Less Than AhL Kynd Typs Tho Naymd AhL Baysik Kynd Typs Klast By Syz Ohrdrd

Typeeng In FuhnehTik EengLish. PLan Tu KwohT Fruhm Kommuhn EhngLish

Baysik Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz Uhv Syz Ohmz Uhv Thuh ReeL Proovd TrooTh In Syz Ohmz

  • Uhv [[Omneeon Izm]]].

AhBeysik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Ahr:

  • OpshuhnuL VoLLuhnTehree Free WiLL OpTs
    • Wich A Wyz Mynd MyT ( Reed UhbowT And|Ohr Theengk Uhv ) AT Dif Tymz.

GohL: AkT Az Wun OpTs Izm OpT IsT.


Main LisT Uhv Kynd Typs

MaTh Lang Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

KwahnTuhm Fizziks Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

Chemistry Kinds Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size
= Kem Izm Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

Biology Kinds Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size
= Lyf Izm Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

Technology Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size
= Tek Kyndz Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

MeewnissippuL Kynd Typs KLasT By Ohrdrd Syz

Mophr Kynd Typs Deskrybd Below


Included page "math-lang-kynd-typs-klast-by-ohrdrd-syz" does not exist (create it now)

MaThemaTics Language Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size

Thuh MaThematical Language ParT Type [[[Number]] In Simp Lang
Iz MaTh Lang PahrT Typ Haoh

Wrd Zero = Pin Yin Líng )

NexT Zhong Lang Pin Yin KonsepTs Wr Fruhm:
https://chinese.yabla.com/chinese-english-pinyin-dictionary.php?define=Zero


- líng
- zero

Thuh Wrd "Zero" Iz RehpreezehnTed By Thuh Zhong Lang Syn 〇 SpeLd In Pin Yin Az líng.

BaesT Fruhm Heereeng


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm:

líng…English translations

zero, nil,
naught, 0

Zeeroh In Chyneez Simp Lang Iz Leeng.

Leeng Iz A Simp Haoh In Thuh Kyndz Uhv Leeng Saiz Ohmz

Bynary Number Kind = By Haoh Kynd

Simp Bynehree Haohz Deffinnishuhn Kohd:

BinaryPair Number Kind = ByPehr Haoh Kynd

  • NexT Iz Bayss 4 4 SLoTs Uhv Kohd Kohd With SLoT PahrTs: ByPehr Kohd WiTh 4 Kohd SLoTs:
    • ( p0: "Pee Leeng"
      • Az b00: "Bee Leeng Leeng" ),
    • ( p1: "Pee Wuhn"
      • Az b01: "Bee Leeng Wuhn",
    • ( p2: "Pee Too"
      • Az b10: "Bee Wuhn Leeng",
    • ( p3: "Pee Three"
      • Az b11: "Bee Wuhn Wuhn" )

OcTaL Number Kind = OkT Haoh Kynd

  • Bayss 8 Hao Kynd Kohd WiTh 8 SLoTs:
    • ( (o0=p00, o1=p01, o2=p02, o3=p03, o4=p10, o5=p11, o6=p12, o7=p13)

Hexadecimal Number Kind = Hex Haoh Kynd

  • Bayss 16 Hao Kynd Kohd WiTh 16 SLoTs, Eech WiTh A
    • ( h0=p01, h1=p01, h2=p02, h3=p03, h4=p04, h5=p05, h6=p06, h7=p07,
    • h8=p11, h9=p12, ha=p13, hb=p14, hc=p15, hd=p16, he=p17, hf=p18 )

[[include KwahnTuhm-Fizziks-Kynd-Typs-KLasT-By-Ohrdrd-Syz]]]

QuanTum Physics Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size

[[include QuanTum-Physics]]]

Kwahntuhm PoinT = LeesT SmahL STreeng :
* Tu GeT BiLd Frum FrsT Dim Dahrk Ohr LyT Ohr Fohrss PoinT Syz Ohmz

KwahnTuhm Streeng Syzohmz

KwahnTuhm Waeev Syzohmz

Sfeerz frum KwahnTuhm PahrTikL Syzohmz

KwahnTuhm Fohm Syzohmz


Chemistry Kind Types CLassed By Ordered Size


Kem Izm Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTs

( Kem Izm = KehmisTree )

Simp Kemz

Groop Kem Izm Iz DehskRybd By Thuh NexT TekST.

Groop Kem Iz Thuh Simp Lang Uhbreeveeaeeshuhn Fohr KehmikkuL Kompowndz In Thuh Grwp Kem Syz Ohmz Uhv Thuh ( Groop Kem Typ = Kompownd KehmikkuL Type )

Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Kush Groop Kemz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs )

End Uhv Kem Izm Mayn LisT Uhv KonTenTs


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


ChemisTry In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz


Included page "kehmistree-wrd-deskripshuhnz" does not exist (create it now)


THuh Wrd Nohrm Speld Az " Chemistry "

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az KehmisTree Ahlsoh KahLd Kem Izm


[[include kem-izm]]


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


[[include Kem-EhLehmenT]]


Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


[[include VaeeLehnss]]


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


[[include Simp-Kem-1]]


[[include Peereeoddik-TaeebuL]]


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Vrzhuhnz PossibuL Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoVD#0: 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoVD#0: 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoVD#0: 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoVD# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonVD#0: 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonVD##1: 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.
When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

Let's imagine identical twins or identical triplets - they all look the same on the outside, but when we look more closely, we notice small physical differences, like for instance, their fingerprints. Also, as we get to know them more individually, we will notice subtle differences in their preferences and personalities.

Let's compare these identical twins and triplets to isotopes of an element. Just like twins and triplets, we can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the atomic masses of the isotopes of hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the atomic number. We can see here that the atomic numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons and atomic masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the atomic mass and the subscripts are the number of protons or the atomic number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

Thuh MohsT Simp IsoTope Ion Vrzhuhn Uhv SKEN#1 Hydrohjen


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

[[include hydrogen-simp-kem-math]]


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

Groop Kemz

Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

[[include molecule]]

Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:


[[include Lyf-Kem-Syz-Ohmz]]


[[include tox-kemz]]


[[include Kush-Groop-Kemz]]

Gruup Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz

Groop Kemz Ahr Groops Uhv [[Simp Kemz]]].


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


[[include Lyf-EesehnchuL-NuuTrishuhn]]


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


THuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "ChemicaL ELemenT" Iz Shruhngk


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…

[[[Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz]]

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Vrzhuhnz PossibuL Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoVD#0: 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoVD#0: 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoVD#0: 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoVD# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonVD#0: 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonVD##1: 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.
When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

Let's imagine identical twins or identical triplets - they all look the same on the outside, but when we look more closely, we notice small physical differences, like for instance, their fingerprints. Also, as we get to know them more individually, we will notice subtle differences in their preferences and personalities.

Let's compare these identical twins and triplets to isotopes of an element. Just like twins and triplets, we can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the atomic masses of the isotopes of hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the atomic number. We can see here that the atomic numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons and atomic masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the atomic mass and the subscripts are the number of protons or the atomic number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

Thuh MohsT Simp IsoTope Ion Vrzhuhn Uhv SKEN#1 Hydrohjen


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Vrzhuhnz PossibuL Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoVD#0: 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoVD#0: 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoVD#0: 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoVD# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonVD#0: 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonVD##1: 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.
When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

Let's imagine identical twins or identical triplets - they all look the same on the outside, but when we look more closely, we notice small physical differences, like for instance, their fingerprints. Also, as we get to know them more individually, we will notice subtle differences in their preferences and personalities.

Let's compare these identical twins and triplets to isotopes of an element. Just like twins and triplets, we can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the atomic masses of the isotopes of hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the atomic number. We can see here that the atomic numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons and atomic masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the atomic mass and the subscripts are the number of protons or the atomic number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

Thuh MohsT Simp IsoTope Ion Vrzhuhn Uhv SKEN#1 Hydrohjen


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

Groop Kemz

Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)

Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Life EssenTial NuTriTion

nature22379-f1.jpg

[[include NuukLeeik-Assidz-Kyndz-And-PahrTs-And-Food-Sohrss-LisTs]]

[[include NuukLeeoh-Kyndz-And-PahrTs-And-Food-Sohrss-LisTs]]

See also:
* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

* protein-for-vegans-vegetarians
* Eat Up: The Best Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 Essential Fatty Acids | PerriconeMD
* Top 10 Foods Highest in Omega 6 Fatty Acids

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Included page "tox-kemz" does not exist (create it now)


Kush Groop Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Daynjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Ded.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Table of Contents

Immaj Nrv Kom Kyndz STrukTs And Kemz

Nrv_Kom_Kyndz_STrukTs_And_Kemz.jpeg

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Synthesis and Storage of Neurotransmitters

The first steps in synaptic transmission is the synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters.

There are two broad categories of neurotransmitters.

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length,


Smahl Mollehkeeuul Nurrohtranzmitrz

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal. Some of the precursors necessary for the synthesis of these molecules are taken up by selective transporters on the membrane of the terminal. Others are byproducts of cellular processes that take place within the neuron itself and are thus readily available. The enzymes necessary to catalyze an interaction among these precursors are usually produced in the cell body and transported to the terminal by slow axonal transport.


SmahL_MollehkeeuuL_NurrohTranzmiTrz_Shruhnk.jpg

Neuropeptides

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

These messengers differ from small-molecule neurotransmitters in both size and in the way that they are synthesized. Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length, and are thus larger than small-molecule neurotransmitters. Also, neuropeptides must made in the cell body because their synthesis requires peptide bond formation. This process is a great deal more involved than the simple enzymatic reactions involved in making smaller neurotransmitters.

The synthesis of a neuropeptide is very much like the synthesis of any secretory protein made by the cell. First, within the cell nucleus, gene transcription takes place, during which a specific peptide-coding sequence of DNA is used as a template to construct a corresponding strand of messenger RNA. The mRNA then travels to a ribosome, where the process of translation begins. During translation, the sequence of nucleotides that make up the mRNA act as a code to string together a corresponding sequence of amino acids that will eventually become the neuropeptide needed at the terminal. Before this molecule can be transported to the terminal for release into the synaptic cleft, it must be processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), packaged in the golgi apparatus, and transported in storage vesicles down the axon to the terminal.

Once they are synthesized, neurotransmitters, both small molecules and neuropeptides, are stored in vesicles within the axon terminal until an action potential arrives and they are released. Most small-molecule neurotransmitters are stored in small vesicles that range from 40 to 60 nm in diameter and, in electron micrographs, appear to have clear centers. The vesicles that store neuropeptides are larger, ranging from 90 to 250 nm in diameter. These vesicles appear dark and electron-dense in electron micrographs.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides and their Classification

Mammalian Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Families

Due to the history of the discovery of neuropeptides and endocrine peptides, their location of synthesis and targets, the classification of these types of peptides is somewhat tricky. This has led to a few classification approaches. Some of them are listed below. The new fields of brain research and neuroscience will surly add more peptides to this list in the coming years.

Classification of bioactive peptides

[[include Hypothalamic-Hormones]]


[[include Pituitary-Gland-and-its-Hormones]]


[[include Pituitary-Gland-and-its-Hormones]]


[[include Tachykinins]]


[[include Neuropeptide-Tyrosine-NPY-and-related-peptides]]


[[include VIP-glucagon-family]]


[[include Other-peptides]]


[[include Novel-neuropeptides]]


[[include Gene-families-of-classical-neuropeptides]]


[[include Putative-neuropeptides]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Paeej Naeemd Neuropeptides.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

synaptic vesicle noun

Medical Definition of synaptic vesicle


https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/a/neurotransmitters-their-receptors


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-neurotransmitters/


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Evree Wrd Uh Leengk And Wuhz Fruhm:

Major neurotransmitters:

Amino acids: glutamate,[6] aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine
Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Monoamines: dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (noradrenaline; NE, NA), epinephrine (adrenaline), histamine, serotonin (SER, 5-HT)
Trace amines: phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine, octopamine, tryptamine, etc.
Peptides: oxytocin, somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[11]
Purines: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine
Others: acetylcholine (ACh), anandamide, etc.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter#List_of_neurotransmitters,_peptides,_and_gaseous_signaling_molecules


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-receptors/


Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs


Table of Contents

Sykuhtrohpik Izm


[[include Psychotropic-Wrd-Deskripshuhnz]]


[[include sykuhtrohpik-drug-izm]]


[[include Sykoaktiv]]


[[include Rekreeaeeshuhnul-Druhgz]]


SykehdehLik Izm


Table of Contents

[[include SykehdehLik-Wrd-Dehskripshuhnz]]


[[include Sykehdehlikss]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd SykehdehLik Izm.


Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


Kush Jem

Table of Contents

NexT TexT Frum https://www.etymonline.com/word/gem

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] gem (n.)

"a precious stone" (especially when cut or polished), c. 1300, probably from Old French gemme (12c.), from Latin gemma "precious stone, jewel," originally "bud," from Proto-Italic *gebma- "bud, sprout," from PIE *geb-m- "sprout, bud" (source also of Lithuanian žembėti "to germinate, sprout," Old Church Slavonic prozebnoti "to germinate")…

Of persons, "a rare or excellent example (of something)" from late 13c. Alternative forms iemme, gimme persisted into 14c. and might represent a survival of Old English gimm "precious stone, gem, jewel," also "eye," which was borrowed directly from Latin gemma.

gem (v.)

c. 1600, "to adorn with gems;" earlier (mid-12c.)

"to bud," from gem (n.).

Related: Gemmed; gemming.


3 Typs Uhv Kush Jemz:

1: Sollid Kush Jemz

2: A ThoT Kush Jem

  • ReeGahrdz An ImpohrTanT ( biochemical FacT Ohr SaeefTee Info ) UhbouT Ehnee Psychoactive drug, Lyk Thohz In Thuh Kush Byb EL.

3. An Adorn Kush Jem Iz A Kuhnsuum Task.


NexT TexT Wuhz Frum

[ Ehtimmolluhjee Uhv Wrd ] adorn (v.)

late 14c., aournen, later adornen, "to decorate, embellish," also "be an ornament to," from Old French aorner "to order, arrange, dispose, equip; adorn," from Latin adornare "equip, provide, furnish;" also "decorate, embellish," from ad "to" (see ad-) + ornare "prepare, furnish, adorn, fit out," from stem of ordo "row, rank, series, arrangement" (see order (n.)). The -d- was reinserted by French scribes 14c. and in English from late 15c. Related: adorning, Adorned.


[[include sykehdehlik-wrd-dehskripshuhnz]]


[[include Psychotropic-Wrd-Deskripshuhnz]]


[[include Psychoactive]]


[[include NachruL-Drug-DeTox]]


[[include addict-syt-blaeem-drug-tho-naturopath-praise-drug]]


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jem.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


ReGahrdeeng A Few SoLLid Kush Jemz

[[include PEA-Amf-MeTh-Pikchr]]


[[include MeTh-BreakDown]]


See AhLsoh Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh


See: Kush Groop Kemz


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

[[include Vaypr]]


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


[[include leethul-drug-kombinnayshuhnz]]


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


Toke In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Tohk Uhv Kush Byb EL.


Thuh Wrd Tohk Iz Too OfT LimmiTTed Tu BreeTheeng In Smohk Frum BrnT Kannuhbiss.

PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe Iz OfT KahLd Smohk.


NexT TexT Frum: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/smoke

smoke (smōk)

n.
a. A mixture of gases and small suspended particles of soot or other solids, resulting from the burning of materials such as wood or coal.
b. A cloud of such gases and suspended particles.
c. A vapor, mist, or fume that resembles this.

v. smoked, smoking, smokes
v.intr.
1.
a. To draw in and exhale smoke from a cigarette, cigar, or pipe
b. To engage in smoking regularly or habitually
2. To emit smoke or a smokelike substance
v.tr.
a. To draw in and exhale the smoke of (tobacco, for example)
b. To do so regularly or habitually

Vaypr Iz A Much Mohr Precise Wrd For PsychoAcTive Drugs CookT Tu A Gasseeuhss STaTe.


[[include Vaypr]]


Thuh NexT TexT Frum:

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.


Kuz Uhv Theez Non OfT Eenuhf Seen Deffinnishuhnz,

See Ahlsoh: Uhnonnimmuhss Saeef Aktss


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Jemz.


Included page "cacao-cocoa-powdr-fohr-prohteen-and-3-sychuhtrohpik-drugz" does not exist (create it now)


See Ahlsoh:

Kannuhbinnoeed

Phenylethylamine

Amphetamine

MeTh EesehnchuLz

Opioid Izm

Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh

Benzodiazenpine Izm

If Mix Opiod And Benzodiazepine Can Be Leethal


Kush Vaypr Uhv ( Kush Jemz And Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding Overdose Deth )

Vapor In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Vaypr

vapour (US), vapor
1. particles of moisture or other substance suspended in air and visible as clouds, smoke, etc

Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " Vapor ".


EgzampuLz Uhv Kush Vaypr:

( Wood Ohr UhThr Dry Rb PahrT ), Such Az Tobacco Ohr Mehrihwahnuh, BrnT Givz Smohk Vaypr. A.K.A. Kush Smohk.

Ice MeLTyzd Tu Likwid, Then CookT Tu Gas, Iz STeem Vaypr.

MeTH Jemz CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd MeTh Vaypr.

( PhenyleThylamine A.K.A. PEA ) Powdr CookT Tu Gaz Iz Heer KahLd PEA Vaypr.


Leethul Drug Kombinnayshuhnz

If 2 Ohr Mohr PsychoAcTive Drugz Ahr Kunsoomd,

  • ThaT MyT GeT KahLd Kuhnsuhmpshuhn Uhv ( MuLTy+Drugz = Mohr Than Wuhn Drug ).

This Duhz Koz Mohr Than Wun SykohakTiv Drug In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

This MuLTy SykohakTiv Drugz In Bod SumTymz Duz Koz DeTh.

Mixing drugs frequently leads to overdose and potentially death.
-Frum: https://luxury.rehabs.com/cocaine-addiction/mixing-cocaine/#drug

See:


Choices ThaT Tend Tu Prohdooss Saeefness For Tohkeeng Kush Vaypr InkLood:
1: Choozeeng A Sayf PLaiss Hid Frum Frum Public Veew
2: And If SeLF=Bod Iz WiTh UhThr PeepuL Then Choozeeng Tu PrakTiss SivviLyzd KrTeeuhss Manrz
3: And Non-Koffeeng Frum Non-BreeTheeng In Kush Smohk Frum BrmT Mehrihwahnuh Wood.
4: And Tu Theengk UhbowT Tohkeeng Vaypryzd ( MeTh Jemz Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ) Duz Norm Koz Non-koffeeng KwyeTness .

In ThaT EnvyronmenT If Self_Bod Ohrganz Ahr HeLThee, They MyT Keep Wrkeeng WeL If Wuhn Mohr Tym SeLf MyT Plan Tu BreeTh In Sum Kush Vaypr.


If Aluminum Foil Iz Eewzd Then Too OfT Sum Aluminum GeTs CookT Tu Aluminum Gas ThaT MyT SumTymz Koz Brneeng In Thuh Lungz And|Ohr Koffeeng.

Kuz Uhv ThaT, If Possibul A [Buhbul Pyp MyT GeT PrchusT, Maybe Frum A Local Smoke Shop, And Pland Tu Bee Eewzd.

Tu Shop For A Small Glass PyP AppropriaT Fohr Toking Vaporized ( Crystal MeTh Ohr PhenyleThylamine Powdr ), Click On https://www.amazon.com/s/ref=sr_st_price-asc-rank?keywords=Small+Glass+Oil+Burner&fst=p90x%3A1&rh=i%3Aaps%2Ck%3ASmall+Glass+Oil+Burner&qid=1545622494&sort=price-asc-rank


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm :
https://www.thefreedictionary.com/toke

toke (tōk) Slang
n.
A puff on a cigarette, marijuana cigarette, or pipe containing hashish or another mind-altering substance.
tr. & intr.v. toked, tok·ing, tokes
To puff or smoke (a marijuana cigarette, for example) or to engage in such activity.


Trying Tu Keep A Chiropractor-Recomended VrTikuLLee STraiT Bak Poschr Deekreesez sufreeng And Increesez Lung KappassiTTee Tu BreeTh In.

Pree Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz Duz Tohk In Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz Tu:

WyL Deep BreeTheeng, Pree SeLfBod Duz [[[Tohk]],

  • IT Iz KuhnsidraT Tu Swallow Your Saliva Tu KLeer THuh MouTh Uhv Saliva
    • Tu Uhvois DrooLeeng In Thuh Pyp.

Then BreeTh OuT KumpLeeT Lee Tu Prep Thuh Lungz Tu Tohk In Az Muhch Az PossibbuL.

SoLLid Kush Jemz, CookT Tu Vaypr, SLowLee Tohk BreeThd In ( For Usually AT LeesT 5-10 Seconds Ohr SumTymz Az Long Az Mohr Than 20 Seconds), Norm Much Less Risks loud rude dev ill kof suhfreeng, Az Mohr OfT Iz FeLT Fruhm BreeTheeng In Smohk.

If A dev ill Kof Iz AnTissippayTed Then A ( SmahL Wypeeng CLoTh Or SmahL ToweL Ohr ShrT PahrT) MufLr Should GeT Eewzd Tu Kuhvr Thuh MouTh and MuffuL WuhT MyT Hav Ben Mohr Loud Rood kof Sowndz.

WyL BreeTheeng In Tu Max Lung CappassiTee, EevenchooaLee Thuh Lungz STarT Tu SlyTLee sufr Frum Thuh Lungz GeTTeeng FiLd Tu Max CappassiTTee,

  • So Then STop BreeTheeng In Tu STop Thuh Lungz Fruhm SLyT sufreeng.

Then AiThr BreeTh OuT Ohr MayBee KwikLee Plug Your Nohz Tu PreeSTop Kush Vaypr Frum Leekeeng OuT.

Thuh Less Wuhn Moovz WyL HohLdeeng Thuh BreTh In,

  • Thuh Mohr Tym THuh BreTh Can Bee HeLd In.

Thuh GohL Uhv HohLdeeng Thuh kush Vaypr In Thuh Lungz Iz Tu Uhbzohrb Az Much SykuhTrohpik Drug Tu BeekuhmPsychoAcTive Az Wun Can Pree Thuh Lungz STahrT Tu SLyT sufr Needeeng Mohr Oxygen Fohr Thuh BLuhd Fohr Thuh UhThr Kyndz Uhv SeLz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.

If An Air BreeThr HoLdz Their BreTh In Fohr Too Much Tym, ThaT Iz Lyk HoLding Thuh BreTh Undr WahTr, And Soonr Ohr LayTr The Lungz STarT Tu Sufr And Thuh Need Iz FeLT Tu BreeTh OuT And Then BreeTh Oxygen In.

Kush Vaypr Haz Ben BreeThd In Fohr Az Long Az 25 Sekkunds Then Held In Fohr NormuhLee Tween 5 Tu 15 Seconds Pree STahrTeeng Tu Senss Lung Sufreeng Inspyreeng Tu BreeTh OuT.

AfTr BreeTheeng OuT Kush Vaypr, IT Iz Wyz And Good Tu BreeTh In And OuT A Few Slow Deep BreThs Uhv Regular Air Tu Re-OxygenAte Thuh SehL Kyndz In Thuh Bod ThaT SeLf Wehrz.


RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs Uhv Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war

BaeesT On: EarTh CiTizen RighTs Uhv Thuh Earth ConsTiTuTion

Eech ( NaTional And Municipal And Local ) Law Code Should GeT { ChekT And If Nehsehsehree FixT } So ThaT In Ehvree Jrisdikshuhn Uhv Thuh RTh Thuh Law Code Ther { ReespekTs Eech Uhv Thuh Following ConsTiTTpooshuhnul RyTs Uhv Eech Recreational Drug Ownr } And { Maeeks It Illegal For Kops Tu AkT AgainsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Tu Koz ThaT Prsuhn Tu BeKum A VicTim Uhv Ehnee Uhv Thuh Following ViolaTion Krymz } }.

1: Eech Recreational Drug Ownr Haz Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Prohibition against physical or psychological duress or torture during any period of investigation, arrest, detention or imprisonment, and against cruel or unusual punishment."

2: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT a ( physical durress ohr cruel ) assulT krym violation againsT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug ( Ownr And|Ohr Eewzr ).

3: Recreational Drug Ownrz Hav Thuh ConsTiTuTional RyT Tu "Safety of person from arbitrary or unreasonable arrest, detention, exile, search or seizure; requirement of warrants for searches and arrests."

4: Kuz Uhv ThaT, Eech Cop ShouLd Nevr KuhmiT ThefT Violation UhgensT Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Without A WarrrenT Uhledjeeng That Thuh RecreaTional Drug Ownr Had { { STole ( Sum Ohr AhL ) Uhv Thuh RecreaTional Drug(z) They Hav } And|Ohr { Endaeendjrd Ohr Violated Anyone's Bod WiTh Their RecreaTional Drug Property } }.

5: AhLsoh Kuz Uhv 3, If Ther'z No WarrenT Legalizing Thuh arresT Then ThaT Iz A ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) arresT that MyT Also ProbbabLee InkLood unNehsehsehree And ConsTiTuTionally ( rong and illegal ) { imprisonment uhv wrists in handcuffs Then Cop Car imprisonment And jail Imprisonment } violations AgainsT Thuh RyTs Uhv A RecreaTional Drug Ownr ( InnuhsenT = NoT gilTee ) Uhv Ehnee Uhv THuh Following Real True violation krymz.

6: If Ehnee RecreaTional Drug Ownr Iz InnuhsenT Uhv ( ( Thuh Real True violation krym Uhv UhsuLT ) And ( Real True ProprTee violation krym, Fohr EgzampuL ( ThefT Ohr ( Vandalism Such Az UnauThorized Damaging Uhv A Dif Prsuhn'z ProprTee ) ), Then Tu arresT ThaT Prsuhn WouLd Bee TrooLee ReaLLee ( rong and unJusT ). Thuh rongful arresT MyT Hav Ben Dun Kuz Uhv At LeesT Wun ( Rong And unJusT ) Law ThaT ShouLd MohsT LykLee GeT Chaeendjd Ohr { Reemoovd Fruhm Thuh Lahz Uhv At LeesT ThaT Jrisdikshuhn And Hohpfully Ehnee UhThr Jrisdikshuhn ThaT Haz ( ThaT Ohr A SimmiLr ) ProbbabLee ( Rong And unJusT ) Law }.

Legalize All Drugs And End the drug war


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Kush Groop Kemz.

Gruup Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh Trm Fraeez Naeem "Chemical Compound"

KehmikkuL Kompownd In Simp Lang Iz

Groop Kemz Ahr Groops Uhv [[Simp Kemz]]].


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Life EssenTial NuTriTion

nature22379-f1.jpg

Included page "nuukleeik-assidz-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "nuukleeoh-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

See also:
* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

* protein-for-vegans-vegetarians
* Eat Up: The Best Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 Essential Fatty Acids | PerriconeMD
* Top 10 Foods Highest in Omega 6 Fatty Acids

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


( Kemz = KhemiKKuLz = Chemichals )


Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.


Simp Kem Trm Deskripshuhn Uhv Simp Kem Izm


Uh Simp Kem Iz Dehskrybd Az:


THuh Trm Fraeez Naeem SpeLd "ChemicaL ELemenT" Iz Shruhngk


NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.thoughtco.com/what-is-a-chemical-element-604297

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated September 19, 2018

A chemical element, or an element, is defined as a material which cannot be broken down or changed into another substance using chemical means. Elements may be thought of as the basic chemical building blocks… There are 118 known elements. Each element is identified according to the number of ProTons it has in its…nucleus. A new element may be created by adding more ProTons to an [ existing element ]. Simp Kemz of the same element have the same [ ProTon CounT ].


Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…

[[[Kem Ehlehments With Dif Isotope And Ion Vrzhuhnz]]

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

What Is an Element in Chemistry? Definition and Examples

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 17, 2018

A ChemicaL ELemenT is a substance that cannot be broken down by chemical means. Although elements aren't changed by chemical reactions, new elements may be formed by nuclear reactions.

Elements are defined by the number of protons they possess. Simp Kemz of an element all have the same number of protons, but they can have different numbers of electrons and neutrons…

Changing the number of neutrons form isotopes…

Changing the ratio of electrons to protons creates ions…


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Nekst Inkluuded Paeej Naeemd Nucleon

Nucleon Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Nucleon physics

Written By:

  • The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica

Nucleon, either of the subatomic particles, the proton and the neutron, constituting [ kem Ehlehment ] nuclei. Protons (positively charged) and neutrons (uncharged) behave identically under the influence of the short-range nuclear force, both in the way they are bound in nuclei and in the way they are scattered by each other. This strong interaction is independent of electric charge. Unstable subatomic particles heavier than nucleons (hyperons and baryon resonances) have a nucleon among their final decay products; the nucleon is thus the baryon ground state.

Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Paeej Naeemd Nucleon.

Nekst Lyn Uhv Tekst Past Paeej Naeemd Nucleon


IsoTope

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

IsoTopes: When the Number of NeuTrons Varies

All [ Simp Kemz ] of the same Kem EhLehmenT have the same number of protons, but some may have different numbers of NeuTrons. For example, all carbon Simp Kemz have six ProTons, and most have six NeuTrons as well. But some czarbon Simp Kemz have seven or eight NeuTrons instead of the usual six. Simp Kemz of the same element that differ in their numbers of neutrons are called IsoTopes. Many isotopes occur naturally. Usually one or two IsoTopes of an element are the most stable and common. Different IsoTopes of an element generally have the same physical and chemical properties. That's because they have the same numbers of ProTons…


Prohtonz And Nuutronz Az Kuhmpozzit Pahrtikkulz

ProhTonz%20And%20NuuTronz%20Az%20KuhmpozziT%20PahrTikkuLz%20Eech%20WiTh%203%20Kwahrkss.jpg

Ion Uhv Simp Kem Izm Uhv Kem Izm Kynd Typs Ohrdrd By Syz
* Uhv KuhmpLeeT LisT Uhv Baeesik Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr
* Uhv Syehnss Baeesiks Kynd Typs KLasT By Syz Ohrdr Uhv Omnyon Izm.

Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm

Chemistry Glossary Definition of Ion

by Anne Marie Helmenstine, Ph.D.
Updated April 23, 2018

An ion is defined as [ Uh Simp Kem ] or molecule which has gained or lost one or more of its valence electrons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge. In other words, there is an imbalance in the number of ProTons (positively charged particles) and electrons (negatively charged particles) in a chemical species.


Wrd SpeLd "VaLence" In FohnehTik EengGLish Voeess Sownd Chahrz

Thuh NexT Impruuvd TekST Wuhz OhridjinnuLLee Fruhm:

The words valence and valency have two related meanings in chemistry.

Valence describes how easily [ Uh Simp Kem ] or radical can combine with other chemical (Kem Izm [Kyndz]. This is determined based on the number of electrons that would be added, lost, or shared if it reacts with other Simp Kemz.

Valence is denoted using a positive or negative integer used to represent this binding capacity…

[ PahrshuLLee ReeprohduusT ] TaybuL of Simp Kem Valences
Number Element Valence
1 Hydrogen (-1), +1
2 Helium 0
3 Lithium +1
4 Beryllium +2
5 Boron -3, +3
6 Carbon (+2), +4
7 Nitrogen -3, -2, -1, (+1), +2, +3, +4, +5
8 Oxygen -2
9 Fluorine -1, (+1)
10 Neon 0
11 Sodium +1
12 Magnesium +2
13 Aluminum +3
14 Silicon -4, (+2), +4
15 Phosphorus -3, +1, +3, +5
16 Sulfur -2, +2, +4, +6
17 Chlorine -1, +1, (+2), +3, (+4), +5, +7
18 Argon 0
19 Potassium +1
20 Calcium +2
21 Scandium +3
22 Titanium +2, +3, +4
23 Vanadium +2, +3, +4, +5
24 Chromium +2, +3, +6
25 Manganese +2, (+3), +4, (+6), +7
26 Iron +2, +3, (+4), (+6)
27 Cobalt +2, +3, (+4)
28 Nickel (+1), +2, (+3), (+4)
29 Copper +1, +2, (+3)
30 Zinc +2
31 Gallium (+2). +3
32 Germanium -4, +2, +4
33 Arsenic -3, (+2), +3, +5
34 Selenium -2, (+2), +4, +6
35 Bromine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5
36 Krypton 0
37 Rubidium +1
38 Strontium +2
39 Yttrium +3
40 Zirconium (+2), (+3), +4
41 Niobium (+2), +3, (+4), +5
42 Molybdenum (+2), +3, (+4), (+5), +6
43 Technetium +6
44 Ruthenium (+2), +3, +4, (+6), (+7), +8
45 Rhodium (+2), (+3), +4, (+6)
46 Palladium +2, +4, (+6)
47 Silver +1, (+2), (+3)
48 Cadmium (+1), +2
49 Indium (+1), (+2), +3
50 Tin +2, +4
51 Antimony -3, +3, (+4), +5
52 Tellurium -2, (+2), +4, +6
53 Iodine -1, +1, (+3), (+4), +5, +7
54 Xenon 0
55 Cesium +1
56 Barium +2
57 Lanthanum +3
58 Cerium +3, +4
59 Praseodymium +3
60 Neodymium +3, +4
61 Promethium +3
62 Samarium (+2), +3
63 Europium (+2), +3
64 Gadolinium +3
65 Terbium +3, +4
66 Dysprosium +3
67 Holmium +3
68 Erbium +3
69 Thulium (+2), +3
70 Ytterbium (+2), +3
71 Lutetium +3
72 Hafnium +4
73 Tantalum (+3), (+4), +5
74 Tungsten (+2), (+3), (+4), (+5), +6
75 Rhenium (-1), (+1), +2, (+3), +4, (+5), +6, +7
76 Osmium (+2), +3, +4, +6, +8
77 Iridium (+1), (+2), +3, +4, +6
78 Platinum (+1), +2, (+3), +4, +6
79 Gold +1, (+2), +3
80 Mercury +1, +2
81 Thallium +1, (+2), +3
82 Lead +2, +4
83 Bismuth (-3), (+2), +3, (+4), (+5)
84 Polonium (-2), +2, +4, (+6)
85 Astatine ?
86 Radon 0
87 Francium ?
88 Radium +2
89 Actinium +3
90 Thorium +4
91 Protactinium +5
92 Uranium (+2), +3, +4, (+5), +6


Soh Simp Kem 92 Uranium Haz A Hyr VayLenss Than Simp Kem 1 H.



Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Vrzhuhnz PossibuL Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoVD#0: 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoVD#0: 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoVD#0: 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoVD# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonVD#0: 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonVD##1: 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.
When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

Let's imagine identical twins or identical triplets - they all look the same on the outside, but when we look more closely, we notice small physical differences, like for instance, their fingerprints. Also, as we get to know them more individually, we will notice subtle differences in their preferences and personalities.

Let's compare these identical twins and triplets to isotopes of an element. Just like twins and triplets, we can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the atomic masses of the isotopes of hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the atomic number. We can see here that the atomic numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons and atomic masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the atomic mass and the subscripts are the number of protons or the atomic number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

Thuh MohsT Simp IsoTope Ion Vrzhuhn Uhv SKEN#1 Hydrohjen


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


Simp Kemz A.K.A. KehmikkuL EhLehmenTs


Simp Kem 1 Iz Thuh Kem EhLehmenT WiTh Uh ProhTon KownT Uhv 1.

Simp Kem 1 Haz GoT Given


NeksT Iz KownTed Thuh Vrzhuhnz PossibuL Uhv Simp Kem 1 ( SK1 ).

1:0: Simp Kem 1 Haz JusT 3 IsoTope Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz ( IsoVD#z ):
1:1: ( IsoVD#0: 0 NuuTronz ) Ohr
1:2: ( IsoVD#0: 1 NuuTron ) Ohr
1:3: ( IsoVD#0: 2 NuuTronz ).

2:0 Eech IsoVD# Haz JusT 2 [[Ion]]] Vrzhuhn Dymenshuhn Nuhmbrz:
2:1: ( IonVD#0: 0 EeLekTronz ) Ohr
2:2: ( IonVD##1: 1 EeLekTron ).


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Three Isotopes of Hydrogen

Lesson Transcript
Instructor: Nissa Garcia

Nissa has a masters degree in chemistry and has taught high school science and college level chemistry.
When we are looking at the atomic number of an element in the periodic table, we may not know it, but these elements may have isotopes. This depends on the number of their neutrons. In this lesson, we will learn about the three isotopes of hydrogen.

What Are Isotopes?

Let's imagine identical twins or identical triplets - they all look the same on the outside, but when we look more closely, we notice small physical differences, like for instance, their fingerprints. Also, as we get to know them more individually, we will notice subtle differences in their preferences and personalities.

Let's compare these identical twins and triplets to isotopes of an element. Just like twins and triplets, we can think of isotopes as different versions of an element. Isotopes are different versions of the same element that all have the same ProTon number but different number of NeuTrons. Because the number of NeuTrons are different, they also have different [ Simp Kem Kohr Nuhmbrz ], the total number of ProTons and [[NeuTron]]]s combined.

Thuh 3 IsoTopes of Hydrohjen

As an example, let's take a look at the isotopes of hydrogen. Hydrogen has three isotopes: hydrogen-1 (protium), hydrogen-2 (deuterium) and hydrogen-3 (tritium). In the following illustration, we can see subscripts and superscripts. The superscripts 1, 2 and 3 written before H are the atomic masses of the isotopes of hydrogen and the subscript 1 is the atomic number. We can see here that the atomic numbers (or number of protons) of the isotopes of hydrogen are the same, but their neutrons and atomic masses are different.

Earlier, we have shown the three isotopes of hydrogen: protium, deuterium and tritium. Protium is also known as hydrogen-1, deuterium is also known as hydrogen-2 and tritium is also known as hydrogen-3.

Let's compare how these hydrogen atoms are different in the following table. We can see that for the symbols, the superscripts before H are the atomic mass and the subscripts are the number of protons or the atomic number. Protium is also called hydrogen-1. The same goes for the other two isotopes of hydrogen.

The three isotopes of hydrogen are illustrated here:

threeisotopesofhydrogen4.pngisotopes_of_hydrogenedit.pngthreeisotopesofhydrogen3.png

Thuh Next Slytlee KohrekTed Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Difference Between Hydrogen Atom and Hydrogen Ion

November 15, 2011 Posted by Madhu

The key difference between hydrogen [ Element ] and hydrogen ion is that the hydrogen atom is neutral whereas the hydrogen ion carries a charge.

Hydrogen is the first and the smallest element in the periodic table and is denoted as H. It is categorized under group 1 and period 1 in the periodic table because of its electron configuration: 1s1. Hydrogen can take up an electron to form a negatively charged ion, or can easily donate the electron to produce a positively charged proton. If not, it can share the electron to make covalent bonds.


Thuh Next Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

What is a Hydrogen Ion?

Hydrogen ion is the form of hydrogen element that carries a charge. The charge of this ion can be either positive or negative, depending on the way that it forms. It may form from either the removal of one electron from atomic hydrogen or from electron gaining. Therefore, hydrogen ion has either a +1 or -1 charge (monovalent). We can denote the positively charged hydrogen ion as H+ (cation) and the negative ion as H- (anion).

Difference-Between-Hydrogen-Atom-and-Hydrogen-Ion_Figure-2-768x430.png

The cation of protium is specifically known as protons, and they are the type of hydrogen atoms we mainly consider in chemical reactions since the natural abundance of protium is very high compared to other isotopes.


SKEN#1: Simp Kem EhLehmenT Nuhmbr 1 Hydrohjen Vrzhuhnz Ahr Suhmuhryzd NexT.

SKEN#1 Iso#0: IsoTope Nuhmbr 0 H Hydrohjen ProTium Haz 2 Ion Vrzhuhnz:
SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

SKEN#1 IsoO Ion0 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso1 Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium Simp Kem,
SKEN#1 Iso2 Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


SKEN#1 Iso#0 Ion#0 Iz:

Thuh MohsT Simp IsoTope Ion Vrzhuhn Uhv SKEN#1 Hydrohjen


SKEN#1 IsoO Ion1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen ProTium** Simp Kem,

Hydrogen Simp Kem MaTh

Simp Kem 1 H MaTh

Thiss Paeej Iz Spehsiffikullee Uhbowt:

NexT Pikchr Frum: http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html
Simp%20Kem%201%20H%20MaTh%20Dyuhgram%20And%20FohrmuuLuh.jpg

The solution of the Schrodinger equation for the hydrogen atom is a formidable mathematical problem, but is of such fundamental importance that it will be treated in outline [ AT http://hyperphysics.phy-astr.gsu.edu/hbase/quantum/hydsch.html ]. The solution is managed by separating the variables so that the wave function is represented by the product:

The separation leads to three equations for the three spatial variables, and their solutions give rise to three quantum numbers associated with the hydrogen energy levels.

Eech Simp Kem Az A Math Fohrmyuuluh Iz Uhsehmbuld Intu Thuh Biochemicals Uhv Wich Eech Lyf Fohrm Iz Kuhmpohzd Fruhm

Thiss Iz Thuh LasT Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Paeej Naeemd: " Simp Kem 1 H MaTh ".


SKEN#1 Iso1 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen DeuTerium** Simp Kem,

SKEN#1 Iso2 ** Iz Uh Hydrohjen TriTium** Simp Kem;


Peereeoddik TaeebuL Iz FuhnehTik Eenglish Fphr Periodic Table

Peereeodik_TaybuL.bmp

See also:


( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz

Gruup Kem Izm

Groop Kemz

Groop Kemz Iz Simp Lang Fohr ( KehmikkuL Kompowndz = Chemical Compounds ) In Simp Lang Iz

( Kem STayTs = KehmikuL STayTs = ChemicaL STaTes ) Uhv Kemz
chemical compound Noun
1. chemical compound - (Chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight

Chemical Science, Chemistry - …the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

Molecule in Funetik Inglish iz Moluhkeewl

American pronunciation of molecule

molecule NOUN /ˈmɑləˌkjul/

Etymology
Summary: from French molécule, from New Latin molecula (“a molecule”), diminutive of Latin moles (“a mass”)

Molecule in Thesaurus

Noun 1. molecule - (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound

chemical science, chemistry - the science of matter; the branch of the natural sciences dealing with the composition of substances and their properties and reactions

natural philosophy, physics - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"

chemical chain, chain - (chemistry) a series of linked atoms (generally in an organic molecule)

Ther Ahr Now JusT Thuh NexT 3 Typs Uhv Groop Kemz ToT In This Wiki And InkLooded In This Paydj:
1: Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Then MayBee
2: Thuh Ded Kem Syz Ohmz And
3: Thuh Kush Groop Kemz.

See AhLsoh:


Thuh Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz Ahr ByohKehmikkuL Syz Ohmz

* Wich Iz FohnehTik Eeng-Glish Voeess Sownd Synz


Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz

Inkluuded Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn

Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Tu Reed, Klik Byohmollekkeewulz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz Lists

End Uhv Main List Uhv Kontents Uhv Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz


Lyf EesehnchuL NuuTrishuhn Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr Life EssenTial NuTriTion

nature22379-f1.jpg

Included page "nuukleeik-assidz-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

Included page "nuukleeoh-kyndz-and-pahrts-and-food-sohrss-lists" does not exist (create it now)

See also:
* Nucleotides in Food
* Orotic acid (vitamin B13) - sources, benefits, dosage, deficiency, overdose, toxicity
* Vegetables High in Purines | Healthy Eating | SF Gate
* Top Ten Foods Highest in Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)
* Top Ten Foods High in Phosphorus

* protein-for-vegans-vegetarians
* Eat Up: The Best Food Choices for Omega-3, Omega-6 and Omega-9 Essential Fatty Acids | PerriconeMD
* Top 10 Foods Highest in Omega 6 Fatty Acids

The Basic Needs Of Living Things

Every living organism on earth needs some basic things to survive.

The amount, way, form or kind of these needs vary from organism to organism…

There are five basic needs that all living things have. They are

Sunlight: This is probably the most important need for all living organisms, because it is the source of all energy. It also provides heat for plants and animals

Water: Water is the medium in which living cells and tissue work. Water is also a living environment for many plants and animals.

[Living water iz water in a living cell.]

Air: Air is made up of several gases, but the two most important gases are Oxygen and Carbon dioxide. Without oxygen, animals will die, and without carbon dioxide, plants cannot survive.

Food (nutrients): Living things need energy for function. Energy is needed to grow, reproduce, move, and to work. Think of what will happen if you stayed for three days without food…

A Habitat with the Right Temperature: Too cold or too hot? Every living organism needs the ideal temperature to survive either on land or in water.


Tu Reed, Klik Nurohtranzmitr Nrv Kom Kem Izm


ByohMollekkeewuLz And Ohrgannik Kompowndz LisTs


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Lyf Kem Syz Ohmz.


Included page "tox-kemz" does not exist (create it now)


Kush Groop Kemz

Thuh Info In This Paeej Iz ReeGahrdeeng SaeefTee Involveeng A Few SykuhTrohpik Drugz.

They Wr ReesrchT Ywwzeeng BehHai Vrchuu KahLd IndeependenT Investigaeeshuhn Uhv TruuTh.

Thuh Kush Groop Kemz In Thuh Kush Byb EL Wich Wr ReesrchT UhbowT Did KuhnsisTenTLee Proov ThaT Eech KwahLifyz az a SykuhTrohpik Drug ThaT Duz Funkshuhn Az A SykohakTiv Groop Kem In Thuh Nrvuhss SisTem.

Then Thohz SykuhTrohpik Drugz Wr UhsembuLd In This Wiki For Shehreeng ImpohrTanT Info And MeTHudz ReeGahrdeeng PohTenchuLLee Mohr OpTs Fohr Thuh PossibbuL Eewss Uhv Ehnee Uhv Theez SykoAkTiv Kush Groop Kemz.

IT Wuz Vehree ImpohrTanT Tu ReeSrch, Lrn And Teech Ehnee Spessifik LeeThuL Ohvrdohss UhmownT And LeeThuL Drug Kombinnayshuhnz Tu Avoid Kuz Ehnee Uhv Thohz LeeThuL Daynjrz MyT Kill Thuh Bod Ded.


Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef Uhv Kush Groop Kemz

Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef

1: NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm
2: RekreeeaeeshuhnuL Drug
3: SykohakTiv
4: Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs
5: Kush Jemz
6. Kannuhbinnoeed
7.1: Phenylethylamine
7.2: Amphetamine
7.3: MeTh EesehnchuLz
8: Kush Vaypr
9.0: Opioid Izm
9.1: Heroin NuTriTion And Avoiding OverDose DeTh
10: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs

End Uhv Kush Groop Kemz TaybuL Uhv KonTenTs Breef


Table of Contents

See: Wy PrakTiss UhgehnsT SmahL T

NurohTranzmiTr Nrv Kom Kem Izm

Table of Contents

Immaj Nrv Kom Kyndz STrukTs And Kemz

Nrv_Kom_Kyndz_STrukTs_And_Kemz.jpeg

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Synthesis and Storage of Neurotransmitters

The first steps in synaptic transmission is the synthesis and storage of neurotransmitters.

There are two broad categories of neurotransmitters.

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length,


Smahl Mollehkeeuul Nurrohtranzmitrz

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:
https://web.williams.edu/imput/synapse/pages/I.html

Small-molecule neurotransmitters are synthesized locally within the axon terminal. Some of the precursors necessary for the synthesis of these molecules are taken up by selective transporters on the membrane of the terminal. Others are byproducts of cellular processes that take place within the neuron itself and are thus readily available. The enzymes necessary to catalyze an interaction among these precursors are usually produced in the cell body and transported to the terminal by slow axonal transport.


SmahL_MollehkeeuuL_NurrohTranzmiTrz_Shruhnk.jpg

Neuropeptides

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides are the second category of neurotransmitters.

These messengers differ from small-molecule neurotransmitters in both size and in the way that they are synthesized. Neuropeptides generally range from 3 to 36 amino acids in length, and are thus larger than small-molecule neurotransmitters. Also, neuropeptides must made in the cell body because their synthesis requires peptide bond formation. This process is a great deal more involved than the simple enzymatic reactions involved in making smaller neurotransmitters.

The synthesis of a neuropeptide is very much like the synthesis of any secretory protein made by the cell. First, within the cell nucleus, gene transcription takes place, during which a specific peptide-coding sequence of DNA is used as a template to construct a corresponding strand of messenger RNA. The mRNA then travels to a ribosome, where the process of translation begins. During translation, the sequence of nucleotides that make up the mRNA act as a code to string together a corresponding sequence of amino acids that will eventually become the neuropeptide needed at the terminal. Before this molecule can be transported to the terminal for release into the synaptic cleft, it must be processed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), packaged in the golgi apparatus, and transported in storage vesicles down the axon to the terminal.

Once they are synthesized, neurotransmitters, both small molecules and neuropeptides, are stored in vesicles within the axon terminal until an action potential arrives and they are released. Most small-molecule neurotransmitters are stored in small vesicles that range from 40 to 60 nm in diameter and, in electron micrographs, appear to have clear centers. The vesicles that store neuropeptides are larger, ranging from 90 to 250 nm in diameter. These vesicles appear dark and electron-dense in electron micrographs.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Neuropeptides and their Classification

Mammalian Neuropeptides and Neuropeptide Families

Due to the history of the discovery of neuropeptides and endocrine peptides, their location of synthesis and targets, the classification of these types of peptides is somewhat tricky. This has led to a few classification approaches. Some of them are listed below. The new fields of brain research and neuroscience will surly add more peptides to this list in the coming years.

Classification of bioactive peptides

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

A: Hypothalamic Hormones

The hypothalamus is a region of the brain that contains several types of neurons responsible for secreting different hormones. The hypothalamus is located below the thalamus but just above the brainstem. All vertebrate brains contain a hypothalamus and in humans it is roughly the size of an almond. The hypothalamus is responsible for some metabolic processes and similar activities of the autonomic nervous system and synthesizes and secretes neurohormones or neuropeptides. These types of peptides are often called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones which in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of pituitary hormones. The hypothalamus controls body temperature, hunger, and important aspects of parenting and attachment behaviors, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and the circadian clock. All of the secreted peptides are released into the blood in the capillaries and travel immediately in portal veins to a second capillary bed in the anterior lobe of the pituitary, where they exert their effects. Neuropeptides are released in periodic spurts which is why replacement hormone therapy with these hormones does not work unless the replacements are also given in spurts.

Table 1: Peptide hormones and their physiological effects.


Table 2: Hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

B: The Pituitary Gland And Its Hormones

The pituitary gland is located below the brain in a midline pocket or fossa, a small cavity or depression, of the sphenoid bone. The sphenoid bone is an unpaired cranial bone located at the front in the middle of the skull in front of the temporal bone and basilar part of the occipital bone. The occipital bone is a saucer-shaped membrane bone situated at the back and lower part of the cranium. This depression is also known as the sella turcica. The sella turcica or “Turkish Chair” is a saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone of the human skull and also found in the skulls of other Hominidae, the great ape family of primates, including chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas. The human gland is divided into two lobes in which the anterior lobe constitutes two thirds of the volume of the gland and the posterior lobe one third.

The posterior part of the pituitary gland is a protrusion at the bottom of the hypothalamus at the base of the brain. Neurons in the hypothalamus project directly to the posterior pituitary gland and approximately 100 000 axons form the hypophyseal nerve tract. The posterior pituitary gland is formed from axons and nerve terminals of hypothalamic neurons. Electrical excitation releases hormones stored in the terminals. In addition, nerve terminals are surrounded by modified astrocytes known as pituicytes. Different types of pituitary cells produce hormones that are released into the bloodstream which affect other organs in the body. The pituitary gland secretes different types of peptide hormones and is sometimes called the master gland because it controls the functions of many other systems.

Table 3: Hormones secreted by the pituitary gland

Table 4: Targets and effects of hormones secreted by the pituitary gland


Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

C: Tachykinins

Tachykinin peptides belong to a large neuropeptide family found in a wide range of species ranging from amphibians to mammals. The name of this peptide family originates from their ability to rapidly induce contraction of gut tissue. The tachykinin family is characterized by a common C-terminal sequence, Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2, where X is either an aromatic or an aliphatic amino acid. All tachykinin peptides cause hypotension, contraction of gut and bladder smooth muscle, and secretion of saliva in mammals. The genes that encode precursor proteins called preprotachykinins are differentially spliced to produce different sets of peptides and the precursor proteins are posttranslational processed with the help of proteases to produce smaller peptides. Neurokinins are part of the tachykinin peptide family also includes Neurokinin B, Substance P, Physalaemin, and Eledoisin. Neurokinin A and B were originally isolated from porcine spinal cord. Neurokinins (substance P, neurokinin A, neurokinin B) and the neurokinin receptors - NK1 and NK3 - are largely expressed in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST), where they are involved in the central regulation of visceral function. Neurokinin A is involved in hematopoietic regulation while Neurokinin B is known for its role as the mediator of pain transmission. Neurokinin A is also very similar in structure to Substance P and produces some of the same biological actions as Substance P. Neurokinin A is a potent bronchoconstrictor. In the gut, Neurokinin A is produced by the intrinsic enteric nervous system.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

[ Tachykinins ] Definition

Tachykinins are multifunctional brain/gut peptides. In mammals and insects, various isoforms play an important neuromodulatory role in the central nervous system. They are involved in the processing of sensory information and in the control of motor activities. In addition, the peptides elicit stimulatory responses on a variety of visceral muscles.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Related Peptides

Among the numerous families of neuropeptides, which are evolutionarily the oldest neuro- transmitters, even older than acetylcholine and catecholamines, four tachykinin-like peptides seem to occupy a very important position: invertebrate tachykinin-like pnneptides, prevertebrate tachykinin-like peptides, submammalian vertebrate tachykinins, mammalian tachykinins…

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

[ Tachykinins ] Structural Characteristics

Amphibian Skin Tachykinins:

  • The great majority of amphibian skin peptides have the classical C-terminal pentapeptide sequence: Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. However, important exceptions are represented by: 1) some tachykinins from the skin of the Australian frog Agalychnis callidryas, namely AC-AR1, AC-AR2, and AC-AR3 with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Gly-Met-NH2 and AC-AR4 with sequence Phe-Tyr-Pro-Val-Met-NH2; and 2) hylambatin from the skin of the South-African frog Hylambates maculatus with the C-terminal pentapeptide sequence Phe-Tyr-Gly-Met-Met-NH2. It is evident that in the C-terminal pentapeptide only the Phe residue at position 5 from the C terminus and Met-NH2 are immutable

Brain and Gut Tachykinins:

  • All of these tachykinins, with the exception of ranatachynin D, show the classical C-terminal pentapeptide Phe-X-Gly-Leu-Met-NH2. Of considerable interest is the fact that in goldfish, cod, and trout NKA-like peptides, the usual acidic Asp residue at position 7 from the C terminus, crucial for receptor NK2/NK3 selectivity, is replaced by the neutral Asn residue. NKA is present in as many as six submammalian species also by its elongated form, the ?-neuropeptides.

Mammalian Tachykinins:

  • They are derived from two preprotachykinin genes: the PPT-A gene, which encodes the sequences of SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K and neuropeptide-?, and the PPT-B gene, which encodes the sequence of NKB. The precursor RNA from PPT-A is alternatively processed to yield three different mRNAs. The three precursor proteins from which the mRNA codes are designated a-, ß-, and ?-PPT; a-PPT, which generates SP; ß-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide K; and ?-PPT, which generates SP, NKA, and neuropeptide-?. The biological significance of the alternative splicing of PPT-A is unknown. The relative proportion of a-, ß-, and ?-PPT mRNAs is markedly species dependent. Tachykinins are liberated from their precursors by the action of specific processing proteases. Typical cleavage points are Lys-Arg, Arg-Arg, and Arg-Lys doublets and the cleavage is carried out by six groups of proteolytic enzymes called convertases. COOH-terminal amidation after cleavage is generated from the precursor sequence, Gly-Leu-Met-Gly-Lys-Arg, in which Gly acts as the amide donor
  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

*** [ Tachykinins ] Mode of Action
Structurally tachykinin-related peptides have been isolated from various invertebrate species and shown to exhibit their biological activities through a G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for a tachykinin-related peptide. A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor, the urechistachykinin receptor (UTKR) from the echiuroid worm, Urechis unitinctus. The deduced UTKR precursor includes seven transmembrane domains and typical sites for mammalian tachykinin receptors and invertebrate tachykinin-related peptide receptors. A functional analysis of the UTKR expressed in Xenopus oocytes demonstrated that UTKR, like tachykinin receptors and tachykinin-related peptide receptors, activates calcium-dependent signal transduction upon binding to its endogenous ligands, urechistachykinins (Uru-TKs) I2013V and VII, which were isolated as Urechis tachykinin-related peptides from the nervous tissue of the Urechis unitinctus in our previous study. UTKR responded to all Uru-TKs equivalently, showing that UTKR possesses no selective affinity with Uru-TKs. In contrast, UTKR was not activated by substance P or an Uru-TK analog containing a C-terminal Met-NH2 instead of Arg-NH2.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Kawada T, Furukawa Y, Shimizu Y, Minakata H, Nomoto K, Satake H (2002). A novel tachykinin-related peptide receptor. European Journal of Biochemistry, 269(17):4238-4246.

[ Tachykinins ] Functions

It is beyond doubt that neuronal tachykinins play an important role in neurotransmission/neuro- modulation both in the CNS and in periphery. This is demonstrated by the overall occurrence of tachykinins in the brain and other nervous structures from the lowest invertebrates to mammals. Although important, the tachykinin peptide family represents only one of the numerous peptide and nonpeptide families involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation. Members of these families are expressed in a variety of tissues, and very frequently a tachykinin is costored and cosecreted by the nerve endings with other peptides or biogenic amines. Moreover, the tachykinins, like all other neuropeptides, may enter in competition, positive or negative, with a number of active extraneuronal compounds originating in blood (bradykinin and angiotensin) or in compact or diffuse endocrine organs. Tachykinins, with their variable primary structure seem to be adapted to display, in the better way, their function in the different invertebrate and vertebrate phyla. In all examined species, and especially in mammals (the phylum more thoroughly studied), tachykinins elicit a spectrum of biological activity (both in the CNS and in the periphery), which may vary conspicuously in the different species and even in the various strains of single species, again strongly supporting the concept of a general, important functional significance of these peptides.

  • Thuh Uhbuhv Tekst Wuhz Fruhm: Severini C, Improta G, Falconieri-Erspamer G, Salvadori S, Erspamer V (2002). The Tachykinin Peptide Family. Pharmacological Reviews. 54(2):285-322.

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 5: Tachykinin Releted Peptides


Thuh NexT Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 6: Neuropeptide Tyrosine NPY And Related Peptides


Thuh Nekst Info Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 7: VIP-Glucagon Family


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 8: Other Peptides


Novel Neuropeptides

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 9: ‘Novel’ Neuropeptides

Recent improvements in technologies used in genomics and proteomics allowing the discovery and study of neuropeptides has led to a multitude of newly discovered functional peptides present in the neurosystem of different species, including humans. In particularly, the use of nanoscale chromatography combined with mass spectrometry has allowed structural determination of neuropeptides in various species at lower levels than what was possible before. Since peptides synthesized in the nervous system serve as messengers and modulators of numerous biological processes it is important to understand how these peptides are produced and how they act. Since inaccurate neuropeptide synthesis or signal transduction can result in the dysfunction or death of an organism the knowledge of the structure of naturally occurring neuropeptides is required to decipher how neuropeptide precursors are processed and how they function. Below is a list of novel neuropeptides].


Table of Contents

Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

Table 10: Gene Families Of Classical Neuropeptides


Gene Fam NeuroPeptide Top Row


Opioid Gene Family


Vasopressin And Oxytocin Gene Family


CCK Gastrin Gene Family


Somastostatin Gene Family

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Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Paeej Naeemd Neuropeptides.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Fruhm:

synaptic vesicle noun

Medical Definition of synaptic vesicle


https://www.khanacademy.org/science/biology/human-biology/neuron-nervous-system/a/neurotransmitters-their-receptors


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-neurotransmitters/


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Evree Wrd Uh Leengk And Wuhz Fruhm:

Major neurotransmitters:

Amino acids: glutamate,[6] aspartate, D-serine, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine
Gasotransmitters: nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen sulfide (H2S)
Monoamines: dopamine (DA), norepinephrine (noradrenaline; NE, NA), epinephrine (adrenaline), histamine, serotonin (SER, 5-HT)
Trace amines: phenethylamine, N-methylphenethylamine, tyramine, 3-iodothyronamine, octopamine, tryptamine, etc.
Peptides: oxytocin, somatostatin, substance P, cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript, opioid peptides[11]
Purines: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), adenosine
Others: acetylcholine (ACh), anandamide, etc.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neurotransmitter#List_of_neurotransmitters,_peptides,_and_gaseous_signaling_molecules


https://www.studyread.com/types-of-receptors/


Psychotropic Psychoactive Sykehdehlik Recreational Drugs


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Sykuhtrohpik Izm


Psychotropic Wrd Deskripshuhnz

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

Psychotropic (adj.)

1956, from psycho- + Greek -tropos "turning," from trepein "to turn" (from PIE root *trep- "to turn"). Hence, what "turns" the mind.


Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Fruhm:

psy·cho·trop·ic (sī'kō-trop'ik, -trō'pik),
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior;
denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

psychotropic /psy·cho·tro·pic/ (si″ko-tro´pik)
capable of modifying mental activity; exerting an effect on the mind; said especially of drugs.
Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. © 2007 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

psy·cho·tro·pic (sī'kō-trō'pik)
Capable of affecting the mind, emotions, and behavior; denoting drugs used in the treatment of mental illnesses.
[psycho- + G. tropē, a turning]
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

psychotropic
drug/agent used to treat mental illness
Illustrated Dictionary of Podiatry and Foot Science by Jean Mooney © 2009 Elsevier Limited. All rights reserved.

psychotropic (sīˈ·kō·trōˑ·pik),
adj
concerns drugs that affect the mind and influence behavior._
Jonas: Mosby's Dictionary of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. (c) 2005, Elsevier.

psychotropic
capable of modifying mental activity.
[ Az In: ] psychotropic drugs
the important groups in veterinary medicine are the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, butyrophenone and benzodiazepine derivatives.
Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. © 2007 Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved


SykuhTrohpik Drug Izm Iz FohnehTik EengLish Fohr PsychoTropic Drug Ism


Thuh NexT TekST Wuhz Fruhm: https://www.verywellmind.com/psychotropic-drugs-425321

A Guide to Psychotropic Drugs

Medications That Affect Your Central Nervous System

By Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault

Psychotropic drugs are medications that affect your central nervous system, changing how your brain processes information, such as altering your mood, thoughts, perceptions, emotions, and behaviors. Most psychotropic drugs are prescribed by your therapist or health care provider to treat a diagnosed mental illness, such as bipolar disorder or borderline personality disorder. Other psychotropics, such as marijuana or cocaine, are taken illegally for recreational purposes.

The different types of psychotropic drugs include antipsychotics, anti-depressants, anti-obsessive agents, antianxiety agents, mood stabilizers, stimulants, and anti-panic agents. They work in different ways to address symptoms and causes of various disorders.


Thuh NexT TexT Wuhz Frum: https://www.verywellhealth.com/kristalyn-salters-pedneault-phd-425092

Kristalyn Salters-Pedneault, PhD.

  • Associate professor of psychology at Eastern Connecticut State University
  • Former research associate of the National Center for PTSD Behavioral Science Division

Included page "cacao-cocoa-powdr-fohr-prohteen-and-3-sychuhtrohpik-drugz" does not exist (create it now)


Wrd nohrm Speld "PsychoAcTive" Iz Sownded Owt Az p->s->ah->ee->ch->oh->a->k->T->ah->ee->v->eh

Thoh Iz Nohrm Spohk Az S->ah->ee->k->oh->a->k->T->ĭ->v.

That Myt Get Maeed Shohrt Az Sykoaktiv.

Sykoaktiv

Thuh Nekst Tekst Wuhz Impruuvd Thoh Sohrst Frum:

A psychotropic substance [ That Haz Beekuhm Uh ] psychoactive drug…is a chemical substance that acts primarily upon the central nervous system where it alters brain function, resulting in temporary changes in perception, mood, consciousness and behavior.

These drugs may be used recreationally to purposefully alter one's consciousness ( such as coffee, alcohol or cannabis ), as entheogens for spiritual purposes…and also as medication (such as the use of narcotics in controlling pain, stimulants to treat narcolepsy and attention disorders, as well as anti-depressants and anti-psychotics for treating neurological and psychiatric illnesses).

Many of these substances (especially the stimulants and depressants) can be habit-forming…

Conversely, others (namely the psychedelics) can, in certain circumstances, help to treat and even cure [ So-Kahld ] addictions.


"Rekreeaeeshuhnul Druhgz" Trm Nohrm Speld "Recreational Drugs"

Table of Contents

Recreational Drugs Fraeez Deskripshuhns

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Recreational Drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons.

Authored by Dr Roger Henderson,

  • Reviewed by Dr Laurence Knott
  • Last edited 15 Feb 2017
  • Certified by The Information Standard

Recreational drugs are chemical substances taken for enjoyment, or leisure purposes, rather than for medical reasons. Alcohol, tobacco and caffeine can be classed as recreational drugs but are not covered in this leaflet. Recreational drugs are usually started to provide pleasure, or improve life in some way…

What are recreational drugs and why are they used?

Recreational drugs are chemical substances which are used for pleasure. There are many reasons people try recreational drugs. These include:

Their friends are doing it, and they don't want to feel left out, or not cool.
They get pressurised into trying it.
They are interested in experimenting with the effects, and seeing what happens when they take drugs.
They may feel drugs give them new experiences or perspectives.
They make them feel more relaxed, or more confident when relating to others.
They may feel drugs help them forget their worries or problems.
They may feel drugs make them feel happier.
They want to be rebellious.
They enjoy the effects.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Top 10 Most Popular Recreational Drugs

Listverse Staff: August 12, 2009

Recreational drug use is incredibly common around the world and it very often leads to disaster and crime. To resolve this, some people advocate a liberal approach to legalization, while others support a strong government police drive “war” on the sale and use of drugs. This list looks at ten of the most popular recreational drugs in use today.

1: Cannabis

The most popular of all recreational drugs, Cannabis, or Marijuana, Grass, Hemp, Weed, Pot, Hash, Dope or a variety of regional names has been cultivated for thousands of years. Derived in various forms from the Cannabis plants Cannabis Indica or Cannabis Sativa, it is native to central Asia but its cultivation and use is global. It is a Psychoactive and a Psychedelic. It can be smoked as leaves or flower buds, it can be ground down to isolate the crystallized sap and then pressed into a solid, or the resin extracted by collection via contact with the sticky plant parts.

The effects are fairly immediate, a slightly drunken but euphoric sensation, it can be mild or strong according to the method of delivery and the strength and quantity of the dose. It is not generally debilitating unless as with anything else it is taken to excess, and it can cause some mental confusion that is mostly temporary.

2: Heroin

Perhaps the most insidious of all drugs, Heroin, or Diamorphine is a derivative of Morphine, an opiate, first used as an alternative to Morphine as it was thought to be less addictive. The name Heroin, is a Trade name for Diamorphine and was used by the Bayer pharmaceutical company in the mid 1800’s. It is an extremely powerful painkiller and users experience exhilaration, euphoria and a sense of well being. It can be smoked, sniffed or injected.

The withdrawal effects of Heroin are pretty dreadful, and it is virtually impossible to impart to a non-user how bad it really is. The symptoms of withdrawal are physical pain, nausea, stomach cramps and diarrhea, shaking twitching and a very strong craving for the soothing effects of the drug. Very few people can cope with withdrawal and this drives people to commit crimes to fund their next drug purchase.

3: Cocaine

Cocaine, derived from the Coca plant, has been used in one form or another for over a thousand years. Originating from South America, it has been chewed as a leaf by the Peruvian Indians for centuries. It is a powerful stimulant, appetite suppressant and anesthetic. In the Victorian era, many freely available medicines contained Cocaine for use with babies and children particularly when they were teething.

For the first twenty years of its production Coca Cola contained Cocaine but the laws controlling it in the early 1900’s prohibited its inclusion. It has generally through its social usage been a rich mans drug, although the use of Crack Cocaine, a modified version of the original powdered form is prepared as a “Rock” or “Stone” and smoked in pipes, has brought its usage down to street level.

4: Ecstasy

Closely linked to the use of Amphetamines (from which it is derived), Ecstasy, or MDMA, was originally used as a Psycho therapeutic drug. It is a Psychedelic drug that produces euphoria and a feeling of well being, decreased levels of fear and anxiety and a physical stimulant and sensational effect in users. It is illegal in most countries and is one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world.

It is taken orally or sniffed as a powder. Users can have bad reactions to the drug and in the early years of its use as a recreational drug there were many instances of first time users dying without having administered an overdose. When users are exerting themselves heavily, there is a real risk of dehydration and death or illness resulting from it. Many of the “back street” MDMA factories use unclean processes and poor pharmacological techniques, and are a great danger to the people that make the drug as well as to the users.

5: Amphetamines [ Lyk Amphetamine And Meth ]

Amphetamines are a group of stimulant drugs that work by affecting the amount of dopamine and serotonin in the brain. They generally create a feeling of euphoria, mental focus and resilience against physical fatigue. They have been used medically as an appetite suppressant, to treat ADHD in adults and children, and by the military in the Second World War. The most common street name for Amphetamines is “speed” because of the increased energy that users display. This made it extremely popular amongst young people in the 1970s at discos and then again in the 90s in the subsequent rave music culture.

It was originally widely available in America as Benzedrine, an inhalant medicine available without prescription, until its use was controlled by the FDA in 1965. Previous to this, the German military during WW2 used it recreationally and strategically, Adolph Hitler was daily injected with a compound of Amphetamines and vitamins.

6: Barbiturates / Benzodiazepines

This is the first item on our list that is a prescription medicine. There is a vast range of medicines that fall in to the category of “downers” This being the street name which has passed into general usage. Barbiturates have been around since the 19th century, derived from Barbituric acid, there have been hundreds of derivatives over the years. In psychiatry and psychiatric hospitals it was frequently used to sedate violent or disturbed patients. They are a Hypnotic, and Anxiolytic, which is often used to make a patient unconscious before the true anesthesia is administered. They engender, in the abuser, feelings of calm and relaxation, physically and mentally, which creates a high level of dependency.

Barbiturates have largely been replaced by Benzodiazepines. A newer range of sedatives that was first introduced in the 1950’s as Librium. Valium soon followed with Mogadon Ativan, Frisium, and Temazepam. Safer than Barbiturates, Benzo’s soon gained popularity and the sedative culture as it was known was born. The withdrawal from Benzo dependency is extremely disturbing for the patient and recognizably bad for the doctor to witness. It has been said that it is worse than withdrawal from Opiates.

7: LSD

LSD (Lysergic Acid Diethylamide) is possibly the most powerful hallucinogenic drug known. It was discovered in 1938 by Albert Hoffman a Swiss chemist, whose actual purpose was to find a cure for the common cold. It has had a checkered history to say the least. Iconic public figures have, in the past, advocated its use: Hunter S Thompson, The Beatles, and Timothy Leary being notable advocates.

After 1-2 hours of ingesting the drug, visual awareness is heightened, sounds become enhanced, emotions and physical sensations are altered. The user’s sense of self and its interaction with people or objects, their concept of reality is generally brought to question. Strange visual stimuli, that may or may not be comforting or frightening overwhelm the user, there is a real risk of irrational fear taking over, paranoia, confusion or panic. Equally, some people have apparently wonderful experiences with none of these symptoms.

8: Opium

Opium

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

Opium

An age old drug, Opium has influenced the economy of nations, caused wars, inspired poets and brought the ruin of many. Derived from the collected sap of the Opium Poppy (Papaver Somniferum), it has been cultivated since Neolithic times. Used as a food source, the seeds have no narcotic effect but are used as spice, they have a mild nutty flavor. In contrast, the sap, collected from immature seed pods, has extremely powerful narcotic qualities. The plants are native to Greece and China, and were grown in Egyptian, Roman and Minoan civilizations. The sap is a highly addictive painkiller which can be smoked or eaten, and when dissolved in alcohol (commonly known as laudanum) it can be drunk.

Laudanum’s biggest clam to fame was its use by the romantic poets. Many of the Pre-Raphaelites (Among them Lord Byron, Shelly and others) were know to indulge. The image of the romantic poet, pale, morose, drunk on absinthe and laudanum is a common one. It was, in the Victorian era, freely available and somewhat cheaper than gin and became a working class tipple. It was liberally prescribed to children that were teething. Opium dens were popular in most 19th century cities. Patrons would lie on their side with long wooden pipes, the bowl upturned over a smoking ball of opium.

9: Psychedelic Mushrooms

For millennia, Psychedelic or hallucinogenic mushrooms have figured in society, culture and religion. There are more than 180 species of mushrooms which contain the psychedelics Psilocybin or Psilocin. They have a long history of use in Mexico and tribal societies and are currently one of the most popular and commonly available natural psychedelics. Psilocybin and Psilocin are the psychoactive ingredients responsible for the hallucinatory state or “trip” the user experiences some twenty minutes after consuming the mushrooms. The effect of which is similar to that of LSD but shorter lived and will be outlined in the LSD section.

Some of these “Magic Mushrooms”, are actually more poisonous than they are hallucinogenic, great care must be taken to pick the correct types. In fact it is a rule of thumb with users that you should never pick them without being accompanied by someone who has picked them before. In the United Kingdom, taking or possessing ‘shrooms, is legal, but preparing them including drying them or selling them is an offense under the misuse of drugs act. The Netherlands, in recent years, has made the possession of Magic Mushrooms totally illegal, which may surprise people who are aware of its relaxed laws on Cannabis. Magic Mushrooms can be dried, eaten fresh, cooked or boiled into a “tea”.


SykehdehLik Izm


Table of Contents

Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz


Thuh Wrd Speld "Psychedelic" Iz Sownded Owt az p->s->ah->ee->k->ee->d->ee->l->i->k.

Baeest Fruhm Heereeng That Wrd Spohk AT https://www.howtopronounce.com/psychedelic/,

Thohz Sowndz Myt Get Rehpreezehnted In Fohnehtik Eeng-Glish Speech Sownd Synz Az:

  • S->ŏ->ē->k->ĕ->d->ĕ->L->ĭ->k

Then Mayd Shohrt Az Sykehdehlik.


Ĕtĭmŏlŭjē Ŭv Wrd Prōnăwnst Ăz Sykehdehlik

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

psychedelic (adj.)

In popular use from 1965 with reference to anything producing effects similar to that of a psychedelic drug or enhancing the effects of such a drug.

occasionally psychodelic,

As a noun from 1956. [ Mŏdrn Egzampul: Tōkt Sŭm psychedelic ]

1956, of drugs, suggested by British-born Canadian psychiatrist Humphry Osmond in a letter to Aldous Huxley

[ Then ] used by Osmond in a scientific paper published the next year;

from Greek psykhē "mind" (see psyche) + dēloun "make visible, reveal," from dēlos "visible, clear,"

from PIE [ Pan Indo-European ] root *dyeu- "to shine."


Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd psychedelic Fruhm merriam-webster.com

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

First Known Use of psychedelic

Noun 1956, in the meaning [ Dĕskrybd Bēlōw ]

Adjective 1957, in the meaning defined at sense 1a
[ Dĕskrĭpshŭnz Ŭv Wrd] psychedelic…

( Entry 1 of 2 )…

psychedelic noun…

Definition of psychedelic (Entry 2 of 2)…

psychedelic adjective…

1a : of, relating to, or being drugs (such as LSD) capable of producing abnormal psychic effects
b : produced by or associated with the use of psychedelic drugs a psychedelic experience
2 : imitating, suggestive of, or reproducing effects (such as distorted or bizarre images or sounds) resembling those produced by psychedelic drugs psychedelic color schemes
3 : of, relating to, characteristic of, or being the period of the mid- to late-1960's that is associated with the psychedelic drug culture


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelic drug [ Frŭm sciencedaily.com ]

Psychedelic drugs are psychoactive drugs whose primary action is to alter the thought processes of the brain.

Many psychedelic drugs are thought to disable filters which block or suppress signals related to everyday functions from reaching the conscious mind.

These signals are presumed to originate in several other functions of the brain, including but not limited to the senses, emotions, memories and the unconscious (or subconscious) mind.

This effect is sometimes referred to as mind expanding, or consciousness expanding as your conscious mind becomes aware of (or sometimes assaulted by) things normally inaccessible to it.

At high levels this can overwhelm the sense of self and can result in a dissociative state.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlik Wrd Dehskripshuhnz.


Sykehdehlikss Nōrm Speld Psychedelics

Table of Contents

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

http://PSYCHEDELICS.COM = Home ›

Psychedelics [ Wrd Deskripshŭn Fruhm psychedelics.com ]

What exactly are psychedelics? Find out how to [ Desdryb ] them here.

Psychedelic drugs are those which cause an altered cognitive state or perception… Definitions vary for this type of drug but generally the psychedelics definition is as follows:

a substance that which the primary action that occurs when used is altered cognition and perception.

How Psychedelics Originated

The term psychedelics is originally from the Greek word for soul-manifesting. It was actually a breakdown of two distinct Greek terms, the term for “soul” and the term for “to manifest.” As psychedelics continued to be used, the spelling of the word was coined and changed by an American psychologist some number of years later. In 1957, the term psychedelics was re-coined by a scientist by the name of Aldous Huxley who suggested that the previous term was incorrect and that the new terminology should be phanerothymic which was Green for visible and spiritual.

Psychedelics [ Deskripshunz from encyclopedias and dictionaries]

The following [ Deskripshunz ] have been derived from various encyclopedias and dictionaries. Each of these psychedelic definitions is commonly used in science, medical fields and other areas that discuss psychedelics.

“of, characterized by, or generating…distortions of perception, altered states of awareness, and occasionally states resembling psychosis.”

“one of many psychedelic drugs such as LSD, mescaline or PCP which produces such effects.”

“profound sense of intensified sensory perception”

What are Psychedelics?

Psychedelic drugs are typically those which are unrelated to other substances such as deliriant or dissociatives. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse, …psychedelics typically completely alter the mind in a way that manipulates ordinary consciousness.

People who abuse psychedelics are typically aiming for a completely altered, trance like state of mind that features a complete unfamiliarity from conscious thought or behavior. These drugs are often used for “mind exploration” or to promote “dreaming.”

Types of Psychedelics

There are a number of different types of psychedelic drugs. The most common of them tend to fall into one of three distinct compound families:

Trytamines
Phenethylamines
Lysergamides

Each type of psychedelic drug causes a distinctly different state of mind or alteration for the user. Some produce mild to moderate effects while others can have a serious impact and lasting impression on the user. Most of the time, psychedelics are not heavily addictive but this does not mean that they aren’t…dangerous. The unpredictable nature of these drugs makes them highly volatile and [ possibly ] dangerous to the user.


Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Psychedelics Ahr Psychedelic Chemicals

Psychedelic chemicals are a class of psychoactive chemicals which have a pronounced ability to change the way subjects think and perceive themselves and their surroundings. Most act to agonise or stimulate the serotonin receptors in human (and animal) neurons, but there are a few other mechanisms as well..r.

Psychedelics are not, however, stimulants products or opioids. Those produce ‘normal’ states of consciousness (alertness, sleep, euphoria, etc.) at unusual times. Psychedelicsproduce very different types of consciousness altogether, which is what makes them so interesting to researchers and hobbyists alike. These altered states of consciousness are often compared to those attainable by practices like yoga or meditation, waking dreams, near death experiences or certain types of religious ecstasy, but occur not due to circumstance to discipline, rather due to the presence in the system of a drug or other chemical that originated outside the body.

The vast majority of psychedelic chemicals fall into three categories:

  • the lysergamides,
  • the phenethylamines and
  • the tryptamines.

Phenethylamine Psychedelics

The phenethylamines are one of the more interesting groups of psychedelic chemicals. There are several different types, some of which also belong to the stimulant, empathogen, hypnotic and/or enactogen categories, as well as a few non-psychoactive varieties used as decongestants and bronchodilators.

Within the psychedelic phenethylamines are sub-groups like the substituted methylenedioxyphenethylamines, the substituted amphetamines and the substituted phenethylamines.

Most phenethylamine psychedelics share a similar structure to phenethylamine and/or amphetamine and seem to target the same biomolecular sites. Most cause the release of both dopamine and norepinephrine. The phenethylamines also often cause the release of acetylcholine by triggering a glutamate-mediated mechanism.


Lysergamide Psychedelics

Lysergic acid (LSD) is the precursor of a great many ergoline alkaloids. They were originally discovered in the ergot fungus (hence the name) and within a few plant species including morning glories and Hawaiian Baby Woodrose. The lysergamides are the amides of lysergic acid, and make up a great many useful pharmaceuticals and potent recreational drugs.

Lysergic acid itself is known as a ‘chiral compound’, as it consists of a pair of stereocenters. Isolygersic acid is one isomer, which features an inversion at the carbon 8 point near the carboxy group. Other isomers include the carbon 5 inversion (near the nitrogen) which is called L-lysergic acid.

The various amides of lysergic acid are almost too numerous to count, and new ones are being discovered and isolated all the time.


Tryptamine Psychedelics

Tryptamine itself is a monoamine alkaloid common to human and animal neural systems. Structurally, it features an indole ring and is very similar to an amino acid called tryptophan (that many of us know from turkey dinners), but has much more interesting effects. It is understood to act as a neurotransmitter and a neuromodulator in most animals.

Tryptamine is the basic building block of a large group of chemicals called substituted tryptamines, which includes many naturally occurring neurotransmitters, research chemicals and psychedelic compounds.


Marijuana Az Psychedelic

Bohth Uhv SykehdehLikss And Uhv Marijuana

Thŭ Nĕkst Tĕkst Wŭz Frŭm:

Is Marijuana a Psychedelic?

The answer is not as simple as you may think!

The simple answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes and no. If asked some people will say that marijuana is a psychedelic because it alters consciousness and sometimes creates hallucinations. Some people will say that it is not a psychedelic because it is classified differently and is not a hallucinogen. In order to understand why marijuana is a psychedelic, it is important to understand the properties of a psychedelic and the properties of marijuana including the effects of both…

Properties of a Psychedelic

Psychedelics are an informal class within the broader umbrella class of hallucinogens. A psychedelic is defined as a substance that heightens cognition, raises consciousness, heightens awareness, and causes hallucinations. It is an informal subclass of substances in the class of hallucinogens and mainly affects serotonin…

Types of psychedelics

There are several types of psychedelics. Each of the types has slightly different properties. These types are:

Classic psychedelics – mescaline, DMT, and mushrooms,
Empathogen-enactogens – MDMA, MDA, and MDEA,
Dissociatives – Ketamine
Cannabinoids – THC this technically is in two classes, cannabis and psychedelics,
Others – Salvia divinorum

It is important to note that the term psychedelic is an informal classification. All of these fall under the definition of hallucinogens except for cannabiniods, they are not thought of as hallucinogens.

Effects of a psychedelic

The effects of psychedelics differ widely depending on the type of psychedelic. Even though it is a loose classification, there are some commonalities. These are:

altered states of consciousness,
distortion of time,
euphoria of some type,
changes in cognitions, and
changes in mental state.

Effects of marijuana on the brain

Both strains of marijuana have similar effects on the brain. According to the Drug Enforcement Administration, it over stimulates several sections of the brain that have a large amount of receptors. The THC binds to these receptors causing:

heightened or altered senses such as brighter lights and colors,
changes in emotional state or mood,
altered states of mind and cognition,
difficulty solving problems almost to the point of confusion,
heightened or altered sense of time passing, and
heavier body movements.

Many people argue over the individual effects of each strain. These are the basic effects that any strain of marijuana has to a greater or lesser degree.

Comparing marijuana and psychedelics

Under the definitions strict of marijuana and psychedelics, they are two different substances not chemically related. Their actions in the body are different as are their effects on the body. According to the National Institute on Drug Abuse and the Drug Enforcement Administration, they are two different classes of drug. It is possible to argue that because of this difference in classification it is not a psychedelic. If you take the effects of each into consideration the essential ingredient in cannabis, acts like a psychedelic. Psychedelics cause what is termed expansion of consciousness, heightened cognition or thinking, and hallucinations. Cannabinoids do the same thing in different ways. Cannabinoids are unique to marijuana. Essentially the practical answer to is marijuana a psychedelic is yes, but not in the same way that LSD, MDMA, and others in that class. It contains many of the characteristics, properties, and effects that fall under the definitions of both. This is probably why marijuana is in a class on its own.


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CBD & the Psychedelic Receptor

CBD and LSD bind to the same serotonin receptor, which mediates psychedelic altered states. But cannabidiol has anti-psychotic properties and doesn't cause hallucinations.

Mechanisms of How THC/CBD Can Interact With Serotonin

You may read that THC is capable of inhibiting both serotonin-metabolizing MAO activity (2010 study) and serotonin reuptake activity (2007 study). However, it does both of these so weakly that it is not likely to be clinically relevant. Here are 3 ways that THC and CBD can interact with the serotonin system that are likely to be important:

CB1 activation enhances serotonergic neuron firing

CB1 receptors are expressed directly in some serotonergic neurons, but also in GABAergic and glutamatergic neurons that regulate the activation of serotonergic neurons. Both endocannabinoids and THC were shown to increase serotonergic neuron firing in animals.

However, studies of serotonin levels in different brain regions after treatment with cannabinoids have produced conflicting results. This may be due to biphasic effects, where cannabinoids can increase serotonin under some conditions, but decrease them under others. But overall, it appears that CB1 activation tends to increase serotonin release.

CB1 can interact with the 5-HT2A receptor

The CB1 receptor is capable of directly binding to other receptors to form what is called a heterodimer or heteromer. This is one way that the ECS can interact with other neurotransmitter systems.

A 2015 study demonstrated that CB1 receptor can form a heteromer with the 5-HT2A receptor. This heteromer exists in brain areas such as the hippocampus, dorsal striatum and cortex and mediates some of the memory-impairing and anti-anxiety effects of THC.

CBD can directly activate the 5-HT1A receptor

CBD is an agonist of the 5-HT1A receptor, which underlies some of its anxiolytic, antidepressant, neuroprotective, antiemetic, and antinociceptive properties.

Effects of THC & CBD That Depend Serotonin Receptors

Here are the top 6 cannabinoid effects that are mediated through serotonin receptors. Remember that these studies were performed in animals and that in many cases these effects have not yet been confirmed to be clinically meaningful in humans.

1. Reduce Pain

Although CB1 receptor agonists (such as THC) can reduce pain through several different mechanisms, one may involve serotonin. A 2010 study showed that CB1 agonists reduced acute pain through activation of descending spinal serotonin pathways and subsequent activation of 5-HT2A and 5-HT7 receptors in the spinal cord.

There are also serotonergic mechanisms for reducing neuropathic pain with CBD. For example, a 2019 study showed that inducing neuropathic pain in mice reduced serotonergic firing of the spinal pathway. CBD reversed these changes and improved neuropathic pain partially through the 5-HT1A receptor.

2. Depression

Both THC and FAAH inhibitors, which raise levels of anandamide, can improve animal models of +++ depression. The antidepressant effects of these molecules went away when animals were depleted of serotonin (2016 study, 2018 study), indicating that they are working at least partially through increasing serotonin release.

In addition, the antidepressant effect of CBD in animal models depended on activation of the 5-HT1A receptor (2016 study). Read more about the effects of cannabinoids in depression.

3. Anxiety

Low dose THC and FAAH inhibitors can have anti-anxiety effects. A 2007 study showed that anti-anxiety effects of THC depended on the 5-HT1A receptor, although a 2015 study demonstrated a dependence on the 5-HT2A receptor.

CBD also has an anti-anxiety effect that is mediated by activating the 5-HT1A receptor in some experimental models. However CBD treatment of chronically stressed mice had an anti-anxiety effect mediated through cannabinoid instead of serotonin receptors (2018 study).

4. Memory Impairment

As mentioned earlier, memory impairments caused by THC depended on formation of a heteromer between the CB1 receptor and the 5-HT2A receptor. A 2018 study confirmed that this heteromer exists in humans and its levels, which were increased in cannabis users, inversely correlated with working memory.

CBD is reported to reverse some memory impairments of THC, and it may do this through activation of 5-HT1A receptors (2019 study).

5. Nausea

Anti-nausea effects of CBD in animal models were mediated by agonism of 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2012 study).

6. Body Temperature

Hypothermia, or lowered body temperature, is an effect of THC that many people may not even know about. This effect also involves 5-HT1A receptors in the brainstem (2001 study).


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How Cannabinoids Connects With Serotonin

Serotonin receptors

50 years back, when researchers suggested that the main cause of clinical depression is “serotonin deficiency”. Although in present research studies, it turns out that the pathogenesis of depression is much more complicated than previously thought.

It is true that serotonin ( 5-HT from the proper chemical name 5-hydroxytryptamine) is a versatile compound that regulates many physiological functions in the body. In addition to being a neurotransmitter of the central nervous system responsible for mood, appetite, sleep, memory or learning. Practically 90% of serotonin is found in the cells of the digestive system, which helps to control the appropriate regulation of bowel motility.

5-HT affects the body by binding to serotonin receptors classified as 7 subgroups (5-HT1, 5-HT2 …).

Maurice rapport

The new scientific discoveries regarding serotonin have now commenced after the biochemist Maurice Rapport in the late 1940s isolated this compound and established its molecular structure. We had to wait several decades to discover that the receptors for serotonin – 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 (named 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A) were identified in the rat brain, and more recent studies have confirmed this.

CBD Receptors

Apart from serotonin, they can bind other molecules to serotonin receptors. In 2005, researchers determined that cannabidiol (CBD) receptors (CB1 and CB2) can bind to serotonin receptors. He points to a broader relationship between endocannabinoid and serotoninergic systems. After all, they are involved in similar physiological functions in the human body i.e. reducing anxiety, pain, relieving nausea and maintaining a proper body temperature.
Dimer

From a pharmacological point of view, cannabinoid and serotonin receptors belong to the so-called G-protein-coupled receptors. As we have seen, this type of receptors can combine to form dimer-like complexes (a dimer is a structure made up of two receptors that merge together into one functional unit.)

A new discovery

A breakthrough discovery was made by Spanish scientists studying cerebral ischemia in newborn piglets. They showed that the neuroprotective effect was mediated by the serotonin receptor 5-HT1A connected to the CB2 cannabinoid receptor in the dimeric complex.

There are descriptions in the scientific literature that show that CBD is a weak 5-HT1A receptor agonist. Recall – an agonist is a compound that binds to the receptor and on this basis triggers its action on the body. On the contrary, acts against it as an antagonist that blocks the receptor.

[ CBDA acts as a stronger agonist of 5HT2A receptors than CBD ]

It has been shown that activation of the 5-HT1A receptor by cannabidiol lowers blood pressure, slows down the heart rate and reduces the sensation of pain. However, from an article published in the British Journal of Pharmacology, it appears that CBD prevents liver damage, reduces anxiety, pain and nausea in laboratory animals based on this mechanism of action. Interestingly, CBDA (cannabidiol acid) – the acid precursor of cannabidiol, present in large amounts in a crude cannabis plant, is a stronger 5-HT 1A agonist than CBD, and therefore very high hopes are associated with the possible use of this compound as an antiemetic.

CBD also has a link with the 5-HT2A receptor, although it is weaker compared to the 5-HT1A receptor and is mediated by antagonism. While CBD stimulates the 5-HT1A receptor, it apparently acts as an antagonist to 5-HT2A. The 5HT2A receptor is referred to as psychedelic because its strong agonists are compounds such as LSD or mescaline.

5-HT2A & CB1 Receptors

It is important to note that oral intake of a large dose of marijuana resin (called hashish) can produce effects likened to LSD. Long-term hemp researcher Dr Ethan Russo advised that THC is a hallucinogenic factor in the hash. While closely related cannabidiol (CBD) has opposite activity.

Is it possible that the compound 5-HT2A receptor effectuates the hallucinogenic properties of THC? Contrast to CBD, THC does not directly bind to 5-HT2A. However, as mentioned earlier, THC can directly activate the CB1 cannabinoid receptor, and from the article published by PLoS Biology in 2015, we know that CB1 receptors form a complex structure with 5-HT2A receptors, hence the hallucinogenic effect after ingestion of hashish.
5-HT3A receptor

The 5-HT3A receptor is unique among serotonin receptors because, unlike all other serotonin receptor subtypes, 5-HT3A is not a G protein-coupled receptor. Rather, 5-HT3A acts as an ion channel that regulates the flow of ions across the cell membrane and contributes to creating fast electrical signals in the brain. 5-HT3A receptors are involved in mood modulation as well as in the transmission of pain signals.

THC and CBD as potent modulators

5-HT3A receptor blockers (antagonists) are used to treat nausea and vomiting induced by chemotherapy. Both THC and CBD are potent, negative allosteric modulators of 5-HT3A receptors. This means that these compounds change the shape of the receptor so that the molecule that originally activates it (eg serotonin) is unable to bind to it. This may explain some of the antiemetic effects of THC and CBD.

Until now, the interactions between cannabinoids and other serotonin receptors (5-HT4,6,7) have not been fully identified. However, ongoing research will let us know in the near future.


Thiss Uz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst In Thuh Oaeej Naeemd " *Marijuana Az Psychedelic ".


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The 10 Most Common Psychedelic Drugs

Psychedelics are often used to experience the world in a different way, however many people don't realize the dangerous side of using these drugs.

A psychedelic drug is a drug that affects the way that you think and see things. It changes your perceptions sometimes permanently. Most people, who do them, use them to change the way that they see the world even if it is only for a brief period. Unfortunately, many of these drugs are psychologically addictive and dangerous.

1. LSD

LSD is one of the most popular psychedelic drugs. It has been in use since the 1960s and many people believe in its mind-expanding properties.

2. Peyote

Peyote is a type of cactus that the Native Americans still use for religious purposes, under extremely controlled conditions. Most who use it recreationally find it disturbing and more than a bit psychologically addictive.

3. PCP

PCP is one of the most dangerous of the psychedelic drugs. Also called angel dust, it both blocks pain signals and other important stimuli. People who take PCP make very poor decisions on the drug including jumping off high places and thinking that they can do anything including fly.

4. Psilocybin Mushrooms

Also used by Native American cultures, psilocybin mushrooms are a psychedelic that grows across the United States. Unfortunately, it is not easy to distinguish between the psilocybin variety and the extremely poisonous variety.

5. MDMA

Also known as ecstasy and molly depending on its form, MDMA is one of the popular club drugs. People use them at Raves and dance clubs to enhance their energy and love of the world around them.

6. Cannabis

Cannabis is sometimes thought of a psychedelic and other times it is in a class all its own. Marijuana is sometimes a relaxing drug and other times causes paranoia, delusions, and fear. Cannabis is one of the most popular drugs available particularly in the United States where many places are legalizing it for both medical and recreational use.

7. Ketamine

Ketamine is an anesthetic used in veterinary and sometimes human medicine. It causes a disconnection between the mind and the rest of the world. Ketamine is the most popular dissociative drug today.

8. Salvia Divinorum

Salvia Divinorum is one of the few legal psychedelics. It is legal in most states but is rapidly becoming more regulated. It produces a short intense psychedelic experience when someone smokes or chews it.

9. DXM

DXM is a key agent in cough syrup and the high people get off it is due to drinking large amounts of it. This drug is particularly attractive to adolescents and young adults because it is extremely easy to obtain in large quantities and until recently was not regulated.

10. Ayahuasca

This drug is also known as DMT. It is a combination of psychedelic plants, many of which are available individually. Although it is illegal in many places some of the individual herbs are not.


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Psychedelic Drug List

Substances found on the psychedelic drug list are known for their hallucinogenic and out-of-body effects in which they alter users' sensory perception while they are active.

Psychedelics, a class of hallucinogen drugs, bring on certain unusual effects not found through other types of drugs. With most all other drug types, users maintain their grasp on reality while experiencing a drug’s effects. With psychedelics, users seek out a very definite break with reality, which is what distinguishes psychedelics from other types of drugs, according to the Tennessee Department of Health.

The psychedelic drug list consists of a wide range of different concoctions, some naturally occurring, and some synthetic or manufactured. Each drug produces its own unique effects, though users will experience a dissociative state in one form or another when using any drug found on the psychedelic drug list.

Naturally Occurring Drugs on the Psychedelic Drug List

Morning Glory

Morning glory, the perennial vine plant found in so many backyards, produces a seed that brings on psychedelic effects when ingested. The more seeds a person eats, the strong the effects. Much like the effects associated with LSD, users experience a heightened sense of perception along with a diminished sense of reality. Users may also experience extreme mood swings in the process.

Magic Mushrooms

The name “magic mushrooms” well describes this nature-made fungus on the psychedelic drug list. Magic mushrooms are known to produce hallucinations and distorted perceptions of reality. While edible, magic mushrooms taste particularly bad and often bring on bouts of stomach pains, nausea and diarrhea.

DMT

As one of the most “intense” drugs on the psychedelic drug list, the DMT molecule exists in a number of different plants and is also produced by the human body. Though difficult to obtain and use, users gain access to a portal into the unconscious mind when using DMT. DMT also enables people to dream when asleep as the brain releases this powerful chemical.

Synthetic Drugs on the Psychedelic Drug List

Also known as “designer drugs,” synthetic varieties of drugs on the psychedelic drug list include:

LSD
2C-1
Methoxetamine

LSD

LSD, the granddaddy of all psychedelic drugs appears as a white powder that can be swallowed, injected or dissolved under the tongue. LSD effects produces visual, auditory and tactile hallucinations sending users into a world of their own.

With LSD, environmental factors, such as a person’s mood and surrounding noise and/or activity can influence the type of “high” a person experiences. Someone who uses while in a bad mood will most likely experience a “bad trip” made up of frightening or upsetting hallucinations. Someone who’s in a good mood may experience transcendent-like experiences filled with awe, joy and peace.

2C-1

Also known as “smiles,” 2C-1 exists in powder form, but users typically mix it with chocolate or candy. Drug effects can last anywhere from four to 12 hours depending on dosage amount. Unlike most other drugs on the psychedelic drug list, 2C-1 produces mostly mental distortions of reality as opposed to the heightened sensory perceptions users experience with other psychedelics.

Methoxetamine

Methoxetamine, a white-powdery substance, can be swallowed, injected or dissolved under the tongue. It can take anywhere from 10 to 90 minutes before a user feels the effects of the drug. Methoxetamine causes visual and auditory hallucinations as well as feelings of restlessness and increased energy. Drug effects may also produce feelings of “floating away” from reality.


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What are the Dangers of Psychedelics? Things to Consider Before a Psychedelic Experience

Posted by Wesley Thoricatha | Jan 25, 2016

Psychedelics have an incredible amount to offer humanity and have been in use for millennia by cultures around the globe for exactly that reason. Like every powerful medicine, however, these mind-expanding plants and chemicals should never be taken lightly, used recklessly, or approached without research and great care. Both the immense healing power and potential dangers of psychedelics should never be underestimated, but as we will see (and contrary to many people’s misconceptions) the dangers often have nothing to do with the psychedelics themselves.

Imposter Drugs

Probably the biggest danger for someone taking psychedelics in a non-medical setting is being told something is a certain substance such as “Molly,” “Ecstasy” or “Acid” when in fact it’s something entirely different. Unfortunately, this is an increasingly prevalent issue, as unscrupulous street dealers have been known to try to follow trends by marketing their product under a popular name while mixing in cheaper chemicals that offer a better “bang for their buck” compared to psychedelics in their pure form. Non-psychedelic substances that are cut into or sold as psychedelics include heroin, methamphetamines, and even bath salts. This disturbing trend illustrates the deadly consequences that the paradigm of prohibition poses and highlights the vital importance of harm reduction practices.

Considerations for Undiagnosed Mental Disorders

One of the most prevalent old wives’ tales about psychedelics is that taking them may make you go crazy—not just for a few hours but for good. As part of the fear and smear campaign levied against psychedelics in the 70s and 80s, this meme was easy for most people to believe because of the antagonistic socio-political climate the War on Drugs created, but the reality is that this is a fallacy. Numerous scientific studies have been done on psychedelics ranging from psilocybin to DMT to peyote, which have found that they do not harm the brain under normal use. The only morsel of validity to this claim is that in a tiny percentage of cases, some people who have undiagnosed mental disorders or a strong genetic predisposition to mental disorders could have their disorder triggered early by psychedelics. And of course, it bears mentioning that extreme dosages of any substance, legal or illegal, can present real dangers that reasonable use does not.

Harmful Interactions

While most psychedelics are relatively safe in and of themselves, some of them are more taxing on the body than others, and some interact in harmful ways with other drugs. This is why psychedelic treatment centers around the world almost universally require a medical pre-screening. Individuals should always do research themselves, but some examples of things to be careful of include heart issues with ibogaine treatment, antidepressants with ayahuasca, and dextromethorphan (DXM) with MDMA. People on any kind of prescription medication should do extensive research before considering any kind of psychedelic experience.

How to Ensure Psychedelics Do More Good Than Harm

“Bad trips” on psychedelics can often leave people feeling jostled to the core, but they can be greatly reduced or even harnessed into self-transformational breakthroughs with proper set and setting. This means that a person’s intentions for choosing to undergo a psychedelic experience, combined with their social and physical setting and available support network, go a very long way to help people step through the threshold of their psychedelic journey in a constructive and enriching way.

That being said, if these vital supporting conditions are unfavorable, or if a person is not prepared to come face to face with their innermost feelings, traumas, or behavioral patterns, they can feel overwhelmed and resist the experience, creating an uncomfortable and sometimes scary ride that denies the revelatory insights that psychedelics offer. The importance of set, setting, and support is why groups such as the Zendo Project exist to provide those kinds of services to people at festivals who are in the grips of a challenging experience. Whether at a festival or during a psychedelic therapy session, supportive allies are an essential component to ensure the physical and emotional safety of the individual.


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Science News: Psychedelic drugs may reduce criminal behavior

Illicit substances may be effective interventions to crime

Date:
October 23, 2017
Source:
University of British Columbia Okanagan campus

Summary: Newly published research suggests that common psychedelic drugs — such as 'magic mushrooms', LSD and mescaline (a substance derived from the peyote cactus) — may reduce criminal offenses. The new study found that psychedelic drugs are associated with a decreased likelihood of antisocial criminal behavior.

FULL STORY:

Newly published research suggests that common psychedelic drugs — such as magic mushrooms, LSD and mescaline (a substance derived from the peyote cactus) — may reduce criminal offences.

The new study, co-authored by UBC Okanagan's Associate Professor of Psychology Zach Walsh, found that psychedelic drugs are associated with a decreased likelihood of antisocial criminal behaviour.

"These findings add to a growing body of research suggesting that use of classic psychedelics may have positive effects for reducing antisocial behaviour," said Walsh, a p. "They certainly highlight the need for further research into the potentially beneficial effects of these stigmatized substances for both individual and public health."

Lead author, University of Alabama Assoc. Prof. Peter Hendricks, used data obtained by the National Survey on Drug Use and Health, which is administered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, to explore the connection between the use of classic psychedelic substances and criminal behaviour among more than 480,000 American adult respondents from the past 13 years.

Key findings of the study are that respondents who have used psychedelic drugs had 27 per cent decreased odds of larceny or theft, and 22 per cent decreased odds of arrest for a violent crime in the past year. At the same time, lifetime use of other illicit substances was generally associated with increased odds of criminal behaviour.

Hendricks says that psilocybin and related compounds could revolutionize the mental health field.

"The development of innovative and effective interventions to prevent criminal behaviour is an obvious priority," Hendricks adds. "Our findings suggest the protective effects of classic psychedelic use are attributable to genuine reductions in antisocial behaviour rather than reflecting improved evasion of arrest. Simply put, the positive effects associated with classic psychedelic use appear to be reliable. Given the costs of criminal behaviour, the potential represented by this treatment paradigm is significant."

Walsh points out that research on the benefits of psychedelic drugs started decades ago, primarily to treat mental illness. However, it was stopped due to the reclassification of the drugs to controlled substances in the mid-1970s. Recent years have seen a resurgence of interest in psychedelic medicine.

"More research is needed to figure out what factors underlie these effects," Walsh says. "But the experiences of unity, positivity and transcendence that characterize the psychedelic experience may have lasting benefits that translate into real-world consequences."

The research was recently published by the Journal of Psychopharmacology.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of British Columbia Okanagan campus. Original written by Nathan Skolski. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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Science News: Psychedelic drug use associated with reduced partner violence in men

Psychedelics may help improve emotion regulation and keep violent tendencies at bay

Date:
June 6, 2018
Source:
University of British Columbia Okanagan campus

Summary: Researchers have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.

FULL STORY

In a new study published in the Journal of Psychopharmacology, researchers from UBC's Okanagan campus have discovered that men who have used psychedelic drugs in the past have a lower likelihood of engaging in violence against their intimate partners.

"Although use of certain drugs like alcohol, methamphetamine or cocaine is associated with increased aggression and partner violence, use of psychedelics appears to have the opposite effect," says clinical psychology graduate student and study lead author Michelle Thiessen. "We found that among men who have used psychedelics one or more times, the odds of engaging in partner violence was reduced by roughly half. That's significant."

Psychedelic drugs act on serotonin receptors in the brain. Classic psychedelics include Lysergic Acid Diethylamide (LSD), psilocybin (magic mushrooms), mescaline, and dimethyltryptamine (DMT). The effects vary but can produce mystical experiences and changes in perception, emotion, cognition and the sense of self. Classic psychedelics are not considered to be addictive.

"Previous research from our lab that looked at men in the criminal justice system found that hallucinogen users were substantially less likely to perpetrate violence against their intimate partners," notes UBC professor and supervising author Zach Walsh. "Our new study is important because it suggests that these effects might also apply to the general population"

Thiessen, Walsh and colleagues Adele LaFrance and Brian Bird from Laurentian University based their results on an anonymous online survey of 1,266 people recruited from universities and through social media. Respondents were asked to disclose their lifetime use of LSD and psilocybin mushrooms and then complete a questionnaire that assessed multiple aspects of their emotion regulation.

"Past research found a clear association between psychedelic drug use and reduced partner violence, but the reasons for this effect remained unclear," says Thiessen. "We found that better ability to manage negative emotions may help explain why the hallucinogen users were less violent."

Thiessen says that her results could one day lead to novel treatments to reduce violence.

"These findings add to the literature on the positive use of psychedelics and suggest that future research should explore the potential for psychedelic therapies to help address the international public health priority of reducing domestic violence."

The study was published with funding in part from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of British Columbia Okanagan campus. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


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Science News: 'Ego-dissolving' psychedelic drugs could assist with mental health

Summary: The altered state of consciousness and temporary lack of ego that results from using psychedelic drugs could help some mental health patients recover from their symptoms, according to academics.

Date:
August 8, 2017
Source:
University of Adelaide

FULL STORY

The altered state of consciousness and temporary lack of ego that results from using psychedelic drugs could help some mental health patients recover from their symptoms, according to academics at the University of Adelaide.

Researchers in the University's Department of Philosophy have been studying the body of evidence around the use of psychedelic drugs such as LSD and magic mushrooms, and the impact they have on people's sense of "self."

In a new article published online in Aeon (https://aeon.co/essays/psychedelics-work-by-violating-our-models-of-self-and-the-world), authors Professor Philip Gerrans and recent PhD graduate Dr Chris Letheby say there is growing evidence to suggest that psychedelic experiences can be truly "transformative" — including helping some people with anxiety, depression, or addiction.

"We know quite a lot about the neurochemistry of psychedelic drugs and how they work on the brain. What's poorly understood is the more complex relationship between the brain, our sense of self, and how we perceive the world," says Professor Gerrans, who has been researching self-representation in psychiatric disorders.

In a recent paper published in the journal Neuroscience of Consciousness, Professor Gerrans and Dr Letheby explain how users of psychedelic drugs often report that their sense of being a self or 'I' — distinct from the rest of the world — has diminished or completely "dissolved."

"This 'ego dissolution' results in a moment of expanded awareness, a feeling in which the mind is put more directly and intensely in touch with the world," Professor Gerrans says.

"Through this experience it may be possible to re-engineer the mechanisms of self, which in turn could change people's outlook or world view. The profound sense of connection produced by this experience has the potential to be beneficial for people suffering from anxiety, depression, and some forms of addiction," he says.

Dr Letheby says one of the reasons why psychiatric disorders are so hard to shake is that it's almost impossible for sufferers to view things differently.

"People who go through psychedelic experiences no longer take it for granted that the way they've been viewing things is the only way," Dr Letheby says.

"Psychedelics can assist in enlightening people about the processes behind their subjectivity. Ego dissolution offers vivid experiential proof not only that can things be different, but that there is an opportunity to seek change."

The researchers do not advocate unsupervised recreational use of psychedelic drugs.

"These drugs were originally researched and used as treatments for various psychiatric conditions in the mid-20th century, with psychiatrists in the 1950s claiming success in treating alcoholism and other mental health conditions.

"It may be time for these drugs to make a psychiatric comeback, under controlled circumstances. More research would be needed to establish just how important they could be as part of an overall treatment program," Professor Gerrans says.

Story Source:

Materials provided by University of Adelaide. Note: Content may be edited for style and length.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd Sykehdehlikss.


Thiss Iz Thuh Last Lyn Uhv Tekst Uhv Thuh Paeej Naeemd SykehdehLik Izm.


Kush Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Kush Jemz Uhv Kush Groop Kemz Uhv Kush Byb EL And Uhv Groop kem Syz Ohmz

Wrd Gems In FuhnehTik IngLish Yeeng Voiss Sownd Chahrz Iz Jemz.

TaybuL Uhv ConTenTs

1: Kush Jem
2: RecreaTional Drug Owners ConsTiTuTional RighTs
3: Sollid Kush Jemz
4: Kush Vaypr
5: Tohk


Kush Jem

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