial NuTriTion Uhv Human And HeLTh

nature22379-f1.jpg

See also:
* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus
* protein-for-vegans-vegetarians
* Eat Up: The Best Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 Essential Fatty Acids | PerriconeMD
* Top 10 Foods Highest in Omega 6 Fatty Acids

HealthLine.Com Essential nutrients
Essential nutrients are compounds that the body can’t make or can’t make in sufficient quantity. According to the World Health Organization, these nutrients must come from food, and they’re vital for disease prevention, growth, and good health.

While there are many essential nutrients, they can be broken into two categories: macronutrients and micronutrients.

Macronutrients are eaten in large amounts and include the primary building blocks of your diet — protein, carbohydrates, and fat — which provide your body with energy.

Vitamins and minerals are micronutrients, and small doses go a long way. There are six main groups of essential micronutrients and macronutrients.

6. Water
You can go for weeks without food, but you can’t last more than a few days without water. Water is absolutely crucial for every system in your body. It’s also the main thing you are made of. About 62 percent of your body weight is water.

Water improves your brain function and mood. It acts a shock absorber and a lubricant in the body. It also helps flush out toxins, carry nutrients to cells, hydrate the body, and prevent constipation.

Even mild dehydration can make you feel tired and impair your concentration and physical performance.

Fruhm: healthyeating.sfgate.com 6 Essential Nutrients and Their Functions:

An essential nutrient is a nutrient that the body cannot synthesize on its own — or not to an adequate amount — and must be provided by the diet. These nutrients are necessary for the body to function properly. The six essential nutrients include carbohydrates, protein, fat, vitamins, minerals and water.

Fruhm The National Agricultural Development Company (NADEC)'z Essential Nutrients Page:

The human body requires six essential nutrients that are found in food – carbohydrates, protein, fats, vitamins, minerals and water.

These nutrients are vital since they provide energy and fuel for the body to regulate metabolic processes and build or repair tissues.

Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates provide energy for the brain, body functions and physical activity.

Protein
Protein plays an important role in the growth, development and maintenance of the body.

Fats
Contrary to popular belief, fat is very essential and should never be eliminated from the diet.

Fibre
Fibre is a form of carbohydrates found naturally in plants. Fibre is found mainly in fruits, vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds and whole grains, and does not contain calories.

Vitamins
Vitamins are essential micronutrients your body needs to function properly. There are a total of 13 vitamins, which are divided into two groups – water-soluble and fat-soluble.

Minerals
There are many necessary minerals for normal body function; some are called macrominerals and others, trace minerals.

Antioxidants
Antioxidants prevent the oxidation of other molecules and repair cell damage caused by free radicals. They can be found as vitamins, minerals or phytochemicals.

Probiotics & Prebiotics
Probiotics are live bacteria, similar to the friendly bacteria found naturally in your gut.

Nutritional supplements
Do you really need to take dietary supplements to boost your health?

Essential Nutrients For Humans

The Essence of the Science of Nutrition

Humans need essential nutrients. Magnesium is only one of more than forty essential nutrients for humans. We all need an adequate and balanced amount of these nutrients daily for optimal health and to optimize the healing capabilities of the body. These forty-plus essential nutrients are listed below by the categories of the essential nutrients:

vitamins,
minerals,
essential fatty acids, and
essential amino acids (found in protein foods).

The Essential Minerals for Humans

BULK MINERALS

Magnesium

Calcium

Phosphorus

Potassium

Sodium

Iodine

TRACE MINERALS

Arsenic

Boron

Chloride

Chromium

Cobalt

Copper

Iron

Manganese

Molybdenum

Nickel

Selenium

Silicon

Vanadium

Zinc

MINERAL ESSENTIALITY STILL IN QUESTION

Bromine Fluorine Lead Tin
Essential Vitamins for Humans

WATER-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

B vitamins:

Vitamin B1 (thiamin)
Vitamin B2 (riboflavin)
Vitamin B3 (niacin)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Vitamin B12 (cobalamin)
Biotin
Choline
Folic acid
Pantothenic acid

Vitamin C

[[include WaTtr-SoLLeewbuL-VyTuhminz]]

FAT-SOLUBLE VITAMINS

Vitamin A

Vitamin D

Vitamin E

Vitamin K

Essential Fatty Acids for Humans

Linoleic acid (omega-6)

Linolenic acid (omega-3)

Essential Amino Acids for Humans

COMPONENTS OF FOOD PROTEIN

Histidine (for infants)

Isoleucine

Leucine

Lysine

Methionine – Cystine

Phenylalanine – Tyrosine

Threonine

Tryptophan

Valine

See AhLsoh:

Himalayan Pink SaLT

Fruhm: What Are the 84 Minerals in Himalayan Salt?

Himalayan salt is said to contain 84 minerals that are good for your health. However, not all of the ingredients in Himalayan salt are technically minerals; some, such as hydrogen and oxygen, are elements but not minerals. Spectral analyses done on Himalayan salt show that it contains both macrominerals, such as calcium and chloride, as well as trace minerals including iron and zinc.

Mineral are naturally occurring inorganic elements with specific chemical compositions that have crystalline structure. Crystals have a very ordered arrangement of atoms, which gives them their unique shapes. Himalayan salt contains many minerals, including sodium chloride, which is also known to geologists as the mineral halite. Sodium chloride has a cubic structure and is white, but the pink in Himalayan salt comes from iron oxides.

Himalayan salt is mined from the Khewra Salt Mines in Pakistan, situated at the foothills of the Himalayas. It is the second-largest salt mine in the world, and official records of the Khewra mine date back to the 13th century. The salt obtained from Khewra includes transparent, white, pink, red and dark red salts. Today the mine includes nearly 25 miles of tunnels stretched across 11 levels, and runs almost a half mile into the mountains.

Macrominerals and Trace Minerals

Himalayan salt contains the minerals that are necessary for your health, including macrominerals and trace minerals. The macrominerals are needed in relative abundance and include calcium, chloride, iron, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium and sodium. The recommended daily amount of these macrominerals depends of your age, activity level and general health. Calcium is the most common mineral in your body and is found in your bones and teeth, as well as playing a vital role in nerve and muscle health. Trace minerals are needed in small amounts for health, and those found in Himalayan salt include boron, chromium, copper, fluoride, iodine, manganese, molybdenum, selenium and zinc. Other minerals in Himalayan salt include aluminum, carbon, platinum, selenium, sulfur and titanium.

Health Benefits

Himalayan pink salt is sold as a gourmet salt for use in cooking and adding at the dinner table. Because of its minerals content, Himalayan salt is considered healthier than regular table salt, which often has additives, such as the anti-caking agent sodium ferrocyanide. The need in human nutrition for many of the minerals found in Himalayan salt remains unknown, and many of the minerals are found only in minute quantities. Himalayan salt contains some minerals that are toxic in large quantities, including lead and plutonium, but which are safe in trace amounts.

List of Elements

The Meadow lists elements found in Himalayan salt in addition to sodium and chloride. In alphabetical order, they are: actinium, aluminum, antimony, arsenic, astatine, barium, beryllium, bismuth, boron, bromine, cadmium, calcium, carbon, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, erbium, europium, fluorine, francium, gadolinium, gallium, germanium, gold, hafnium, holmium, hydrogen, indium, iodine, iridium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, neodymium, neptunium, nickel, niobium, nitrogen, osmium, oxygen, palladium, phosphorus, platinum, plutonium, polonium, potassium, praseodymium, protactinium, radium, rhenium, rhodium, rubidium, ruthenium, samarium, scandium, selenium, silicon, silver, sodium, strontium, sulfur, tantalum, tellurium, terbium, thallium, thorium, thulium, tin, titanium, uranium, vanadium, wolfram, yttrium, ytterbium, zinc and zirconium.

World Naturopathic Federation (WNF) in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Wrld Nachropathik Fed uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh.

Naturopathic in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Nachropathik uv Hows HohLd Syzohmz uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh.

Na·tur·o·path·ic (nā'chūr-ō-path'ik),
Relating to or by means of Naturopathy.

Naturopathy in Fuhnehtik Inglish iz Nachropathee uv Hows HohLd Syzohmz uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh

Naturopathy (n.)
1901, a hybrid from combining form of Nature + Suffix pathy. A correct formation from all-Greek elements would be *physiopathy. Related: Naturopath.

Naichr Vrs (Haoh=#)1
Nature In Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz

Naichr Vrs (Haoh=#)2: Pronunciation
(Received Pronunciation) IPA(key): /ˈneɪtʃə/
(General American) IPA(key): /ˈneɪtʃɚ/
(Northern England) IPA(key): /ˈnɛːtʃɐ/

Naichr Vrs (Haoh=#)3:

OhfishuL ETymoLogy nature (n.)

late 13c., "restorative powers of the body, bodily processes; powers of growth;" from Old French nature "nature, being, principle of life; character, essence," from Latin natura "course of things; natural character, constitution, quality; the universe," literally "birth," from natus "born," past participle of nasci "to be born," from PIE root *gene- "give birth, beget."

From late 14c. as "creation, the universe;" also "heredity, birth, hereditary circumstance; essential qualities, innate disposition" (as in human nature); "nature personified, Mother Nature." Specifically as "material world beyond human civilization or society" from 1660s. Nature and nurture have been contrasted since 1874.

Nature should be avoided in such vague expressions as 'a lover of nature,' 'poems about nature.' Unless more specific statements follow, the reader cannot tell whether the poems have to do with natural scenery, rural life, the sunset, the untouched wilderness, or the habits of squirrels. [Strunk & White, "The Elements of Style," 3rd ed., 1979]

Naichr Vrs (Haoh=#)4: Encyclopedia Definition uv Nature
Naichr Vrs (Haoh=#)4:1: all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations
Neichr Vrs (Haoh=#)4:2: Biology: the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotype

Thus, Naichr Meenz "Bohrn Essenss".

Suffix Pathy uv Naturopathy uv Hows HohLd Syzohmz uv Omneeonizm uv Omneeoh

-pathy
word-forming element meaning "feeling, suffering, emotion; disorder, disease," from Latin -pathia, from Greek -patheia "act of suffering, feeling" (from PIE root *kwent(h)- "to suffer"). Meaning "system of treatment of disease" is abstracted from homeopathy (q.v.).

Natural Medicine Policy Statement

The WNF recognizes the important role that natural medicine plays in the global healthcare system. WNF also recognizes that the practice of naturopathy / naturopathic medicine is eclectic and encompasses many aspects that are considered Natural medicine.
One of the challenges of Naturopathy / Naturopathic Medicine is that the term Naturopathy is often used interchangeably with Natural medicine. Although there is a degree of overlap, it is important that naturopathy and Naturopathic Medicine be recognized as distinct.
One of the main goals of the WNF is to provide clarity and to provide the distinction between natural medicine and naturopathy that is required. In order to do this, the WNF will:
 Ensure that all member organizations have at least 65% of their members as naturopaths
and that all member organizations commit to focusing primarily on the advancement of
Naturopathy / Naturopathic Medicine as part of their mandate.
 Engage in projects that focus on the clarification and the advancement of Naturopathy / Naturopathic Medicine.

28950951_2064847200451053_3508569231951489891_n.jpg?_nc_cat=0&_nc_eui2=AeGUcnHi7-_QgENf2oln3UvXX46zgTi-AlwwQ2gRE-kt-Rp_vcf0og5UtVxIIMkYk94O-QAKR1V2qpFWTkQccOgdfwTAy5w4UEB-AK1YDIJvJQ&oh=c5a0db67eebd4c522129eba02f94e362&oe=5BC270BF

The Mission of the WNF is:

  1. Supporting the growth and diversity of Naturopathy / Naturopathic Medicine worldwide
  2. Supporting the appropriate regulation and recognition of Naturopathy / Naturopathic Medicine
  3. Promoting accreditation and the highest educational standards for our global profession
  4. Encouraging Naturopathic Research
  5. Working with world agencies (World Health Organisation, United Nations, UNESCO) and national governments and supra-national agencies in order to promote the Naturopathic profession.

See: World Naturopathic Federation 2015 White Paper

Included page "world-naturopathic-federation-2015-white-paper" does not exist (create it now)

World Health Organisation in Fuhnehtik Inglish Simp Lang iz Wrld Helth Ohrg

W.H.O. Overview

Consuming a healthy diet throughout the lifecourse helps prevent malnutrition in all its forms as well as a range of noncommunicable diseases and conditions. But the increased production of processed food, rapid urbanization and changing lifestyles have led to a shift in dietary patterns. People are now consuming more foods high in energy, fats, free sugars or salt/sodium, and many do not eat enough fruit, vegetables and dietary fibre such as whole grains.

The exact make-up of a diversified, balanced and healthy diet will vary depending on individual needs (e.g. age, gender, lifestyle, degree of physical activity), cultural context, locally available foods and dietary customs. But basic principles of what constitute a healthy diet remain the same.

For adults
A healthy diet contains:

Fruits, vegetables, legumes (e.g. lentils, beans), nuts and whole grains (e.g. unprocessed maize, millet, oats, wheat, brown rice).
At least 400 g (5 portions) of fruits and vegetables a day (2). Potatoes, sweet potatoes, cassava and other starchy roots are not classified as fruits or vegetables.
Less than 10% of total energy intake from free sugars (2, 5) which is equivalent to 50 g (or around 12 level teaspoons) for a person of healthy body weight consuming approximately 2000 calories per day, but ideally less than 5% of total energy intake for additional health benefits (5). Most free sugars are added to foods or drinks by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, and can also be found in sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.
Less than 30% of total energy intake from fats (1, 2, 3). Unsaturated fats (e.g. found in fish, avocado, nuts, sunflower, canola and olive oils) are preferable to saturated fats (e.g. found in fatty meat, butter, palm and coconut oil, cream, cheese, ghee and lard) (3). Industrial trans fats (found in processed food, fast food, snack food, fried food, frozen pizza, pies, cookies, margarines and spreads) are not part of a healthy diet.
Less than 5 g of salt (equivalent to approximately 1 teaspoon) per day (6) and use iodized salt.
For infants and young children
In the first 2 years of a child’s life, optimal nutrition fosters healthy growth and improves cognitive development. It also reduces the risk of becoming overweight or obese and developing NCDs later in life.

Advice on a healthy diet for infants and children is similar to that for adults, but the following elements are also important.

Infants should be breastfed exclusively during the first 6 months of life.
Infants should be breastfed continuously until 2 years of age and beyond.
From 6 months of age, breast milk should be complemented with a variety of adequate, safe and nutrient dense complementary foods. Salt and sugars should not be added to complementary foods.
Practical advice on maintaining a healthy diet
Fruits and vegetables
Eating at least 400 g, or 5 portions, of fruits and vegetables per day reduces the risk of NCDs (2), and helps ensure an adequate daily intake of dietary fibre.

In order to improve fruit and vegetable consumption you can:

always include vegetables in your meals
eat fresh fruits and raw vegetables as snacks
eat fresh fruits and vegetables in season
eat a variety of choices of fruits and vegetables.
Fats
Reducing the amount of total fat intake to less than 30% of total energy intake helps prevent unhealthy weight gain in the adult population (1, 2, 3).

Also, the risk of developing NCDs is lowered by reducing saturated fats to less than 10% of total energy intake, and trans fats to less than 1% of total energy intake, and replacing both with unsaturated fats (2, 3).

Fat intake can be reduced by:

changing how you cook – remove the fatty part of meat; use vegetable oil (not animal oil); and boil, steam or bake rather than fry;
avoiding processed foods containing trans fats; and
limiting the consumption of foods containing high amounts of saturated fats (e.g. cheese, ice cream, fatty meat).
Salt, sodium and potassium
Most people consume too much sodium through salt (corresponding to an average of 9–12 g of salt per day) and not enough potassium. High salt consumption and insufficient potassium intake (less than 3.5 g) contribute to high blood pressure, which in turn increases the risk of heart disease and stroke (6, 10).

1.7 million deaths could be prevented each year if people’s salt consumption were reduced to the recommended level of less than 5 g per day (11).

People are often unaware of the amount of salt they consume. In many countries, most salt comes from processed foods (e.g. ready meals; processed meats like bacon, ham and salami; cheese and salty snacks) or from food consumed frequently in large amounts (e.g. bread). Salt is also added to food during cooking (e.g. bouillon, stock cubes, soy sauce and fish sauce) or at the table (e.g. table salt).

You can reduce salt consumption by:

not adding salt, soy sauce or fish sauce during the preparation of food
not having salt on the table
limiting the consumption of salty snacks
choosing products with lower sodium content.
Some food manufacturers are reformulating recipes to reduce the salt content of their products, and it is helpful to check food labels to see how much sodium is in a product before purchasing or consuming it.

Potassium, which can mitigate the negative effects of elevated sodium consumption on blood pressure, can be increased with consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables.

Sugars
The intake of free sugars should be reduced throughout the lifecourse (5). Evidence indicates that in both adults and children, the intake of free sugars should be reduced to less than 10% of total energy intake (2, 5), and that a reduction to less than 5% of total energy intake provides additional health benefits (5). Free sugars are all sugars added to foods or drinks by the manufacturer, cook or consumer, as well as sugars naturally present in honey, syrups, fruit juices and fruit juice concentrates.

Consuming free sugars increases the risk of dental caries (tooth decay). Excess calories from foods and drinks high in free sugars also contribute to unhealthy weight gain, which can lead to overweight and obesity.

Sugars intake can be reduced by:

limiting the consumption of foods and drinks containing high amounts of sugars (e.g. sugar-sweetened beverages, sugary snacks and candies); and
eating fresh fruits and raw vegetables as snacks instead of sugary snacks.
How to promote healthy diets
Diet evolves over time, being influenced by many factors and complex interactions. Income, food prices (which will affect the availability and affordability of healthy foods), individual preferences and beliefs, cultural traditions, as well as geographical, environmental, social and economic factors all interact in a complex manner to shape individual dietary patterns. Therefore, promoting a healthy food environment, including food systems which promote a diversified, balanced and healthy diet, requires involvement across multiple sectors and stakeholders, including government, and the public and private sector.

Governments have a central role in creating a healthy food environment that enables people to adopt and maintain healthy dietary practices.

Effective actions by policy-makers to create a healthy food environment include:

Creating coherence in national policies and investment plans, including trade, food and agricultural policies, to promote a healthy diet and protect public health:
increase incentives for producers and retailers to grow, use and sell fresh fruits and vegetables;
reduce incentives for the food industry to continue or increase production of processed foods with saturated fats and free sugars;
encourage reformulation of food products to reduce the contents of salt, fats (i.e. saturated fats and trans fats) and free sugars;
implement the WHO recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children;
establish standards to foster healthy dietary practices through ensuring the availability of healthy, safe and affordable food in pre-schools, schools, other public institutions, and in the workplace;
explore regulatory and voluntary instruments, such as marketing and food labelling policies, economic incentives or disincentives (i.e. taxation, subsidies), to promote a healthy diet; and
encourage transnational, national and local food services and catering outlets to improve the nutritional quality of their food, ensure the availability and affordability of healthy choices, and review portion size and price.
Encouraging consumer demand for healthy foods and meals:
promote consumer awareness of a healthy diet,
develop school policies and programmes that encourage children to adopt and maintain a healthy diet;
educate children, adolescents and adults about nutrition and healthy dietary practices;
encourage culinary skills, including in schools;
support point-of-sale information, including through food labelling that ensures accurate, standardized and comprehensible information on nutrient contents in food in line with the Codex Alimentarius Commission guidelines; and
provide nutrition and dietary counselling at primary health care facilities.
Promoting appropriate infant and young child feeding practices:
implement the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions;
implement policies and practices to promote protection of working mothers; and
promote, protect and support breastfeeding in health services and the community, including through the Baby-friendly Hospital Initiative.
WHO response
The “WHO Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health” (12) was adopted in 2004 by the World Health Assembly (WHA). It called on governments, WHO, international partners, the private sector and civil society to take action at global, regional and local levels to support healthy diets and physical activity.

In 2010, the WHA endorsed a set of recommendations on the marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children (13). These recommendations guide countries in designing new policies and improving existing ones to reduce the impact on children of the marketing of unhealthy food. WHO is also helping to develop a nutrient profile model that countries can use as a tool to implement the marketing recommendations.

In 2012, the WHA adopted a “Comprehensive Implementation Plan on Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition” and 6 global nutrition targets to be achieved by 2025, including the reduction of stunting, wasting and overweight in children, the improvement of breastfeeding and the reduction of anaemia and low birth weight (7).

In 2013, the WHA agreed to 9 global voluntary targets for the prevention and control of NCDs, which include a halt to the rise in diabetes and obesity and a 30% relative reduction in the intake of salt by 2025. The “Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases 2013–2020” (8) provides guidance and policy options for Member States, WHO and other UN agencies to achieve the targets.

With many countries now seeing a rapid rise in obesity among infants and children, in May 2014 WHO set up the Commission on Ending Childhood Obesity. The Commission is developing a report specifying which approaches and actions are likely to be most effective in different contexts around the world.

In November 2014, WHO organized, jointly with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Second International Conference on Nutrition (ICN2). ICN2 adopted the Rome Declaration on Nutrition (14) and the Framework for Action (15), which recommends a set of policy options and strategies to promote diversified, safe and healthy diets at all stages of life. WHO is helping countries to implement the commitments made at ICN2.

Strategy documents
Global action plan for the prevention and control of NCDs 2013-2020
Comprehensive implementation plan on maternal, infant and young child nutrition