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See: RecreaTional Drug SafeTy

AmfeTamine-AmpheTamine-Molecule-STrucTuraL-ChemicaL-FormuLa-ModeL-SheeT.jpg
OhrihjinuL Ihmaj Wuhhz Fruhn:

See: https://amphetamines.com/types/natural/5-common-natural-amphetamines/


AmpheTTammeenz Med Eeuus

NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

How do stimulants work?…The amphetamine epidemic…

Man is not perfect as he will never be fast enough, brave enough, nor strong enough compared with what is the ideal. Accordingly, when scientists realized that the transmission of a nerve impulse and, hence, nervous system activity depends on unique substances (i.e., neurotransmitters), the question of whether this mechanism can be exploited arose.

Nerve cells communicate with each other with the help of lengthened processes that do not come into contact with one another. If this is true, then how might signals be transmitted throughout the body? Within the space between cells is called a synapse. This is where active substances are released and are able to come into contact with receptors of another neuron. This works as ‘key and lock’ function that promotes the transmission of nerve impulses. The speed and quality of the transmitted signal depend on the amount of substance that is released and the availability of receptors.

Given this information, suppose that some substance can help neurotransmitters stay within the synapse and remain for an extended period of time. The resultant nerve impulse trafficking would theoretically persist throughout the nervous system! This is how amphetamine-type stimulants act. The neurotransmitter noradrenaline is responsible for the state of emotional recovery. Together with another neurotransmitter (i.e., dopamine), noradrenaline is able to increase wakefulness and energy leading to improved desire to work and high confidence.

When something is threatening, the so-called sympathetic-adrenergic mechanism of urgent adaptation in response to extreme conditions is activated. This is the effect that amphetamines provoke in humans. They release norepinephrine and dopamine into the synapse and interfere with its re-uptake, which is why people taking such substances feels surges of energy. However, nothing occurs without a cost. After administering amphetamine, neurotransmitter reserves become depleted, which is followed by a state of depression.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Amphetamine Effects

Amphetamines act on dopamine and norepinephrine neurotransmitter chemical outputs in the brain, according to the University of Maryland. In effect, these drugs stimulate dopamine production while at the same time preventing the brain from reabsorbing chemical releases. As dopamine and norepinephrine levels rise, a person experiences the drug’s effects.

For most people, amphetamine effects appear as:

An increase in energy
Euphoric feelings
Talking more than usual
Heightened sensory awareness
Increased focus and concentration

Interestingly enough, amphetamines and cocaine produce similar effects though amphetamine effects can last considerably longer than cocaine’s. Whether taken on a prescription basis or used for recreational purposes, the longer a person uses these drugs the more the potential for abuse and addiction.
Amphetamine Drug Uses

Amphetamines can produce different effects depending on the chemical make-up of a person’s brain. Likewise, certain psychological and physical disorders create chemical imbalances that amphetamine drugs can correct under the right circumstances.

According to the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, accepted medical uses for amphetamines include:

ADD/ADHD
Narcolepsy
Obesity

Most amphetamine substances consist of two different compounds: levoamphetamine and dextroamphetamine with dextroamphetamine being the stronger of the two. By combining these two agents in varying amounts, any one drug can produce certain desired effects.


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Fast facts about amphetamines…

Medical uses

Amphetamine activates receptors in the brain and increases the activity of a number of neurotransmitters, especially norepinephrine and dopamine.

Dopamine is associated with pleasure, movement, and attention.

Amphetamine has been trialed for a wide variety of conditions. Now, it is mainly used to treat ADHD, and, rarely, depression. In the past, it has been used to treat narcolepsy and to help with weight loss, but this is less common now.

See AhLsoh: https://www.drugs.com/amphetamine.html

Narcolepsy Deskripshuhn

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical (Deskripshuhn) of Narcolepsy

Narcolepsy: A neurological disorder that is marked by the recurrent, sudden, uncontrollable compulsion to sleep. Narcolepsy is often associated with cataplexy (a sudden loss of muscle tone and paralysis of voluntary muscles associated with a strong emotion), sleep paralysis (immobility of the body that occurs in the transition from sleep to wakefulness)…


ADHD Deskripshuhn

THuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

Medical Definition of Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A disorder in which a person is unable to control behavior due to difficulty in processing neural stimuli, accompanied by an extremely high level of motor activity. Abbreviated ADHD. ADHD can affect children and adults… Treatments include making adjustments to the environment to accommodate the disorder, behavior modification, and the use of medications. Stimulants are the most common drugs used, although certain other medications can be effective.


Thus AmpheTTammeenz Ahr AnTi-SLeep STimmeeuuLanT Drug Meddissinz.


AmfehTuhmeen MehTabbohLizm ( AmpheTamine MeTabolism )

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NexT TexT Fruhm: http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/pim934.htm

Paeedj Name: Amphetamine

NexT TexT Fruhm http://www.inchem.org/documents/pims/pharm/pim934.htm#SectionTitle:6.4%20%20Metabolism

6.4 Metabolism

The major metabolic pathway for amphetamine involves deamination by cytochrome P450 to para-hydroxyamphetamine and phenylacetone;

[T]his latter compound is subsequently oxidised to benzoic acid and excreted as glucuronide or glycine (hippuric acid) conjugate.

Smaller amounts of amphetamine are converted…by oxidation…to norephedrine. Hydroxylation produces an active metabolite, O-hyroxynorephedrine, which acts as a false neurotransmitter and may account for some drug effect, especially in chronic users (Dollery, 1991).


major metabolic pathway for amphetamine


NexT TexT Frum: https://www.dictionary.com/browse/deaminate

deaminate[dee-am-uh-neyt]

verb (used with object), de·am·i·nat·ed, de·am·i·nat·ing. Chemistry.

to remove the amino group from (a compound).

Amino Group Pikchr

amino_group.jpgamino_group.jpg

Heere ReeKwohTed:

NexT TexT Frum: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/4-_2-Aminopropyl_phenol#section=Synonyms

Paeedj Naeem: Hydroxyamphetamine

3. Names and Identifiers
3.4 Synonyms
Hydrobromide, Hydroxyamphetamine
Hydroxyamfetamine
Hydroxyamphetamin
Hydroxyamphetamine
Hydroxyamphetamine Hydrobromide
Hydroxyphenylisopropylamine
Methyltyramine
Norpholedrin
Oxyamphetamine
p Hydroxyamphetamine
p-Hydroxyamphetamine
para Hydroxyamphetamine
para-Hydroxyamphetamine
Paredrine


NexT TexT Frum: https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/amphetamine : Srch "Decomposition"
"When heated to decomposition [Amphetamine] emits…nitroxides."

NexT TexT Frum: https://goldbook.iupac.org/html/N/N04171.html
Nitroxide is the parent name used by Chemical Abstracts Service for H2N–O.

See: Nitroxides as Antioxidants and Anticancer Drugs

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Amphetamines And Cannabis

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Cannabis THC use To prevent METH neurotoxicity and counteract dysphoria of coming down from METH

Oneofthemain reasonsforusing Cannabisinassocia-
tionwith MDMAor [[[METH]is that thecombination of
thetwodrugsenhancesthesubjectivedrugeffects,and
counteracts the dysphoric symptoms of the ecstasy or
METH“comingdown.”

As regards the METH + cannabis association, only
twogroups,includingours,haveinvestigatedtheabil-
ityoftheEndoCannabinoid SystemtopreventMETH-inducedneurotoxicityin rats and mice

Ourndingsindicatethat∆9-THCpreventsMETH-inducedneurotoxicity
through inhibition of nNOS and astrogliosis via both
CB1receptor-dependentand-independentmechanisms…inmice,stimulationof
theECSreducedMETHneurotoxicitytodopaminergicterminals.

[C]oncomitantheavycannabisandMETHusemayinduce
neurotoxicityintheadolescentbrain.

Furtherclinicalandpreclinicalstudiesareneededto
clarifyifconcurrentuseofcannabisandMDMA/METH
worsensorimprovesneurocognitivefunctions.